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Full text of "The bird book : illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred North American birds, also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs"

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JLUMT 



REFERENCE ROOM 



T O be , *KEft 



T. ROOM 






From the collection of the 



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Prelinger 

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San Francisco, California 
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REFERENCE 




THE BIRD BOOK 







PASSENGER OR WILD PIGEON 

Female Male 

Young 



THE BIRD BOOK 

ILLUSTRATING IN NATURAL COLORS 

MORE THAN SEVEN HUNDRED 

NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS; 

ALSO SEVERAL HUNDRED 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF THEIR 

NESTS AND EGGS 



BY 

CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 




GARDEN CITY NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

I9IS 



Copyright, 1914, by 
CHARLES K. REED 

All rights reserved, including that of 

translation into foreign languages, 

including the Scandinavian 



,- 










1 



BARN OWL 



Tr^o^ V nneY --M^ 

\oes <wdd\e--fi%r 




TOPOGRAPHY OP A BIRD 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Diving Birds. Order I. Pygopodes 10 

Grebes. Family Colymbidas 11 

Loons. Family Gaviidse 17 

Auks, Murres and Puffins. Family Alcidae 21 

Long-winged Swimmers. Order II. Longipennes 35 

Skuas and Jaegers. Family Stercoraridse 35 

Gulls and Terns. Family Laridae 38 

Skimmers. Family Rynchopidse 58 

Tube-nosed Swimmers. Order III. Tubinares 59 

Albatrosses. Family Diomedeidae 59 

Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels. Family Procellariidae 61 

Totipalmate Swimmers. Order IV. Steganopodes 72 

Tropic Birds. Family Phaethontidas 72 

Gannets. Family Sulidae 74 

Darters. Family Anhingidae 77 

Cormorants. Family Phalacrocoracidae 78 

Pelicans. Family Pelecanidae 83 

Man-o'-War Birds. Family Fregatidse 86 

Lamellirostral Swimmers. Order V. Anseres 87 

Ducks, Geese and Swans. Family Anatidae 87 

Lamellirostral Grallatores. Order VI. Odontoglossae 115 

Flamingoes. Family Phrenicopteridae 115 

Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc. Order VII. Herodiones 115 

Spoonbills. Family Plataleidae 115 

Ibises. Family Ibididas 117 

Storks and Wood Ibises. Family Ciconiidae 118 

Herons, Bitterns, etc. Family Ardeidae 119 

Cranes, Rails, etc. Order VIII. Paludicolaa 127 

Cranes. Family Gruidse 127 

Courlans. Family Aramidae 129 

Rails, Gallinules and Coots. Family Rallidae 131 

Shore Birds. Order IX. Limicolse 137 

Phalaropes. Family Phalaropodidae 137 

Avocets and Stilts. Family Recurvirostridae 139 

Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. Family Scolopacidae 140 

Plovers. Family Charadriidas 161 

Surf Birds and Turnstones. Family Aphrizidae 169 

Oyster-catchers. Family Haematopodidae 170 

Jacanas. Family Jacanidse 172 

Gallinaceous Birds. Order X. Gallinae 175 

Grouse, Partridges, etc. Family Odontophoridae 175 

Turkeys. Family Meleagridae 178 

Curassows and Guans. Family Cracidae 191 



CONTENTS 

Pigeons. Order XI. Columbae 192 

Pigeons. Family Columbidae 192 

Birds of Prey. Order XII. Raptores 198 

American Vultures. Family Cathartidse 198 

Hawks, Eagles, etc. Family Buteonidae 201 

Falcons, etc. Family Falconidae 218 

Osprey. Family Pandionidae 225 

Barn Owls. Family Aluconidae 227 

Owls. Family Strigidae 227 

Parrots, Paroquets. Order XIII. Psittaci 241 

Parrots and Paroquets. Psittacidae 241 

Cuckoos, etc. Order XIV. Coccyges 241 

Cuckoos, Anis, etc. Family Cuculidae 241 

Trogons. Family Trogonidae 246 

Kingfishers. Family Alcedinidae 247 

Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. Order XV. Pici 249 

Woodpeckers. Family Picidae 249 

Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc. Order XVI. Macrochires 262 

Goatsuckers, etc. Family Caprimulgidse 263 

Swifts. Family Micropodidae 268 

Hummingbirds. Family Trochilidae 271 

Perching Birds. Order XVII. Passeres 280 

Cotingas. Family Cotingidae 280 

Tyrant Flycatchers. Family Tyrannidae 280 

Larks. Family Alaudidae 297 

Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc. Family Corvidae 300 

Starlings. Family Sturnidas 314 

Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. Family Icteridae 314 

Finches, Sparrows, etc. Family Fringillidae 324 

Tanagers. Family Tangaridae 369 

Swallows. Family Hirundinidae 372 

Waxwings. Family Bombycillidae 375 

Shrikes. Family Laniidae 376 

Vireos. Family Vireonidae 378 

Honey Creepers. Family Crerebidse 385 

Warblers. Family Mniotiltidse 385 

Wagtails. Family Motacillidae 418 

Dippers. Family Cinclidae 419 

Wrens. Family Troglodytidae 423 

Thrashers, etc. Family Mimidae 419 

Creepers. Family Certhiidae 430 

Nuthatches. Family Sittidae 431 

Titmice. Family Paridae 431 

Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers. Family Sylviidae 433 

Thrushes, Solitaires, Bluebirds, etc. Family Turdidae 442 

Index . 450 




BALTIMORE ORIOLE 



THE BIRD BOOK 



DIVING ^IRDS. Order I. PYGOPODES 
GREBES. Family COLYMBID^E 

Grebes are birds haying a dueklike body, but with pointed bills. Their 
feet, too, are unlike those of the Ducks, each toe having its separate web, and 
having a broad flat nail. Their wings are very small for the size of the body, 
making it impossible for them to^rise an flight from the land. They rise from 
the water by running a few yards along the surface until they have secured 
sufficient headway to allow them to launch themselves into the air. After 
having risen from the water their flight is very swift and strong. On land they 
are very awkward and can only progress by a series of awkward hops; they 
generally lie flat on their breasts, but occasionally, stand up, supporting them- 
selves upon their whole tarsus. Grebes, together with the Loons, are the most 
expert aquatic birds that jwe. have, diving like a flashtarid swimming for an in 
credible distance under 'water. 



10 



DIVING BIRDS 



1. WESTERN GREBE. Aech?nophorus occidentalis 
Range. Western parts of North America, from 
southern Alaska southward; east to Minnesota 
and south in winter to the southern parts of the 
United States and Mexico. Breeds from the Da- 
kotas and northern California northward. These 
are the largest of the American Grebes ; owing to 
their unusually long necks, they are frequently 
called "Swan Grebes." They are very timid 
birds and conceal themselves in the rushes on 
the least suspicion of danger. At times, to escape 









Holboell's Grebe 



Chalky bluish white, stained buff 

observation, they will entirely submerge their 
body, leaving only their head and part of the 
long neck visible above the water. This Grebe 
cannot be mistaken for any other because of the 
long slender neck and the long pointed bill, 
which has a slight upward turn. They nest abund- 
antly in the marshes of North Dakota and central 
Canada. Their nests are made of decayed rushes, 
and are built over the water, being fastened to 
the rushes so that the bottom of the nest rests in 
the water. The nesting season is at its height 
during the latter part of May. They lay from Western Grebe 
three to five eggs, the ground color of which is a 
pale blue; this color is, however, always concealed by a thin chalky deposit, 
and this latter is frequently stained to a dirty white. Size 2.40 x 1.55. 

2. HOLBOELI/S GREBE. Colymbus holboellii. 

Range. Throughout North Amer- 
ica, breeding from northern United 
States northward and wintering 
from the middle to the southern 
portions of the United States. 

In regard to size this Grebe comes 
next to the Western, being 19 in. 
in length. This bird can be dis- 
tinguished by the white cheeks and 
throat and the reddish brown fore- 
neck. They breed abundantly in 
the far north placing their floating 
islands of decayed vegetation in 
the water in the midst of the 
marsh grass. They lay from three 
to six eggs of a dingy white color 

which have the stained surface common to Grebes eggs. Size 2.35 x 1.25. 

11 




White, stained buff 







Walter Raine 



NEST AND EGGS OF HOLBOELL'S GREBE 
Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba 



12 



DIVING BIRDS 



3. HORNED GREBE. Colymbus auritus. 

Range. The whole of North America, breeding 
in the interior from North Dakota northwest; 
winters along the Gulf Coast. This species is 
one of the most beautiful of the Grebes, having 
in the breeding season buffy ear tufts, black 
cheeks and throat, and chestnut neck, breast and 
sides. They breed abundantly in the marshy flats 
of North Dakota and the interior of Canada. 





Buffy white, nest stained 

They build a typical Grebe's nest, a floating mass 
of decayed matter which stains the naturally 
white eggs to a dirty brown. The number of 
eggs varies from three to seven. Size 1.70 x 1.15. 
Data. Devils Lake, N. Dakota, June 20, 1900. 
6 eggs much stained. Nest floating in 4 ft. of 
water, a large mass of rotten rushes and weeds. 
Collector. James Smalley. 

<k EARED GREBE. Colymbus nigricollis. 

californicus. 

Range. North America west of the Mississip- 
pi, breeding from Texas to Manitoba and winter- 
ing along the Pacific Coast of the United States 
and from Texas southward. 

Eared Grebes differ from the preceding in hay- 
ing the entire neck blackish. They nest very 
abundantly throughout the west, in favorable lo- 
calities, from Texas to Minnesota and Dakota. 
Their nests are constructed in the same man- 
ner as the preceding varieties and are located in similar localities. As do all 
the Grebes when leaving the nest, they cover the eggs with the damp rushes from 

.,, , around the base of the nest. This is prob- 
,.- , ably for the purpose of assisting incuba- 

tion during their absence, by the action "of 

. the sun's rays on the wet mass. As they 

.are nearly always thus covered upon the 
approach of anyone, this may be done also 
as a protection from discovery. They lay 
from three to eight bluish white eggs with 
the , usual chalky and discolored appear- 
ance. The breeding season is at its height 
early in June, or earlier, in the southern 
portion of its range. Size 1.75 x 1.20. Data. 
Artesian, S. Dakota, June 21, 1899. Nest 
of rushes, floating in three feet of water. 
Large colony in a small lake. Collector, F. A. Patton. 

13 



Horned Grebe 



Eared Grebe 




Bluish white, stained 



1 





Walter Raine 



NEST AND EGGS OF HORNED GREBE 
Saltcoats Marshes, Assinibola, June 6, 1901 



H 



DIVING BIRDS 



5. MEXICAN GREBE. Coif) nib us 
dominicus brachypterus. 

Range. Southern Texas and Lower Cali- 
fornia southward to South America, breed- 
ing throughout its range. 

The Least Grebe is by far the smallest of 
the Grebes in this country, being but 10 in. 
in length; it can not be mistaken for any 
other, the Eared Grebe being the only spe- 
cies of this family found in the same locali- 
ties during the summer. These little Grebes 
nest very abundantly along the Rio Grande 




Deep huff or rich brown 

Valley in Texas, the nesting season lasting 
from the latter part of May until well into 
December. 

Their nests are floating piles of grass and 
weeds upon which they lay from three to 
five chalky white eggs, which are always 
discolored, sometimes to a deep chocolate 
hue. These eggs average a great deal dark- 
er in color than do any of the other Grebes. 
In a series of fifty sets fully half were a 
rich brown tint. Sl:;e 1.40 x .95. 

6. PIED-BILLED GREBE. Podilymbus 

podiceps. 

Range. From the British provinces 
southward to Argentine Republic, breeding 
locally throughout the northern portions of 
its range. 

The Dabchick, as this bird is called, is the most evenly distributed bird 
of this family. It is nowhere especially abundant, nor is it, except in a very 




Mexican Grebe 

Pied-billed Grebe 



few localities, regarded as rare. Consequently 
the species. They do not congregate in such 
Grebes during the nesting season, but one 
or more pairs may be found in almost any 
favorable locality. These birds render their 
floating nest a little more substantial than 
those of the preceding varieties by the ad- 
dition of mud which they bring up from the 
bottom of the pond; this addition also tends 
to soil the eggs more, consequently the 
eggs of this bird are, as a general rule, 
browner than the other Grebes with the ex- 
ception of the Least. The bird may always 
be known by the shape of its bill which is 
higher than it is broad, and in the summer 
is white with a black band across the middle. 



it is the best known bird of 
large numbers as the other 






Deep buff 
The throat is also black at 



this season. They lay from five to nine eggs commencing about the middle 
of May. Size 1.70 x 1.18. 

15 





PIED-BILLED GREBE 



LOONS. Family GAVIIDAE 



Loons may be likened to gigantic Grebes from which they differ external- 
ly, chiefly in the full webbed foot instead of the individually webbed toes of 
the Grebe, and in the sharper, msore pointed and spear-like bill. These birds 
are similar in their habits to the Grebes , except that their homes are gen- 
erally more substantially built and are placed upon a solid foundation, gen- 
erally upon an island in some inland lake. 

Both Loons and Grebes are literally "Water witches," being practically, 
and in the case of Grebes, actually, born in the water and living in it ever 
afterwards. Loons are strong fliers, but like the Grebes, because of their 
small wings they must get their first impetus from the water in order to 
rise; in case there is any wind blowing they also make use of this by starting 
their flight against it. They are very peculiar birds and the expression 
"crazy as a loon" is not a fanciful one, being formed from their early morning 
and evening antics when two or more of them will race over the top of the 
water, up and down the lake, all the while uttering their demoniacal laugh- 
ter. They vie with the Grebes in diving and disappear at the flash of a gun. 




EGG OF LOON 
Dark greenish brown 



==_ _ 



THE BIRD BOOK 




L.oon 
Black-throated Loon 



7. LOON. Gavia immer. 

Range. North America north of the Mex- 
ican boundary, breeding from the northern 
parts of the United States northward. 

Unlike the Grebes, Loons do not build in 
colonies, generally not more than one, or 
at the most two pairs nesting on the same 
lake or pond; neither do they seek the 
marshy sloughs in which Grebes dwell, pre- 
ferring the more open, clear bodies of 
water. The common Loon may be known 
in summer by the entirely black head and 
neck with the complete ribbon of black and 
white stripes encircling the lower neck and 
the narrower one which crosses the throat. 
The back is spotted with white. In some 
sections Loons build no nest, simply scoop- 
ing a hollow out in the sand, while in other 
places they construct quite a large nest of 
sticks, moss and grasses. It is usually plac- 
ed but a few feet from the waters edge, so 
that at the least suspicion the bird can slide 
off its eggs into the water, where it can cope 
with any enemy. The nests are nearly al- 
ways concealed under the overhanging 
bushes that line the shore; the one shown 
in the full page illustration, however, was 
located upon the top of an old muskrat 
house. The two eggs which they lay are a 
very dark greenish brown in color, with 
black spots. Size 3.50x2.25. Data. Lake 
Sunapee, N. H., June 28, 1895. Nest placed 
under the bushes at the waters edge. Made 
of rushes, weeds and grasses; a large struc- 
ture nearly three feet in diameter. Col- 
lector, H. A. Collins. 



8. YELLOW-BILLED LOON. Gavia adamsi. 

Range. Northwestern North America, along the Arctic and northern Alas- 
kan coasts. 

The Yellow-billed Loon with the exception of its whitish or yellowish bill 
in place of the black, is practically otherwise indistinguishable from the 
common Loon. It averages somewhat larger in size. This is one of the most 
northerly breeding birds and it is only within a very few years that anything 
has been learned about the breeding habits. Their nesting habits and eggs 
are precisely like the preceding except that the lattr average a little larger. 
Size 3.60 x 2.25. 

9. BLACK-THROATED LOON. Gavia arctica. 

Range. From northern United States northward, breeding along the Arctic 
Coast. 

This species can be easily separated from the Loon by the gray crown and 
white streaks down the back of the neck. Its size, too, is about five inches 
shorter. The nesting habits are the same as the Loons and the eggs have 
rather more of an olive tint besides having the majority of spots at the 
larger end. Size 3.10x 2.00. 

18 



DIVING BIRDS 



10. PACIFIC Loox. Gavia pacifica. 

Range. Western North America along the 
coast chiefly, breeding from Alaska south to 
British Columbia. In winter, south along the 
coast to Mexico. 

This species differs from the Black-throated 
only in the tint of the head reflections. The 
habits are the same as those of the other members 
of the family. They lay two eggs of a greenish 
brown or greenish gray hue with black spots. 
Size 3.10 x 1.90. Data. Yukon River, Alaska, 
June 28, 1902. Nest of rubbish on an island; 
found by a miner. 

11. RED-THROATED LOON. Gavia stellata. 
Range. Northern parts of North America, 

breeding from southern Canada northward in the 
interior on both coasts. South to the middle por- 
tions of the United States in winter. 

This is the smallest of the Loon family, being 
twenty-five inches in length. In plumage it is 
wholly unlike any of the other members at all 
seasons of the year. In summer the back, head 
and neck are gray, the latter being striped with 
white. A large chestnut patch adorns the front 
of the lower part of the neck. In winter the 
back is spotted with white, whereas all the others 
are unspotted at this period. The nesting habits are 
identical with the other species; the ground color 
of the two eggs is also the same. Size, 2.00 x 1.75. 




Pacific Loon 

Red-throated Loon 




PACIFIC LOON 
Greenish brown or gray 

19 





J. A. Munro 



NEST AND EGGS OF LOON 
This nest is built on top of a Muskrat house 



20 



DIVING BIRDS 




NEST AND EGGS OF PIED-BILLED GREBE 



PUFFINS, AUKS and MURRES. 
Family ALCID^E 

Puffins, Auks and Murres are all sea birds and are only found inland when 
blown there by some severe storm of winter. At this season numbers of them 
are apt to lose their bearings and may sometimes be found with their feet 
frozen in some of our inland ponds. Puffins are heavily built birds in appear- 
ance, but are very active both on the wing and in the water. Their wings are 
much larger comparatively than those of the other members of this family, 
so they are enabled to perform evolutions in the air, which are withheld from 
the others. They stand upright on the sole of the foot and are able to walk 
quite easily on land. Puffins have very heavy and deep but thin bills, which 
are entirely unlike those of any other bird and often give then the name of 
Parrot Auks. Puffins, Auks and Murres are otherwise recognized by the pres- 
ence of but three toes which are webbed. 

21 



THE BIRD BOOK 



12. TUFTED PUFFIX. Lunda cirrhata. 




Tufted Puffin 
Puffin 



Range. Pacific Coast from Alaska southward 
to southern California, breeding locally through- 
out their range. 

Tufted Puffins are the largest of the Puffins. 
In the breeding plumage, they are a sooty brown- 
ish or black color; the cheeks are white, and a 
long tuft of straw colored feathers extends back 
from each eye; the bill is bright red and green- 
ish yellow. They breed commonly on the Faral- 
lones, where two or three broods are raised by a 
bird in a single season, but much more abund- 
antly on the islands in the north. Their single 
eggs are laid in burrows in the ground or else in 




White 



natural crevices formed by the rocks. The eggs are pure white or pale buff 
and are without gloss. They very often have barely perceptible shell markings 
of dull purplish color. The eggs are laid about the middle of June. Size 2.80 
x 1.90. Data. Farallone Is., May 27, 1887. Single egg laid in crevice of rocks. 
Collector, W. O. Emerson. 

13. PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica arctica. 

Range. North Atlantic Coast, breeding from the Bay of Fundy northward. 
Winters from breeding range along the New England Coast. 

The common Puffin has the cheeks, chin and underparts white; upper parts 
and a band across the throat, blackish. Bill deep and thin, and colored with 
red, orange and yellow. They breed in large numbers on Bird Rock in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. The nest is either among the natural crevices of the 

22 



DIVING BIRDS 

rocks, or in burrows excavat- 
ed in the ground by the birds. 
These burrows vary in length 
from two and a half to four 
or five feet. Except upon the 
positive knowledge of the ab- 
sence of the bird, it is a 
hazardous thing to put the 
hand in one of these burrows 
for the bird can, and will nip 
the fingers, sometimes to the 
bone. They lay but a single 
egg, usually dull white and 
unmarked, but in some cases 

White obscurely marked with red- 

dish brown. Size 2.50 x 1.75. Data. So. Labrador, June 23, 1884. Single egg 
laid at end of burrow in the ground. Collector, J. H. Jameson. 



13a. LARGE-BILLED PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica naumanni. 

A more northerly subspecies of the last, inhabiting the Arctic region on the 
Atlantic side. The bird is somewhat larger but otherwise indistinguishable 
from the common species. The eggs are exactly the same or average a trifle 
larger. Size 2.55 x 1.80. Data. Iceland, July 6, 1900. Single egg in hole under 
.a rock. Collector, Chas. Jefferys. 



14. HORNED PUFFIN. Fratercula corniculata. 

Range. Pacific Coast from Alaska to British Columbia. The Horned Puffin 
differs from the common in that the blackish band across the throat extends 
upwards in a point to the bill. Their nesting habits are precisely the same as 
those of the preceding species. A single pure white egg is laid; the shell is 
slightly rougher than those of the others. Size 2.65 x 1.80. Data. Round Is., 
Alaska, June 24, 1884. Single egg laid at end of burrow in ground; no nest. 
Collector, G. L. Kennedy. 



15. RHINOCEROS AUKLET. Cerorhinca monocerata. 

Range. Pacific Coast, breeding from British Columbia northward and win- 
tering southward to Lower California. 

The Rhinoceros Auklet or Horned Auk has a much smaller bill than the 
Puffins; in the summer this is adorned at the base by a horn from which it 
takes its name. There are also slender plumes from above and below the eyes. 
Unlike the Puffins, these birds sit upon their whole tarsus. 

They nest on islands of the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver northward. 
A single egg is laid in crevices among the rocks or in burrows in the ground. 
It is similar both in size and shape to that of the Puffins, but is often quite 
heavily blotched with brown. Size 2.70x1.80. Data. Unak Is., Alaska, June 
30, 1900. Egg laid in a fissure of the rocks; no nest. Collector, F. Weston. 

23 





THE BIRD BOOK 




Horned Puffin 

Rhinoceros Auklet 

Cassin Auklet 



16. CASSIN AUKLET. Ptychoramphus aleuticus* 
Range. Pacific Coast from Alaska to Lower 
California, breeding nearly throughout its range. 
A plain appearing bird about 9 in. in length, 
with blackish upperparts relieved only by a white 
spot over the eye; breast and throat gray and 
belly white. This Auklet is fairly abundant on 
the Farallones, breeding on the lower portions of 
the island. The late Mr. C. Barlow says that it 
is found in deserted rabbit burrows and in all 




White 

probability often excavates its own burrows. It 
also nests among the cliffs placing its eggs among 
the rocks in any crevice or tunnel which may offer 
a dark retreat during the day for they are noctur- 
nal in their habits. The single egg which they 
lay is dull white in color, the inside of the shell 
being a pale green, which color can only be seen 
by holding the egg to the light. They are gen- 
erally slightly nest stained. Size 1.80 x 1.30. 
Data. Coronado Islands, Cal., March 23, 1897. 
Single egg laid on the bare ground at end of a 
burrow three and one-half feet long. Collector, 
E. A. Shives. 





RHINOCEROS AUKLET 

Color white, sometimes heavily blotched, 
as above, and again unspotted 

24 



17. PAROQUET AUKLET. Phaleris psittacula. 

Range. The Alaskan Coast, casually farther 
south in winter. 

This bird is about the same size as the preced- 
ing, and the plumage is similar, except that it 
has no white spot over the eye, and the breast is 
white. It also has a slender plume extending 
from back of the eye. The bill is very peculiar, 
being quite deep and rounded and having an up- 
ward tendency. It is orange red in color. They 



DIVING BIRDS 





Crested Auklet 



White 

breed very commonly on the islands of Bering 
Strait. Their eggs are laid in the crevices of the 
cliff, often several feet in and by a crooked path 
so that it is impossible to reach them. The sin- 
gle chalky white egg is laid in May. Size 2.30 x 
1.45. Data. Rocky Islet in the Aleutians, June 
22, 1890, Single egg laid on bare rock in a deep Paroquet Auklet 
crevice. Collector, Capt. S. Wilson. 

18. CRESTED AUKLET. Aethia cristatella. 

Range. Alaska Coast, Similar in form and plumage to the latter, except 
that the whole under parts are gray and it has a crest of recurved feathers. 
The nesting season begins in May, the birds nesting upon the same islands 
and in the same kinds of sites as the last species. The single egg is chalky 
white. Size 2.10x1.50. Data. Unak Is., Alaska, July 1, 1900. Egg laid in a 
crevice among the rocks. Collector, F. Weston. 

19- WHISKERED AUKLET. Aethia pygmaea. 

Range. The Alaska Coast. 

Much smaller than the preceding; but 7.5 in. in length. Breast gray, belly 
white; a small tuft of recurved feathers on the forehead and slender white 
plumes from base of bill over the eye and from under the eye, backwards. The 
bill in summer is a bright vermillion color. On some of the islands of the 
Aleutian chain they breed quite abundantly. The nests are placed back in 
the crevices of the rocks, where the single white eggs are laid. Size 2.00 x 1.25. 

25 




THE BIRD BOOK 



V V 

-v- V 




20. LEAST AUKLET. Aethia pusilla. 

Range. North Pacific on the islands and coast 
of Alaska. This is the smallest of the Auklets; 
length 6.5 in. This species has no crest, but has 
the slender white plumes extending back from 
the eye. The entire under parts are white sparse- 
ly spotted with dusky. This species is by far the 
most abundant of the water birds of the extreme 
Northwest, and thousands of them, accompanied 
by the two preceding species, nest on the rocky 
cliffs of the islands of Bering Sea. Their nesting 
habits are the same as those of the other Auk- 
lets, they placing their single white egg on the 
bare rocks, in crevices on the cliffs. Size 1.55 x 
1.10. Data. Pribilof Is., Alaska, June 8, 1897. 
Single egg laid in crevice. Thousands breeding 
on the island. 




White 

21. ANCIENT MURRELET. Synthliboramphus 
antiquus. 

Range. Pacific Coast, breeding from the bord- 
iLeast Auklet er of tne United States, northward, and wintering 

Ancient Murrelet south to southern California. 

Marbled Murrelet 
The Murrelets have no crests or 
plumes and the bills are more slen- 
der than the Auklets and are not ^-^ '-^ / J * - 
liighly colored. The ancient Mur- 
relet or Black-throated Murrelet, ^Bk '* . c - . . ... - 
as it is also called, has a gray * * *V.* \ f - ^ . 
back, white under parts and a 
black head and throat, with a broad 
white stripe back of the eye and 
another formed by the white on 
the breast extending up on the side 
of the neck. They breed abund- 
antly on the islands in Bering Sea, 
laying one or two eggs at the end 
of burrows in the banks or on the 
ground, and in some localities in crevices on the cliffs. The eggs are a buffy 
white color and are faintly marked with light brown, some of these being in 
the shape of spots and others lengthened. Siae 2.40 x 1.40. Data. Sanak Is- 
lands, July 1, 1894. Two eggs on the ground under a tuft of grass and in a 
slight excavation lined with fine grass. 

26 



*/ 




Buff 



DIVING BIRDS 



23. MARBLED MURRELET. Brachyramphus marmoratus. 



I 



Range. North Pacific Coast, 
breeding from Vancouver Is- 
land. South in winter to south- , . f , 
ern California. /L : 

In the breeding plumage, 
this bird is brownish black 
above, barred with rusty and 
below is marbled with brownish 
gray and white. Its nesting 
habits and eggs are very similar 
to those of the Ancient Murre- 
let, they placing their single 

eggs in holes in the ground or Buffi 

crevices among the cliffs. Size 

2.20 x 1.40. Data. Chichagof Is., Alaska, June IS, 1898. Single egg in crevice 
on face of cliff. Large colony breeding in company with Ancient Murrelets. 




24. KITTLITZ MURRELET. Brachyramphus brevirostris. 

Range. North Pacific Coast in the Aleutian Islands and north to Unalaska, 

breeding on isolated islands 
throughout its range. This spe- 
cies is very similar to the Mar- 
bled Murrelet, the chief differ- 
ence being in the bill which is 
shorted. They have been found 
IL breeding on the same islands 
|p with the preceding species. 
Their single white egg is laid 
in crevices in the cliffs. Size 
2.40 x 1.30. Data. Sanak Is., 
Alaska, June 25, 1890. Nest in 
a hollow under a bunch of rank 
matted grass. Many ancient 
Burrelets breeding on the same 
Islands. Collector, Capt. Tilson. 

25. XANTUS MURRELET. Brachyramphus hypoleucus. 

Range. Resident along the coast of southern and Lower California. 

This bird is blackish above and entire- 
ly white below, inculding the sides of 
the head below the eye. The whole of <#&?" 

the under surface of the wing is also 
white. They breed on the coast islands 
from Santa Barbara southward. The sin- 
gle egg is laid at the end of a burrow 
or in crevices among the rocks. It is a 
pale buffy white in color and thickly, but 
finely dotted over the whole surface with 
purplish brown, and with some larger 
spots at the larger end. Sise 2.05 v 1.40. 
Data. Galapagos Islands, March 2, 1901. 
No nest. Single egg laid in a crevice in 
the rocks. Collector, Hollo H. Beck. 

Pale Blue 




THE BIRD BOOK 



26. CRAVERI'S MURRELET. 




Brachyramphus craveri. 

Range. Both coasts of Lower California, breed- 
ing chiefly on the Gulf side. Craveri Murrelet is 
very similar to the last except that the under sur- 
faces of the wings are dusky. Breeds on the is- 
lands near Cape St. Lucas, burrowing in the 
ground as do most of the others of this species. 
They lay a single egg, the ground color of which 
is buff; they are quite heavily blotched with 
brownish. Size 2.00 x 1.40. 

27. BLACK GUILLEMOT. Cepphus grylle. 

Range. Coasts and islands of the North At- 
lantic, breeding from Maine northward to south- 
ern Greenland. Guillemots are larger birds than 
the Murrelets (length 13 inches) and their plum- 
age is entirely different. This species in summer 




Bluish white 




Xantus Murrelet 

Mandt's Guillemot 

is entirely black except the wing coverts which 
are white. The bases of the greater coverts, 
however, are black, this generally breaking the 
white mirror as it is called. The under sur- 
faces of the wings are white. Legs red. These 
birds breed abundantly on the rocky islands 
and high cliffs along the coast. Soon after 
the first of June the eggs are laid in the crev- 
ices of the rocks and sometimes upon the bare 
ledges. Two or three eggs make the set. The 
ground color is a pale bluish or greenish white 
and the markings are various shades of brown 
and black. Size 2.40 x 1.60. Data. Grand 
Manan, June 15, 1896. Two eggs laid in a 
cavity back of large boulder. No nest. Collec- 
tor, D. H. Eaton. 




Black Guillemot 



28 



DIVING BIRDS 




Murre 



28. MANDT'S GUILLEMOT. Cepphus mandti. 

Range. North Atlantic coast, more north- 
erly than the preceding, breeding from Labra- 
dor to northern Greenland. 

The bird differs from the Black Guillemot 
only in having the bases of the coverts white 
also. The nesting habits and eggs are identi- 
cal. They nest in colonies of thousands and 
place the' eggs upon the bare rock with no at- 
tempt at nest building. Generally the eggs 
are in the crevices so as to be difficult to get 
at. Size 2.30 x 1.55. Data. Depot Island, Hud- 
son Bay, June 6, 1894. Two eggs laid on bare 
rocky ground. Collector John Comer. 

29. PIGEON GUILLEMOT. Cepphus columba. 

Range. The Pacific Coast of North Amer- 
ica, breeding from southern California north- 
ward. This bird is very similar to the Black 
Guillemot except that the under surfaces of 
the wings are dark. They breed abundantly on some of the islands of Bering 
Sea and a few of them nest on the Farallones. They lay their two eggs on 
the bare rock in dark crevices. The color is grayish or pale greenish blue 
and the markings are brown and 

black with paler shell markings of ,.**. . 

lilac. Size, 2.40 x 1.60. Data. S. 
Farallone Islands, Cal. Two eggs 
laid on gravel at the end of a bur- 
row, about two feet from the en- 
trance and 285 feet above the sea 
level. Collector, Claude Fyfe. 

SO. MURRE. Uria troile troille. 

Range. North Atlantic coasts 
and islands, breeding from Bird 
Rock northward. Murres are sim- 
ilar in form to the Guillemots, but 
are larger, being about 16 inches 
in length. Entire head and neck 
sooty brown ; rest of upper parts 
grayish black except the tips of 
the secondaries which are white. 




Pale bluish gray 



Under parts white. These birds nest by 
thousands on Bird Rock and on the cliffs of Labrador. They build no nests 
but simply lay their single egg on the narrow ledges of cliffs, where the only 
guarantee against its rolling off is its peculiar shape which causes it, when 
moved, to revolve about its smaller end instead of rolling off the ledge. The 
eggs are laid as closely as possible on the ledges where the incubating birds 
sit upright, in long rows like an army on guard. As long as each bird suc- 
ceeds in finding an egg to cover, on its return home, it is doubtful if they 
either know or care whether it is their own or not. The ground color of the 
eggs vary from white to a deep greenish blue and the markings of blackish 
brown vary in endless patterns, some eggs being almost wholly unspotted. 
Size 3.40 x 2. Data. South Labrador, June 19, 1884. Single egg laid on the 
bare cliff. Large colony breeding. Collector, M. A. Granar. 

29 




THE BIRD BOOK 

30a. CALIFORNIA MURRE. Uria troille californica. 

Range. -Pacific Coast, breeding from the Farallones north to Alaska. 

This Pacific form of the common Murre is the most abundant breeding bird 
on the Farallones. Their eggs are used in enormous numbers for commercial 
purposes and these islands being located, as they are, within easy distance 
from San Francisco, thousands of dozens of the eggs are sold yearly, chiefly 
to bakeries. Although continually robbed, their numbers have not as yet 
diminished to any great extent. They lay but a single egg on the bare ledge. 
Individual eggs are indistinguishable from the last species but in a large 
series the ground color averages brighter. They show the same great dif- 
ference in color and markings. The first set is laid in May, but owing to 
their being so often molested, fresh eggs can be found during August. Data. 
Farallones, July 4, 1895. Single egg laid on bare cliff. Collector, Thos. E. 
Slevin. 



SI. BRUNNICH MURRE. Uria lomvia lomvia. 

Range. North Atlantic Coast, breeding range the same as the common 
Murre. 






Varies from white to greenish blue 

This species differs from the common Murre in having a shorter and thicker 
bill, the base of the cutting edge of which is less feathered. They breed on 
the same islands in company with the common Murre and their eggs are indis- 
tinguishable. Data. Coast of South Labrador. Single egg laid on ledge of 
cliff. About three hundred birds in the colony. 



DIVING BIRDS 

3 la. PALLAS MURRE. Uria lomvia arra. 

Range. The Pacific coasts and islands. 

This is the Pacific form of Brunnich Murre. Its breeding range is more 
northerly than that of the California variety. Countless thousands of them 
breed on the islands off the coast of Alaska, their breeding habits and eggs 
being the same as the more southern form. 

32. RAZOR-BILLED AUK. Alca torda. 

Range. North Atlantic coast, breeding from Bird Rock northward and 
wintering south to the Middle States on the coast. 




Grayish white 

The Razor-billed Auk is in form similar to the Murres, but the bill is very 
different, being deep and thin, and with the upper mandible rounded at the 
tip. Entire upper parts black shading to brownish on the throat. Under parts 
and tips of secondaries, white; line from eye to bill and another across the 
middle of the bill, white. They nest in large numbers on Bird Rock in com- 
pany with the Murres and in still greater numbers off the coast of Labrador. 
Their eggs are not placed in as exposed positions as the Murres, being gen- 
erally behind boulders or in crevices. This is necessary because, not being ( ^ 
of the pear-shaped form of the Murres, they would be very apt to be dislodged 
if commonly placed on the narrow ledges. The eggs vary endlessly in mark- 
ing but do not show the differences in ground color that the Murres do. The 
color is white, grayish or buffy. But one egg is generally laid, although two 
are sometimes found. Size 3.00x2.00. Data. Bay of Fundy. June 17, 1891. 
Single egg laid on bare rock in a crevice under loose rocks. Collector, A. C. 
Bent. 

31 



) 

f 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Great Auk 
Dovekie 



33. 



GREAT AUK. Plautus impennis. 



Range. Formerly the whole of the North At- 
lantic coasts. Now extinct. 

These great auks formerly dwelt in large num- 
bers on the islands of the North Atlantic, but- 
owing to their lack of the powers of flight and 
the destructiveness of mankind, the living bird 
has disappeared from the face of the earth. 
Although they were about thirty inches in length, 
their wings were even smaller than those of the 
Razor-billed Auk, a bird only eighteen inches in 
length. Although breeding off the coast of New- 
foundland, they appeared winters as far south as 
Virginia, performing their migration by swim- 
ming alone. The last bird appears to have been 
taken in 1844, and Funk Island, off the coast of 
Newfoundland, marks the place of their disap- 
pearance from our shores. There are about sev- 
enty known specimens of the bird preserved, and 
about the same number of eggs. The immediate 
cause of the extinction of these birds was their 
destruction for food by fishermen and immigrants, 
and later for the use of their feathers commercial- 
ly. The single egg that they laid was about 5.00 x 3 
inches, the ground color was buffy white, and the shpots brownish and black- 
ish. The markings varied in endless pattern as do those of the smaller Auk. 
There are but two real eggs (plaster casts in imitation of the Auks eggs are 
to be found in many collections) in collections in this country, one in the 
Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, and the other in the National 
Museum, at Washington. Through the kindness of Mr. Witmer Stone, of the 
Academy of Natural Science, we are enabled to sohw a full-sized reproduction 
from a photograph of the egg in their collection. 




32 




V 




EGG OF THE GREAT AUK 

Photographed from the specimen in the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 

not more than ten or twelve of these eggs are in this country; 

the one figured is one of the best marked specimens. 



33 



^ j THE BIRD BOOK 



A Ji J 

J. J. A 



34*. DOVEKIE. Alle alle. 

Range. Coasts and islands of the North At- 
lantic and East Arctic oceans, breeding in the 
Arctic regions and wintering as far south as the 
Middle States. The little Dovekie or Sea Dove is 
the smallest member of the family, being only 8 
inches in length, and is the only member of the 
sub-family allinae. The form is very robust and 
the bill is short and stout. In summer the plum- 
age is black above; the throat and upper breast 




Dovekie 




Pale greenish blue 

are sooty brown, and the under parts are white, 
as are also the tips of the secondaries and edges 
of the scapulars. They nest in large numbers 
on the Rocky cliffs of islands in the East Arctic. 
Their single pale greenish blue egg is placed in 
a crevice of the rocks. Size 1.80 x 1.25. Data. 
Greenland, June 8, 1893. Single egg laid in a 
crevice of a sea cliff. 




MURRE White, buff, or deep greenish blue 
34 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. Order II. LONGIPENNES 
SKUA AND JAEGERS. Family STERCORARIIDAE 

Skuas and Jaegers are birds having a Gull or Tern-like form and with a hook- 
ed bill, the base of which is covered with a scaly shield. They have webbed 
feet and are able to swim and dive, but they commonly get their living by 
preying upon the Gulls and Terns, overtaking them by their superior speed 
and by their strength and ferocity forcing them to relinquish their food. The 
Jaegers especially are one of the swiftest and most graceful birds that fly. 



35 



THE BIRD BOOK 




35. SKUA. Megalestris skua. 

Range. Coasts and islands of the North At- 
lantic, chiefly on the European side; rare on the 
Atlantic coast of North America. 

Skuas are large (22 inches in length) and very 
powerfully built birds, having the general form 
of a Gull. Their whole plumage is a dingy brown- 
ish black color, palest below. Breeds in Iceland 
and possibly on some of the islands in Hudson 
Strait. The nest is a hollow on the ground in 




Skua 
Pomarine Jaeger 



Olive brown 

the marsh grass and is lined with grass. The 
two eggs which they lay have an olive greenish 
ground, spotted with dark brown. Size 2.75 x 1.90. 



36. POMARINE JAEGER. Stercorarius pomarinus. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle, more 
commonly in the Old World. 

In the breeding plumage, this 
Jaeger has the crown and face 
blackish; back and sides of head, 
throat and under parts pure white, 
except the pointed stiffened feath- 
ers of the neck which are yellow. 
Back, wings and tail blackish, the 
latter with the two middle feath- 
ers lengthened about four inches 
beyond the rest of the tail, and 
broad to the tips, which are twist- 
ed so that the feathers are verti- 
cal. They breed throughout the 
Arctic regions, but not as common- 
ly in America as the following 

species. The nest is on the ground D olive brown 

in the marsh grass and is made of 

grass and moss. They lay two and rarely three eggs of an olive brown or 
greenish color. These are spotted with brown and black. Size 2.20x1.70. 

36 




LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



37- PARASITIC JAEGER. Stercorarius parasiticus 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, wintering south 
to South America. 

The Parasitic Jaeger is very similar to the 
Pomarine except that the central tail feathers 
are pointed and are straight instead of twisted. 
It is an abundant bird in Alaska, breeding from 
the Aleutian Chain northward. 

They locate their nests in the highest parts 
of marshy places, the nest itself being only a de- 
pression in the ground lined with grass and moss. 
The two eggs have an olive greenish or brownish 
ground and are marked with various shades of 
brown and black. Size 2.15 x 1.65. 




Brownish 



38. 



Stercorarius 



in winter to 




LONG-TAILED JAEGER. 
longicaudus. 

Range. Arctic America ; south 
South America Parastic Jaeger 

The long-tailed Jaeger is, according to length, Long-tailed Jseger 

the largest of the Jaegers, being 21 in. long; this is, however, due to the long 
sharp pointed central pair of tail feathers, which extend about eight inches 
beyond the others, and from the most noticeable distinguishing point from 
the former species. The plumages that have been described are the light 
phases; all the Jaegers have a dark 
phase in which the plumage is a near- 
ly uniform sooty brown, lightest be- 
low. 

The Long-tailed Jaegers are the 
most numerous in Alaska and are 
even more graceful in flight than are 
the Gulls and Terns, floating, skim- 
ming, sailing, plunging, and darting 
about with incredible swiftness and 
ease. Like the others of this family, 
they pilfer their food from the Gulls, 
and are also very destructive to young 
birds and eggs. Their eggs are either 
laid on the bare ground or in a 
slight depression, scantily lined with 

grasses. The eggs are indistinguishable from those of the preceding species 
except that they average a trifle smaller. Size 2.10 x 1.50. 

37 





THE BIRD BOOK 



GULLS and TERNS. Family LARID^) 

Gulls are webbed footed birds having a slight hook to the end of the upper 
mandible. Their plumage is generally a silvery gray above and white below. 
They nest in large colonies, some on the islands of fresh water inland, but 
mostly on the sea coast. They procure their food from the surface of the 
water, it consisting mostly of dead fish and refuse matter, and Crustacea which 
they gather from the waters edge. When tired they rest upon the surface of 
the water, where they ride the largest waves in perfect safety. 

Terns are birds of similar plumage to the Gulls, but their forms are less ro- 
bust and the bills are generally longer and sharply pointed. Their food con- 
sists chiefly of small fish which they secure by hovering above the water, and 
then plunging upon them. They are less often seen on the surface of the 
water than are the Gulls. 








CHARACTERISTIC NEST OF A LOON 
38 



Walter 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 

39. IVORY GULL. Pagophila alba. 

Range. Arctic regions; south in winter to the 
northern border of the United States. 

The little Snow Gull, as it is often called, is 
eighteen inches in length. In the breeding sea- 
son the plumage is entirely white; the bill is tip- 
ped with yellow and there is a red ring around 
the eye. These Gulls nest in large colonies in 
the Arctic Regions, placing their nests on the 
high rocky cliffs. The nest is made of grass, 
moss and rubbish, and the three eggs are laid 
during June. The eggs are olive color and the 
markings are dark brown. 

10. KITTIWAKE. Rissa tridactyla trydactyla. 

Range. North Atlantic and Arctic regions, 
breeding from the Gulf of the St. Lawrence north- 
ward and wintering south to the Great Lakes and 
Long Island. 

The Kittiwake is sixteen inches in length, has 
a pearly gray mantle, black tips to the primaries, 
and remainder of plumage white. Its hind toe 
is very small being apparently wanting in the 
eastern form, while in the Pacific it is more de- 
veloped. These are very noisy Gulls, their notes ; 
resembling a repetition of their name. They are 
very common in the far north, placing nests on 
the ledges of high rocky cliffs, often in company 
with Murres and Auks. They gather together a ' 
pile of sticks, grass and moss, making the inter- 
ior cup-shaped so as to hold their two or three 
eggs. Large numbers of them breed on Bird 

Rock 




Ivorv 



Kittiwake 




White 



they occupying certain 
ledges while the Gannets and 
Murres, which also breed there, 
also have distinct ledges on 
which to make their homes. 
The breeding season is at its 
height during June. The eggs 
are buffy or brownish gray and 
are spotted with different shades 
of brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data. 
So. Labrador, June 15, 1884. 
Three eggs. Nest made of sea- 
weed and moss, placed on ledge 
of cliff. Many Murres nesting 
on other ledges. 



*v 



39 



THE BIRD BOOK 




40a. PACIFIC KITTIWAKE. Rissa tridac- 
tyla pollicaris. 

Range. Coast of the North Pacific, wintering 
south to California. 

The Pacific Kittiwake breeds in immense rook- 
eries on some of the islands in Bering Sea. They 
are well distributed over Copper Island where 
they nest in June and July, choosing the high 
ledges which overhang the sea. The nesting 
habits and eggs are precisely the same as those 
of the common Kittiwake. 

11. RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. Rissa brevi- 
rostris. 

Range. Northwestern coasts, breeding in high 
latitudes. 

This Kittiwake is similar to the preceding, with 
the exception that the legs are bright red, the 
mantle is darker, and the bill is shorter. This 
species was found by Dr. Leonard Stejneger to be 
a very abundant nesting bird on islands in Ber- 




Red-legg-ed Kittiwake 

Glaucous Gull Brownish buff 

ing Sea, selecting steep and inaccessible rocks and ledges on which to build 
its nest. Their nesting habits, are precisely the same as the Pacific Kittiwake, 
but they most often nest in separate colonies, but can be distinguished readily 
when nesting together by the darker mantles when on the nest and the red 
legs when flying. Grass, moss and mud are used in the nest. The ground color 
of the eggs is buffy or brownish, and the spots are dark brown and lilac. 
Size 2.15 x 1.50. 

42. GLAUCOUS GULL. Larus hyperboreus. 

Range. Arctic regions, south in winter to Long Island, the Great Lakes, and 
San Francisco Bay. 

This Gull shares with the Great Black-backed Gull the honor of being 
the largest of the Gulls, being 28 inches. in length. Mantle light gray; it is 
distinguished by its size and the primaries, which are white to the tips. A 
powerful zird that preys upon the smaller Gulls and also devours the young 
and eggs of smaller birds. 

They nest on the ground on the islands and shores of Hudson Bay, Green- 
land, etc. The nest is made of seaweed, grass and moss and is generally quite 
bulky. The two or three eggs are laid in June. They are of various shades of 
color from a light drab to a brownish, and are spotted with brownish and 
black. Size about 3 x 2.20. 

40 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 
42.1. POINT BARROW GULL. Larus barrovianus. 

Range. Northwest coast from Bering Sea to Point Barrow. 

This species is almost 
identical with the Glau- 
cus Gull, averaging per- 

. * ^ " . haps a trifle smaller. 

* Its standing as a dis- 

!CqB tinct species is still 

- Ite questioned and has not 

41 yet been decided satis- 

l|lf, t factorily. Early in June 

their nests are built on 
remote islands in Ber- 
ing Sea. These nests 
are the same as the last 
species, large piles of 
vegetation, hollowed on 
top for the reception of 
the eggs. The eggs 
have the same varia- 
tions in color and mark- 
ings as the Glaucus 
Gull. Size 3 x 2.10. 
Data. Her sch el Is., 
Alaska, July 1, 1900. Nest made of seaweed and grass; placed on the ground. 
Three eggs. Collector, Rev. I. O. Stringer. 




White 



43. 



ICELAND GULL. Larus leucopterus. 



Range. Arctic regions, south in winter to the Middle States. 
This Gull in appearance is precisely like the two preceding ones but is con- 
siderably smaller; 24 inches in length. A very common bird in the north, 
breeding in colonies of thousands on many of the islands. It is regarded as 

one of the most common 

-*^ ^r*s-^^ of the larger Gulls in Ber- 

,> ^V- ing Sea and also nests 

'-.^ commonly in Hudson Bay 

.y'#*' ** -, and Greenland, as well as 

'* ' . .-''* ^l % *-' *"'**''% ; ^ in the Eastern Hemis- 

^ "AiJt "'* -\'i^ ," - s Wi phere. They nest indiffer- 

ently on high rocky cliffs or 
on low sandy islands. Ex- 
3ept when the eggs are laid 
in a sandy depression in 
the soil, quite bulky nests 
are made of seaweed and 
moss. The eggs are laid 
about the first of June; 

Greenish brown thev numbei> tW ^ thl i ee 

and have a ground color 

of brownish or greenish brown and are blotched with umber. Size 2.80 x 1.83. 
Data. Mackenzie Bay, Arctic America. June 18, 1899. Nest made of seaweed 
and grass on an island in the bay. 




41 



THE BIRD BOOK 




44. GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL. Larus 
glaucescens. 

Range. North Pacific coast, breeding from 
British Columbia northwards and wintering from 
the same country to southern California. 

This Gull is very like the preceding except 
that the primaries are the same color as the 
mantle, and are tipped with white. Length about 
27 inches. Not so northerly distributed a bird 
as the previous ones, and consequently better 






Iceland Gull 
Glaucous-winged Gull 



Pale greenish brown 

known. They breed in large numbers both on 
the high rocky cliffs of the islands along the 
coast and on the low sandy islands of the Aleu- 
tian Chain. On Copper Island they breed on the 
inaccessible cliffs overhanging the water. As in 
the case of the Iceland Gull, when the nests are 
on the cliffs, a large nest of seaweed is made, 
whereas if they are on the ground, especially in 

sandy places no attempt is made at nest-building. The eggs have a greenish 
brown ground color and dark brown spots. Sise 2.75 x 2.05. Data. West Coast 
of Vancouver Island. June 20, 1896. Three eggs; nest made of seaweed. 
Located on a low ledge. Collector, Dr. Newcombe. 

45. KUMLIEN'S GULL. Larus Kumlieni. 

Range. North Atlantic coast, breeding in Cumberland Sound and wintering 
as far south as Long Island. 

This bird differs from the Glaucous-winged only in the pattern of the gray 
markings of the primaries and in having a little lighter mantle. It is quite 
common in its breeding haunts where it places its nest high up on the ledges 
of the cliffs. The eggs are not different apparently from glaucescens. 

46. NELSON'S GULL. Larus nelsoni. 
Range. Coast of Alaska. 

Plumage exactly like that of Kumlien Gull and questionably a new species. 
The nests and eggs are not to be distinguished from the preceding. 

42 



47. GREAT-BLACK-BACKED GULL. 
Larus marinus. 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



Range. North Atlantic on both the American 
and European sides; breeds from Nova Scotia 
northward and winters south to the Great Lakes 
and the Middle States. 

The largest of the Gulls (thirty inches long) 
and unlike any other. The mantle is dark slaty 
black, and the primaries are black with white 
tips. The bill is very large and powerful and 




m 



Great Black-backed Gull 
Kumlien's Gull 



Grayish buff 

quite strongly hooked. They are quite abundant 
birds in their range, and are very quarrelsome, 
both among themselves and other species. They 
do not breed in as large colonies as do the other 
Gulls, half a dozen pairs appropriating a small 
island to the exclusion of all other birds. They 
are very rapacious birds and live to a great ex- 
tent, especially during the breeding season, upon the eggs and young of other 
birds such as Ducks, Murres and smaller Gulls. They place their nests upon 
the higher portions of sandy islands. They are made of grasses and seaweed. 
The three eggs are laid early in June; they are grayish or brownish, spotted 
with brown and lilac. Size 3x2.15. Data.- -South Labrador, June 21, 1884. 
Three eggs. Nest on a small island off the coast; of grasses and moss. 

18. SLATY-BACKED GULL. Larus schistisagus. 

Range. North Pacific and Arctic Oceans. 

This Gull, which is similar to the Great Black-backed, but is smaller and has 
a lighter mantle, does not breed in any considerable numbers on the Ameri- 
can side of the Pacific. It nests in June on some of the islands in Bering Sea 
and probably more commonly farther onrth. They often nest in company with 
other species, placing their small mounds of seaweed on the ground on the 
higher parts of the islands. The full set contains three eggs of grayish or 
brownish color, spotted with dark brown or black. Size 2.90 x 2. Data. Har- 
rowby Bay, N. W. T. Canada, June 11, 1901. Nest of grass, roots and mud and 
lined with dry grass; on point making into the bay. Collector, Capt. H. H. 
Bodfish. 

43 





THE BIRD BOOK 

49. WESTERN GULL. Larus occidentalis. 

Range. Pacific Coast, breeding from southern 
California to British Columbia. 

This bird, which is the most southerly distrib- 
uted of the larger Gulls is twenty-four inches in 
length. Mantle slate colored; primaries black, 
both these and the secondaries being broadly 
tipped with white. These Gulls nest abundantly 
on the Farallones, the majority of them showing 
a preference for the lower portions of the island, 
although they nest on the ledges also. Besides 
man, these Gulls are the greatest enemies that 
the Murres have to content against. They are 
always on the watch and if a Murre leaves its 
nest, one of the Gulls is nearly always ready to 
pounce upon the egg and carry it away bodily in 
his bill. The Gulls too suffer when the eggers 
come, for their eggs are gathered up with the 
Murres for the markets. They make their nests 
of weeds and grass, and during May and June 
lay three eggs showing the usual variations of 
color common to the Gulls eggs. Size 2.75 x 1.90. 

[50.] SIBERIAN GULL. Larus affinis. 

This bird does not nest in North America, and 
has a place on our list, by its accidental occur- 
rence in Greenland. It is an Old World species 
and its nesting habits and eggs are like those of 
the Herring Gull. 

51. HERRING GULL. Larus argentatus. 

Range. Whole of the Northern Hemisphere, 

breeding from Maine and British Columbia north- 

__, ward and wintering south to the Gulf. 

This Gull, which formerly was No. 51a, a sub- 
Western Gull species of the European variety, is now regarded 
Herring Gull as identical with it, and is no longer a sub-species. 
It is twenty-four inches in length, has a light gray mantle and black primaries 
which are tipped with 

white. The Herring , ^- "\-~ ~~^ 

Gulls nest in colonies *%. * ^. ' 

in favorable localities 
throughout their range, 
chiefly on the coasts 
and islands. A few pairs 
also nest on islands in 
some of the inland 
bodies of fresh water. 
Except in places where 
they are continually 
molested, when they 
will build in trees, they 
place their nests on the 
ground either making 
no riest on the bare 
sand, or building a 
bulky nest of seaweed 
in the grass on higher 

parts of the island. Buff 

They lay three eggs of 

a grayish color marked with brown. In rare cases unspotted bluish white 
eggs are found. Size 2.8 x 1.7. 44 





LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



52. VEGA GULL Larus vegae. 

Range. Coast of Alaska, south in winter to 
California. 

Similar to the Herring Gull, but with the man- 
tle darker, but not so dark as in the Western Gull. 
The nesting habits and eggs are the same as 
those of the Herring Gull, except that in a ser- 
ies, the eggs of the Vega will average a little 
darker in ground color. It nests during May on 
the coasts and islands of Bering Sea, placing its 
eggs in a hollow on the ground. Size 2.75 x 1.65. 






Grayish brown 




1 Gull 

California Gull 



53. CALIFORNIA GULL. Larus calif orni- 



Range. Western North America, breeding in til 
the interior. Kiim'-i>i: 

A smaller Gull than the Herring with the prim- 
aries grayish instead of black; length twenty-five inches. This Gull is found 
in winter on the coast from British Columbia southward to Lower California, 
but nests in the interiar from Utah northward. They nest very abundantly 
around the Great Salt Lake, placing their nests generally upon the bare ground. 
Sometimes there is a scant lining of grasses or weeds and again the nests will 
be situated in the midst of a tussock of grass. Three or four eggs generally 
constitute a set, but occasionally five are laid. The usual nesting time is dur- 
ing May. They show the same great variations in color and markings com- 
mon to most of the Gulls. Size 2.60 x 1.80. 

51. RING-BILLED GULL. Larus delawarenis. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding from the United States north- 
ward and wintering south to the Gulf States. 

A small Gull, eighteen inches in length, with a light gray mantle, black 
primaries with white tips, and always to be distinguished in the breeding sea- 
son by the black band around the middle of the greenish yellow bill. They 
nest in enormous colonies on islands in the interior of the country and in 
smaller colonies on the coasts. Thousands of them breed on the lakes of the 
Dakotas and northward. The majority of them nest on the ground, although 
on the coast they are often found on the cliffs. They commonly lay three eggs 
placing them in a slight hollow in the ground, generally on the grassy portions 
of the islands. The color varies from grayish to brownish, marked with 
brown and lilac. The height of the nesting season is in June. Size of eggs, 
2.80 x 1.75. 45 





THE BIRD BOOK 




55. SHORT-BILLED GULL. Larus brachy- 
rhynchus. 

Range. Breeds from the interior of British 
Columbia northward to Alaska; south in winter to 
Lower California. 

The Short-billed or American Mew Gull is seven- 
teen inches in length, has a short, stout bill and 
is otherwise similar to the preceding species. 
Nests on islands in the lakes and along the river 
banks of Alaska. The nest is made of grass, 
weeds and moss and is placed on the ground. 




Pale greenish-brown 

Early in June the birds lay their set of three eggs, 
the ground color of which is greenish brown mark- 
ed with dark brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data, 
Mackenzie River, N. W. T., June 13, 1900. Three 
eggs. Nest made of seaweed and grass and placed 
on the ground on an island in the river. 

[56.] MEW GULL. Larus canus. 

This is the European variety of the above spe- 
cies, breeding commonly both in the British Isles 

and northern Europe. This species is given a place in our avifauna because 

of its accidental appearance in Labrador. 



Short-billed Gull 

Heerman's Gull 




57. HERRMAN'S GULL. Larus heermanni. 

Range. Pacific Coast of North America from British Columbia south to 
Panama, breeding chiefly south of the United States border. 

A very handsome species, often called the White-headed Gull, and wholly 
unlike any other; length seventeen inches. Adults, in summer, have the 
ntire head, neck and throat white, this shading quite abruptly into the slaty 
upper and upder parts; the primaries and tail are black, the latter and the 
secondaries being tipped with white. The legs and bill are vermilion. They 
are found off the coast of California, but are not believed to breed there. 
They are known to breed on some of the islands off the Mexican coast nesting 
on the ground the same as the other species. The three eggs are greenish 
drab in color and are marked with different shades of brown and lilac. Size 
2.45 x 1.50. 

46 



58. LAUGHING GULL. Lams atricilla. 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



Range. Eastern North America, breeding 
from the Gulf to Nova Scotia, chiefly on the 
coast. A beautiful Gull, 16 inches long, with 
a dark slate colored head, gray mantle, black 





Pale grayish brown Laughing Gull 

primaries, and white neck, underparts and tail. Bill and feet red. This bird 
has its name from its peculiar laughing cry when alarmed or angry; it is 
also called the Black-headed Gull. They nest by thousands on the islands off 
the Gulf Coast and along the South . -^ 

Atlantic States. The nest is placed 
on the ground and is made of sea- 
weed. Three, four and sometimes 
five eggs are laid, of a grayish to 
greenish brown color, marked with 
brown and lilac. Size 2.25 x 1.60. 
Data. Timbalin Is., La., June 3, 
1896. Three eggs. Nest of drift 
grass thrown in a pile about 8 
inches high, slightly hollowed on 
top, in low marsh back of beach. 
Collector, E. A. McTlhenny. RING-BILLED GULL-Gray 







47 



THE BIRD BOOK 

59. FRANKLIN'S GULL. 




Larus franklini. 

Range. Interior North America, breeding from 
middle United States northward. 

Like the last but smaller and with the primar- 
ies light. Underparts rosy in breeding season. 
Nests very abundantly in the marshes of Minne- 
sota and northward. Nest made of grasses and 




Franklin's Gull 

Bonaparte's Gull 



Grayish brown 

placed in the marsh grass barely above the sur- 
face of the water. Eggs same color as the last 
but the markings more inclined to zigzag lines. 
Size 2.10 x 1.40. Data. Heron Lake, Minn., May 
26, 1885. Nest of wet sedge stalks and rubbish 
placed in a bunch of standing sedge in shallow 
water; at least five thousand birds in rookery. 
Collector, J. W. Preston. 





60. BONAPARTE'S GULL. Larus Philadelphia. 

Range. Breeds in the northern parts of North America; winters from Maine 

and British Columbia to the southern border of the United States. 

Smaller than the last; 14 inches long. 
Plumage similar, but bill slender and 
black. They nest in great numbers on 
the marshes of Manitoba and to the 
northward. The nests, of sticks and 
grass, are placed on the higher parts of 
the marsh and the usual complement of 
three eggs is laid during the latter part 
of June. The eggs are grayish to green- 
ish brown, marked with dark brown and 
lilac. Size 1.90 x 1.30. 




Pale grayish brown 



48 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 




[60.1] LITTLE GULL. Larus minutus. 

This Gull is the smallest of the family; it is 
a European bird, and has accidentally strayed to 
our shores but a few times. Its plumage is sim- 
ilar to that of the Bonaparte Gull but the bill is 
red. It breeds in the marshes around the Baltic 
Sea, placing its nest of dead vegetation on the 
highest parts of the marsh. They lay three eggs 
of a greenish gray color marked with dark brown 
and lilac. Size 1.75 x 1.25. 

61. Ross GULL. Rhodostethia rosea. 
Range. The Arctic regions, south in winter 

to Alaska, Greenland, northern Europe and Asia. 
This beautiful bird is the most rare of all the 
Gulls, being very difficult to obtain because of 
its extreme northerly distribution. It is in form 
and plumage like Bonaparte Gull, with the excep- 
tions that the head is white, there being a nar- 
row black collar around the neck, the tail is 
wedge shaped, and the whole under parts from 
the chin to the tail are rosy in the breeding plum- 
age. The nests and eggs remain still undiscover- 
ed, although Nansen, in August 1896, found a 
supposed breeding ground in Franz Josef Land, 
because of the numbers of the birds, but found 
no nests. 

62. SABINE'S GULL. Xema sabinii. 

Range. Arctic regions, breeding from Alaska 

and Greenland and northward, and wintering 

south to New England. Sabine Gul1 

A handsome bird, having the slaty hood 
bordered behind with a black ring, the primar- 
ies black, white tipped, and the tail slightly 
forked. They breed abundantly on the marshes 
of northern Alaska and Greenland, nesting the 
same as others of the species. The two or 
there eggs are laid in June. They are greenish 
brown in color and are marked with dark 
brown. Size 1.75 x 1.25. Data. Hudson Bay, 
August 1, 1894. Eggs laid on the ground in 

Greenish brown the moss ; no nest except the hollow in the 

moss. 




Rose Gull 







THE BIRD BOOK 



63. GULL-BILLED TERN. Gelochelidon nilotica. 

Range. Found in North America along the Gulf Coast and on the Atlantic 
Coast north to Virginia and casually farther. 

This is one of the largest of the Terns, 
is 14 inches long, has a short, thick, black 
bill and a short slightly forked tail; the 
crown is black, mantle pearly gray, white 
below. This species is very widely dis- 
tributed, being found in Europe, Austra- 
lia, Asia and Africa. They are known 
locally as "Marsh Terns" where they 
breed in immense numbers on some of 
the marshes about the Gulf, particularly 
in Texas. They also breed on many of 
the islands along the Coast, rarely mak- 
ing any nest, but laying the eggs in a 
hollow in the sand. They nest most 
abundantly in the latter part of May, 
generally laying three eggs. They are 
of a yellowish, grayish or greenish buff 
color and are spotted with brown and lilac. Size 1.80x1.30. Data. North- 
ampton Co., Va., May 28, 1882. Three eggs laid on a mass of seaweed on marsh 
above tide water. 




Pale greenish buff 






64. CASPIAN TERN. Sterna caspia. 

Range. Like the preceding species, this bird is nearly cosmopolitan in its 
range, in North America breeding from the Gulf Coast and Texas northward 
to the Arctic Regions. 

This beautiful bird is the largest of the Tern family, being about 22 inches in 
length, with the tail forked about 1.5 inches. The bill is large, heavy and 
bright red; the crest, with which this and the next three species are adorned, 
is black. The mantle is pale _-~^^ 

pearl and the under parts " * m 

white. These Terns some- 
times nest in large colonies 
and then again only a few 
pairs will be found on an 
island. In Texas, the breed- 
ing season commences in 
May, it being later in the 
more northern breeding 
grounds. They may be re- 
garded as largely eastern 
birds, as while they are com- 
mon in the interior of the 
country, they are rarely found 
on the Pacific Coast. Two or 
three eggs constitute a com- 
plete set; these are laid on Grayish buff 
the sand in a slight hollow scooped out by the birds. They vary from gray to 
greenish buff, marked with brown and lilac. Size 2.60 x 1.75. Data. Hat Is- 
land, Lake Michigan, July 1, 1896. No nest. Two eggs in a hollow in the 
gravel. Fully a thousand terns nesting on about one acre. Collector, Charles 
L. Cass. 

50 




LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



65. ROYAL TERN. Sterna maxima. 

Range. Temperate North and South America, 
breeding in the United States locally from Texas 
and the Gulf States northward to the northern 
boundary of the United States. 

The Royal Terns nest in great numbers on the 
coasts and islands on the South Atlantic and 
Gulf States and in the marshes of southern Texas. 



Grayish buff 

Like the former species they lay two or three 
eggs in a hollow on the bare sand. The eggs are 
the same size but differ in being more pointed 
and having a lighter ground and with the mark- 
ings more bold and distinct. Size 2.60 x 1.70. 

66. ELEGANT TERN. Sterna elegans. 

Range. Pacific Coast of South and Central 
America; north to California in summer. 

A similar bird to the Royal Tern, but easilyGull-billed Tern 




Caspian Tern 

Royal Tern 




Cream color 



distinguished by its smaller size, 
slender bill, and more graceful 
form. In the breeding plumage 
the under parts of these Terns 
are tinged with rosy, which 
probably first gave the birds 
their name. They breed on the 
coasts and islands of Mexico and 
Central America, placing their 
eggs on the sand. They are be- 
lieved to lay but a single egg, 
like that of the Royal Tern, but 
smaller. Size 2.40 x 1.40. Data. 
Honduras, Central America, 
June 5, 1899. Single egg laid on 
the sandy beach. 






51 



THE BIRD BOOK 




67. CABOT TERN. Sterna sandvicensis 
acuflavida. 

Range. A tropical species breeding regularly 
north to the Bahamas and Florida; casually 
farther north. A beautiful bird distinguished 
from the three preceding ones by its smaller size 
(sixteen inches) and by the bill which is black 



~-^; 




Klegant Tern 

Cabot's Tern 



Cream color 

with a yellow tip. They nest in colonies on the 
shores of islands in the West Indies and Baha- 
mas, but not to a great extent on the United States 
Coast. Their two or three eggs have a creamy 
ground color, and are boldly marked with brown 
and black. Size 2.10 x 1.40. 



[68.] TRUDEAU'S TERN. Sterna trudeaui. 

Range. South America; accidentally along the coast of the United States. 

A rare and unique species with a form similar to the following, but with the 
coloration entirely different. About fifteen inches in length; tail long and 
deeply forked; bill yellow with a band of black about the middle. Whole head 
pure white, shading into the pearly color of the upper and under parts. A 
narrow band of black through the eye and over the ear coverts. A very rare 
species that is supposed to breed in southern South America. Given a place 
among North American birds on the strength of a specimen seen by Audubon 
off Long Island. 



52 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



69- FORSTER'S TERN. Sterna forsteri. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from Manitoba, Mass., and California, south to 
the Gulf Coast and Texas. 

Length about fifteen inches; tail long and deep- 
ly forked; crown black, back and wings pearl and 
under parts white. Bill orange red. This spe- 
cies and the three following are the most grace- 
ful of birds in appearance and flight. Their move- 





Forsters Tern 

Common Tern 

Eggs in a hollow on grassy 



Brownish buff 

ments can only be likened to those of the Swal- 
lows, from which they get the name of "Sea Swal- 
lows." Their food consists of fish, which they 
get by diving, and marine insects. They breed by 
thousands in the marshes from Manitoba to Texas 
and along the South Atlantic coast. The eggs are 
laid in a hollow on the dry grassy portions of the 
islands or marshes. They generally lay three 
eggs and rarely four. They are buffy or brown- 
ish spotted with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.80 
x 1.30. Data. Cobb's Island, Va., June 8, 1887, 
bank. Collector, F. H. Judson. 

70. COMMON TERN. Sterna hirundo. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding both on the coast and in the in- 
terior from the Gulf States northward. 

This bird differs from the preceding chiefly in having a bright red bill tipped 
with black, and the under parts washed with pearl. These are the most com- 
mon Terns on the New England coast, nest- 
ing abundantly from Virginia to Newfound- 
land. These beautiful Terns, together with 
others of the family, were formerly killed 
by thousands for millinery purposes, but the 
practice is now being rapidly stopped. In 
May and June they lay their three, or some- 
times four eggs on the ground as do the 
other Terns. They are similar to the pre- 
ceding species but average shorter. Data. 
Duck Is., Maine, June 30, 1896. Three eggs 
in marsh grass about fifty feet from beach. 
No nest. Collector, C. A. Reed. 

53 



I 






Buff 



THE BIRD BOOK 



71. ARCTIC TERN. 







Sterna paradisaea. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding from 
New England northward to the Arctic Regions 
and wintering south to California and the South 
Atlantic States. A similar bird to the last, differ- 
ing in having the bill wholly red and the feet be- 
ing smaller and weak for the size of the bird. A 
more northern bird than the last, breeding abund- 
antly in Alaska, both on the coast and in the in- 
terior. In the southern limits of its breeding 
range, it nests in company with the Common 
Tern, its nests and eggs being indistinguishable 
from the latter. When their nesting grounds are 
approached, all the birds arise like a great white 
clour, uttering their harsh, discordant "tearrr, 
tearrr," while now and then an individual, bolder 
than the rest, will swoop close by with an angry 
"crack." On the whole they are timid birds, keep- 
ing well out of reach. The nesting season is 
early in June. Eggs like the preceding. Data. 
Little Duck Is., Me., June 29, 1896. Three eggs 
in a slight hollow on the beach, three feet above 
high water mark. 

72. ROSEATE TERN. Sterna dougalli. 

Range. Temperate North America on the east 
coast, breeding from New England to the Gulf. 

These are the most beautiful birds, having a 
delicate pink blush on the under parts during 



^ 



Arctic Tern 

Roseate Tern 
Aleutian Tern 




Grayish or Brownish 



the breeding season; the tail is very long and deeply forked, the outer feath- 
ers being over five inches longer than the middle ones; the bill is red with a 
black tip. They nest in large colonies on the islands from Southern New Eng- 
land southward, placing the nests in the short grass, generally without any 
lining. They lay two or three eggs which are indistinguishable from the 
two preceding species. 

73. ALEUTIAN TERN. Sterna aleutica. 

Range. Found in summer in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 

South in winter to Japan. This handsome Tern is of the form and size 
of the Common Tern, but has a darker mantle, and the forehead is white, 
leaving a black line from the bill to the eye. They nest on islands off the coast 
of Alaska, sometimes together with the Arctic Tern. The eggs are laid upon 
the bare ground or moss, and are similar to the Arctic Terns, but average nar- 
rower. They are two or three in number and are laid in June and July. Size 
1.70 x 1.15. Data. Stuart Is., Alaska. Three eggs in a slight hollow in the moss. 

54 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 



74. LEAST TERN. Sterna antillarum. 

Range. From northern South America to 
southern New England, Dakota and California, 
breeding locally throughout its range. 

These little Sea Swallows are the smallest of 
the Terns, being but 9 inches in length. They 
have a yellow bill with a black tip, a black crown 
and nape, and white forehead. Although small, 
these little Terns lose none of the grace and beau- 
ty of action of their larger relatives. They nest 








Least Tern 

Sooty Tern 



Light buff 

in colonies on the South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, 
placing their eggs upon the bare sand, where they 
are sometimes very difficult to see among the 
shells and pebbles. They are of a grayish or 
buffy color spotted with umber and lilac. They 
number two, three and rarely four, and are laid 
in May and June. Size 1.25 x .95. Data. DeSota 
Beach, Fla., May 20, 1884. Three eggs laid on 
the sandy beach. Collector, Chas. Graham. 

75. SOOTY TERN. Sterna fuscata. 

Range. Tropical America, north to the South 
Atlantic States. This species measures 17 inches 
in length; it has a brownish black mantle, wings 
and tail, except the outer feathers of the latter which are white; the forehead 
and under parts are white, the crown and a line from the eye to the bill, black. 

This tropical species is very numerous at 

its breeding grounds on the small islands 

of the Florida Keys and the West Indies. 

They lay but a single egg, generally plac- 

ing it on the bare ground, or occasionally 

building a frail nest of grasses. The egg 

has a pinkish white or creamy ground 

and is beautifully sprinkled with spots of 

reddish brown and lilac. They are laid 

during May. Size 2.05 x 1.45. Data. 

Clutheria Key, Bahamas, May 28, 1891. 

Single egg laid on bare ground near water. 

Collector, D. P. Ingraham. 



/" ^ 

* 




\x 



Creamy white 



55 



THE BIRD BOOK 

[76.] BRIDLED TERN. Sterna anaetheta. 




Range. Found in tropical regions of both hem- 
ispheres; casual or accidental in Florida. This 
Tern is similar to the last except that the nape 
is white and the white of the forehead extends 
in a line over the eye. The Bridled Tern is com- 
mon on some of the islands of the West Indies 
and the Bahamas, nesting in company with the 




OS, 



Creamy white 

Sooty Terns and Noddies. The single egg is laid 
on the seashore or among the rocks. It is creamy 
white beautifully marked with brown and lilac. 
Size 1.85x1.25. Data. Bahamas, May 9, 1892. 
Single egg laid in a cavity among the rocks. Col- 
lector, D. P. Ingraham. 



77- BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon nigra 
surinamensis. 



Black Tern 

Noddy 
Black Skimmer 



V- 

~ V 



Range. Temperate America, breeding from the 
middle portions of the United States northward 
to Alaska; south in winter Beyond the United 
States Border. 

The identity of these Terns cannot be mistaken 
They are but ten inches in length; the whole head, neck and under parts are 
black; the back, wings and tail are slaty and the under tail coverts are white. 
Their dainty figure with their long slender wings gives them a grace and airi- 
ness, if possible, superior to other species of the family. They are very active 
and besides feeding upon all manner of marine 
Crustacea, they capture many insects in the air. 
They nest in large colonies in marshes, both along 
the coast and in the interior, making a nest of 
decayed reeds and grasses, or often laying their 
eggs upon rafts of decayed vegetation which are 
floating on he water. The nesting season com- 
mences in May, they laying three eggs of a brown- 
ish or greenish color, very heavily blotched with 
blackish brown. Size 1.35 x .95. Data. Winne- 
bago City, Minn., May 31, 1901. Three eggs. Nest 

made of a mass of weeds and rushes floating on Deep greenish brown 
water in a swamp. Collector, R. H. Bullis. 

56 




LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS 

[78.] WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon leucoptera. 

Range. Eastern Hemisphere, its addition to Amer- 
ican birds being made because of the accidental 
appearance of one bird in Wisconsin in 1873. They 
lest very abundantly among the lakes and marshes 




Greenish buff 

of southern Europe, placing their 
eggs the same as the American spe- &*-.- * 
cies, upon masses of decayed reeds v " - 

and stalks. They lay three eggs 
which have a somewhat brighter 
appearance than the common Black 
Terns because of a somewhat light- 
er ground color. 

79. NODDY. Anous stolidus. 

Range. Tropical America, north to the 
Gulf and South Atlantic States, A peculiar 
but handsome bird (about fifteen inches long), 
with a silvery white head and the rest of the 
plumage brownish, and the tail rounded. 
They breed in abundance on some of the Flor- 
ida Keys, the West Indies and the Bahamas. 
Their nests are made of sticks and grass, and 
are placed either in trees or on the ground. 
They lay but a single egg with a buffy or 
cream colored ground spotted with chestnut 
and lilac. Size 2.00 x 1.30. Atwood's Key, 
Bahamas, June 1, 1891. Nest made of sticks 
and grasses, three feet up a mangrove. Col- 
lector, D. P. Ingraham. 




Buff 




Noddy 





57 




THE BIRD BOOK 

SKIMMERS. Family RYNCHOPID^E 

Skimmers are Tern-like birds having a very strangely developed bill. The 
lower mandible is much longer than the upper and very thin, the upper edge 
being as sharp as the lower. The lower mandible is rounded at the end while 
the upper is more pointed. Young Skimmers are said to have both mandibles 
of the same length, the abnormal development not appearing until after flight. 
Skimmers are very graceful birds, and, as implied by their name, they skim 
over the surface of the water, rising and falling with the waves, and are said 
to pick up their food by dropping the lower mandible below the surface, its thin 
edge cutting the water like a knife. There are four species of Skimmers, only 
one of which is found in North America. 

80. BLACK SKIMMER. Rynchops nigra. 

Range. The South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, breeding from New Jersey 
southward. The Black Skimmer is about eighteen inches in length, and be- 
sides the remarkable bill is a bird of striking plumage; the forehead, ends of 
the secondaries, tail feathers and under parts are white; the rest of the plum- 
age is black and the basal half of the bill is crimson. Skimmers nest in large 
communities, the same as do the Terns, laying their eggs in hollows in the 

sand. They are partially nocturnal in their 
habits and their hoarse barking cries may 

- - " , be heard after the shadows of night have 

x 

4^ enveloped the earth. Fishermen call them 

llfc * 4 ). % A by the names of "Cut-water" and "Sea Dog." 

' . \ The nesting season commences in May and 

* . . * 

continues through June and July. They lay 

from three to five eggs, having a creamy 
or yellowish buff ground, blotched with 
black, chestnut and lilac. Size 1.75x1.30. 

Buffy yellow Data. Cobb's Is., Va., June 8, 1894. Three 

eggs laid in a hollow on the beach. No 
nest. 

58 




TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 

TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS. Order III. TUBINARES. 
ALBATROSSES. Family DIOMEDEIDAE 

Albatrosses are the largest of the sea birds and have an enormous expanse 
of wing, the Wandering Albatross, the largest of the family, sometimes attain- 
ing an expanse of fourteen feet. Their nostrils consist of two slightly project- 
ing tubes, one on each side near the base of the bill. They are unsurpassed 
in powers of flight, but are only fair swimmers and rarely, if ever, dive, getting 
their food, which consists of dead animal matter, from the surface of the water. 

81. BLACK-FOOTED ALBATROSS. Diomedea 

nigripes. 

Range. North Pacific from California north- 
ward. This Albatross is thirty-two inches in 
length; it is of a uniform sooty brown color shad- 
ing into whitish at the base of the bill, which is 
rounded. Like the other members of the family, 
this species is noted for its extended flights, fol- 
lowing vessels day after day without any apparent 
period of rest, for the purpose of feeding on the 
refuse that is thrown overboard. They breed 
during our winter on some of the small isolated 
islands in the extreme southern portions of the 
globe. They lay a single white egg on the bare 
ground. 

82. SHORT- TAILED ALBATROSS. Diomedea 

albatrus. 

Range. North Pacific Ocean in summer, from 
Lower California to Alaska. With the exception 
of the Wandering Albatross, which is now regard- 
ed as doubtful as occurring off our coasts, the 
Short-tailed Albatross is one of the largest of 
the group, measuring thirty-six inches in length, 
and has an extent of seven feet or more. With 
the exception of the black primaries, shoulders 
and tail, the entire plumage is white, tinged with 
straw color on the back of the head. They breed 
on the guano islands in the North Pacific off the 
coasts of Alaska and Japan. They lay a single 
white egg on the bare ground or rocks. As with 
the other members of the family, the eggs are 
extremely variable in size, but average about 
4.25x2.50. 

59 




THE BIRD BOOK 






82.1. LAYSAN ALBATROSS. 
mutabilis. 



Diomedea im- 



Laysan Albatross 

Yellow-nosed Albatross 
Sooty Albatross 



Range. Laysan Island of the Hawaiian Group, 
appearing casually off the coast of California. 
This species breeds in large numbers on the is- 
land from which it takes its name. The birds are 
white with the exception of the back, wings and 
tail, which are black. The birds, having been lit- 
tle molested in their remote island, are exceeding- 
ly tame, and it is possible to go among the sitting 
birds without disturbing them. Mr. Walter K. 
Fisher has contributed an admirable report on 
this species in the 1913 Bulletin of the Fish Com- 
mission, the report being illustrated with numer- 
ous illustrations of the birds from photos by the 
author. Their single white eggs are laid on the 
bare ground. 

[83.] YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS. 

Tlialassogeron culminatus. 

This is a species which inhabits the South Pa- 
cific and Indian Oceans, and is said to rarely oc- 
cur on the California coast. They breed during 
our winter on some of the small islands and dur- 
ing our summer are ocean wanderers. An egg in 
the collection of Col. John E. Thayer was taken on 
Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean; Sept. 1st, 
1888. The nest was a mound of mud and grass 
about two feet in height. The single white egg 
measured 3.75 x 2.25. It was collected by George 
Comer. 



84. SOOTY ALBATROSS Phoebetria-palpebrata. 

Range. Southern seas, north in our summer along the Pacific coast of the 
United States. 

This species is entirely sooty brown except the white eyelids. It is similar 
to the Black-footed Albatross from which species it can be distinguished in 
all plumages by the narrow base of the bill, while the bill of the former species 
is broad and rounded. They breed commonly on isolated islands in many 
quarters of the southern hemisphere. Sometimes this species constructs a 
mound of mud on which to deposit its single white egg, and also often lays 
it on the bare ground or rock. A specimen in Mr. Thayer's collection, taken 
by Geo. Comer on So. Georgia Is. in the South Atlantic ocean, was laid in a 
hollow among loose stones on the ledge of an overhanging cliff. Size 4.10 x 
2.75. 

60 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 




EGG OF SOOTY ALBATROSS White 



FULMARS, SHEARWATERS and : PETRELS 

Family PROCELLARIDAE 

Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels are Gull-like birds with two nostril tubes 
located side by side, in a single tube, on the top of the bill at it's base. 

The Fulmars are mostly northern birds while the majority of the Shear- 
waters nest in the extreme south during our winter, and appear off our coasts 
during the summer. Their food consists of fish or offal which they get from 
the surface of the water; large flocks of them hover about fishermen, watch- 
ing their chance to get any food which falls, or is thrown, overboard. 





THE BIRD BOOK 




[85.] GIANT FULMAR. 
gigantea 



Macronectes 



Range. This Petrel is a native of the south- 
ern seas and is only casually met with off the 
Pacific coast. 

It is the largest of the family, being about 
three feet in length, and is normally a uniform 
sooty color, although it has light phases of 
plumage. They nest in December on many of 
the islands south of Africa and South America, 
laying their single white egg on the bare rocks. 

86. FULMAR. Fulmarus glacialis glacialis. 

Range. North Atlantic coasts from New 
England northward, breeding from Hudson 

Fulmar Bav and southern Greenland northward. 

This bird which is 19 inches in length, in the light phase has a plumage 
very similar to that of the larger Gulls. They nest by thousands on rocky 
islands of the north, often in company with Murres and Gulls. Owing to the 
filthy habits of the Fulmars, these breeding grounds always have a nauseat- 
ing odor, which is also imparted to, and retained by the egg shell. Their 
single white eggs are laid on the bare rocks, in crevices of the cliffs, often 
hundreds of feet above the water. Size 2.90 x 2. Data. St. Kilda, off Scotland. 
June 5, 1897. Single egg laid on rock on side of sea cliff. Collector, Angus 
Gillies. 





62 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 



86'b. PACIFIC FULMAR. Fulmarus glaci- 
alis glupischa. 

This sub-species of the preceding, has a darker 
mantle than the common Fulmar; it is found on 
the northern Pacific coasts where it breeds on 
the high rocky cliffs, the same as it's eastern 
relative. They nest in large colonies, every 
crevice in the rocks having its tenant. Their 
flight is graceful like that of the Gulls, which 
they closely resemble. They lay but a single 
white egg, the average dimensions of which are 
slightly smaller than those of the common Ful- 
mar. Data. Copper Is., Alaska. May 14, 1889. 
Egg laid in a crevice among the cliffs. 

86.1. RODGER'S FULMAR. Fulmarus rodgers. 

Range. North Pacific, breeding in large num- 
bers on some of the islands in Bering Sea; south 
to California in winter. Very similar to the two 
preceding species except that the back is mixed 
with whitish, it is not believed to have a dark 
phase. Their breeding habits and eggs do not 
differ from the common Fulmar. The eggs are 
laid on the rocky cliffs during June. 





Pacific Fulmar 

Slender-billed Fulmar 



87. SLENDER-BILLED FULMAR. Priocella glacialoides. 

Range. Southern seas, appearing on the Pacific coast of the United States 
in the summer. This species has a paler mantle than the others of the family, 
and the primaries are black. The make-up and plumage of the whole bird is 
more like that of the Gulls than any of the others. They probably breed in 
the far south during our winter, although we have no definite data relative 
to their nesting habits. 




63 



THE BIRD BOOK 




88. CORY'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus borealis. 

This species probably breeds in the far south. 
It has been found only off the coast of Massa- 
chusetts and Long Island. This is the largest 
of our Shearwaters, and can be distinguished from 
the next species by its wholly white underparts, 
its light mantle and yellowish bill. We have no 
data relative to its nesting habits. 

89. GREATER SHEARWATER. Puffinus gravis. 

Range. The whole of the Atlantic Ocean. 

Thousands of them spend the latter part of the 
summer off the New England coast, where they 
are known to the fishermen as Haglets. Their 
upper parts are brownish gray, darker on the 
wings; bill and feet dark; under parts white, with 
the middle of the belly and the under tail cov- 
ers dusky. Length about 20 inches. Little is 
known concerning their nesting quarters, al- 
though they are said to breed in Greenland. 
From the fact of their early appearance off the 
New England coast it is probable that the great- 
er part of them nest in the far south. 

[90.] MANX SHEARWATER. Puffinus puffinus. 

This species inhabits the North Atlantic ocean 
chiefly on the European side, being abundant in 
the Mediterranean and in the British Isles. These 
birds deposit their single pure white eggs in 



Cory" Shearwater 



Greater Shearwater 
crevices among the cliffs, on the graound or in 
burrows dug by themselves. Size of egg 2.35 
x 1.60. Data. Isle of Hay, North Scotland. 
June 1, 1893. Single egg laid at the end of a 
three foot burrow. 





Egg of Audubon's Shearwater White 

64 




TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 



91. PINK-FOOTED SHEARWATER. Puffinus 

creatopus 

Range. Pacific Ocean, north on American side 
to California in summer. 

This species, whose breeding habits are little 
known, is similar in size and color to the Greater 
Shearwater, differing chiefly in the yellowish bill 
and pinkish colored feet. 

92. AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus 

Iherminieri. 

Range. Middle Atlantic, ranging north in late 
summer to Long Island. 

This bird, having a length of but twelve inches, 
is the smallest of the Shearwaters found along our 
coasts. Large colonies of them breed on some 
of the small islands and keys of the West Indies 
and Bahamas, and not so commonly in the Ber- 
mudas. Their eggs, which are pure white, are de- 
posited at the end of burrows dug by the birds. 
Size of egg 2. x 1.35. Their nesting season com- 
mences about the latter part of March and con- 
tinues through April and May. After the young 
are able to fly, like other members of the family, 
the birds become ocean wanderers and stray 
north to southern New England. Data. Bahamas, 
April 13, 1891. Single egg laid at the end of a 
burrow about two feet in length. Collector, D. 
P. Ingraham. 

[92.1.] ALLIED SHEARWATER. Puffinus 
assimilis. 

This is an Australian and New Zealand species 
that has accidentally strayed to the shores of 
Nova Scotia. 




Pink -fooled Shearwater 
Black -ven ted Shearwater 

Town senc's Shear \vatei 



93. BLACK-VENTED SHEARWATER. Puffin us opisthomelas. 

Range. Middle Pacific coast of the Americas, north in late summer along 
the coast of California. This species breeds commonly on the islands off the 
coast of Lower California, especially on the Gulf side. Their single egg is 
white, size 2. x 1.30, and is located at the end of a burrow. Data. Natividad 
Is., Lower California, April 10, 1897. Single egg laid on the sand at the 
end of a burrow six feet in length. Collector, A. W. Anthony. 

93.1. TOWNSEND'S SHEARWATER. Puffinus auricularis. 

This bird ranges from Cape St. Lucas, south along the Pacific coast of Mex- 
ico, breeding on the Revillagigedo Islands off the Mexican coast. 

65 




THE BIRD BOOK 



94. SOOTY SHEARWATER. Puffins fuligi- 
nosus. 

Range. A common species off the Atlantic 
coast in summer; breeds along our northern 
coasts, and it is also supposed that many of 
them nest in southern seas and reach our 
coasts early in the summer. These Shear- 
waters are entirely sooty gray, being some- 
what lighter below. They are called "black 
haglets" by the fishermen, whose vessels they 
follow in the hope of procuring bits of refuse. 
They commonly nest in burrows in the ground, 
but are also said to build in fissures among 
the ledges. Their single white egg measures 
2.55x1.75. Data. Island in Ungava Bay, 
northern Labrador, June 14, 1896. Egg laid in 
a fissure of a sea cliff. Collector, A. N. Mc- 
Ford. 





Sooty Shearwater 



Dark-bodied Shearwater 
Slender-billed Shearwater 



95. DARK-BODIED SHEARWATER. 

Puffinus griseus. 

This is a southern species which, after hav- 
ing nested on islands in the far south during 
our winter, comes north and appears off the 
Pacific coast of the United States during the 
summer. It is a similar bird to the Sooty Shear- 
water, but is considerably darker and the under 
coverts are whitish. Their nesting habits are 
the same as those of other members of the fam- 
ily. Size of egg, 2.40x1.65. Data. Stewart's 
Island, New Zealand, February 15, 1896. Single 
egg at the end of a long burrow. 

96. SLENDER-BILLED SHEARWATER. Puffinus 

tenuirostris. 

Range. Northern Pacific Ocean in the sum- 
mer, extending from Japan and Alaska south- 
ward. Supposed to breed in the southern hemis- 
phere, as well as probably on some of the Aleu- 
tians in Alaska. 

96.1. WEDGE-TAILED SHEARWATER. Puffinus 

cuneatus. 

Range. North Pacific, breeding on the Revil- 
lagigedo Islands off the coast of Mexico, and 
probably on some of the small islands in the 
Gulf of California. 

[97-] BLACK-TAILED SHEARWATER. Priofinus 

cinerus 

This is a Shearwater which inhabits the south- 
ern hemisphere, but which has accidentally wan- 
dered to the Pacific coast of the United States. 
It is dark above and whitish below, with black 
under tail coverts. It breeds in the far south. 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 



[98.] BLACK-CAPPED PETREL. 
tata. 



Msirelata hasi- 



This is not a common species; it is an inhabit- 
ant of tropical seas and has only been casually 
found on our coasts or inland. It is a handsome 
species with white forehead, underparts and nape 
with a small isolated black cap on the crown; 
the rest of the upper parts are blackish. It is a 
native of the West Indies. 

[99-] SCALED PETREL. Mstrelata scalaris. 

This is another rare species which is an in- 
habitant of southern seas. A single specimen 
taken in New York State gives it a claim as a 
doubtful North American species. It is a hand- 
some bird, the feathers of the grayish upperparts 
being edged with white, thus giving it the appear- 
ance of being barred. Its egg have only been 
known to science within the past few years. 
Data. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand, June 7, 
1900. Single white egg. Size 2.40 x 1.75. Collec- 
tor, P. Seymour. Parent bird taken with the egg. 

100. FISHER'S PETREL. JEstralata fisheri. 

This is a handsome bird known only from the 
type specimen taken off Kadiak Is., Alaska, by 
Mr. Fisher. 




Black-capped Petrel 
Scaled Petrel 

Fisher's Petrel 



[101.] BULWER'S PETREL. Bulrveria bulweri. 

An eastern Atlantic species which is only an accidental visitant to our 
shores. They breed on the Madeira Islands where the eggs are laid in crevices 
among the rocks or in burrows in the ground. Size 1.75 x 1.55, white. 



[102.] PINTADO PETREL. Daption capensis. 

This is the Cape Pigeon of the southern hemisphere. It has only accidentally 
occurred on our coast. 



G7 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Least Petrel 

Stormy Petrel 

Forked-tailed Petrel 



103. LEAST PETREL. Halocyptena microsoma. 

Range. Pacific coast of America from Lower 
California to Panama. The Least Petrel is the 
smallest of this family, in length measuring only 
5.75 inches. Their plumage is entirely dark 
sooty. They have been found breeding on San 
Benito Island, Lower California, and they prob- 
ably do on others farther south. The single 'jgg 
that this bird lays is white with a wreath of fine 
black specks around one and sometimes both 
ends. Data. San Benito Is., Lower California, 
June 12, 1897. No nest, the egg being simply 
laid on the bare rock in a crevice. Size 1.00 
x .75. Collector, A. W. Anthony. 



1 0-1. STORM PETREL. Thalassidroma pela- 
gica. 

North Atlantic Ocean chiefly on the European 
side, wintering south to New Brunswick. Small- 
est of the white rumped, black petrels; 5.75 
inches in length. 

This species is the orig- 
inally called "Mother 
Gary's Chicken" by the 
sailors. They nest abund- 
antly on many of the is- 
lands off the coasts of 
Europe and the British 
Isles, laying their single White 

egg either in burrows or crevices among the cliffs. 
Data. Coast of County Kerry, Ireland, June 1, 
1895. Single egg laid at the end of burrow in a 
sea cliff. Size 1.05 x. 80; white with a wreath of 
very fine dots about the larger end. Collector, 
G. H. McDonald. 




105. FORKED-TAILED PETREL. Oceanodroma furcata. 

Range. North Pacific from California to Alaska, breeding in the Aleutians. 

These birds have a plumage of bluish gray, the wings being darker and the 
underparts lightest. The nests are made in burrows or crevices in the banks. 
Data. Uniak Is., Alaska, June 10, 1900. No nest. Single egg laid at the 
end of a burrow. Several pairs nesting near. Egg white with a fine wreath 
of purplish black specks about the large end. Size 1.25 x .5. 




68 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 



105.2. KJEDING'S PETREL. Oceanodroma 
kcedingi. 

This bird is similar to Leach Petrel, but is 
smaller and the tail is less deeply forked. Its 
range is from California to Panama breeding 
on the Revillagigedo Islands off Mexico. 



106. LEACH'S PETREL. 
hoa. 



Oceanodroma leucor- 



Range. North Atlantic and North Pacific 
Oceans, breeding from Maine and from the 
Farallones, northward to Greenland and the Aleu- 
tians. 

These are the most common of the Petrels 

found on our coast; they are eight inches in 

length, of a sooty brown color, and have a white 

rump. The forked tail will at once distinguish 

them from any of the Atlantic Petrels. They 

nest in burrows in the ground, laying a pure 

white egg, sometimes with a very faint dusty 

wreath about the larger end. Size 1.20 x .95. 

These birds generally take turns in the task of 

incubation, one remaining at sea during the day 

and returning at night while his mate takes her 

turn roving the briny deep in search of food. 

The young are fed by 

regurgitation upon an oily 

fluid which has a very of- 

4.-, fensive odor. This odor 

is always noticeable about 
an island inhabited by 
Petrels and is always re- 
tained by the eggs or skins 




White 





Kseding's Petrel 

Leach's Petrel 

Guadalupe Petrel 



of these birds. They are very rarely seen flying in the vicinity of their nest- 
ing island during the day; the bird that is on the nest will remain until re- 
moved by hand. Data. Pumpkin Is., Maine, June 22, 1893. Single egg; nest 
of a few grasses at the end of a burrow dug in the bank. Collector, J. Lefavour. 

106.1 GUADALUPE PETREL. Oceanodroma macrodactyla. 

This species, which is very similar to the preceding, except for a longer 
and more deeply forked tail, breeds on Guadalupe 

Is. Their eggs are white very minutely wreathed . . . 

with reddish brown; they are, however, nearly al- ^K^SlfS^^Si^^^^ 
ways nest stained to an uneven brownish color. 
Data/ Guadalupe Is., Lower California, March 24 S 
1897. Single egg laid on a few oak leaves and pine 
needles at the end of a three foot burrow. Size of 
egg 1.40 x 1.00. Collector, A. W. Anthony. 



69 




White, nest stained 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Black Petrel 



Ashy Petrel 



107. BLACK PETREL. Oceanodroma melania. 

Range. South Pacific, from southern Califor- 
nia southward, breeding on the small islands on 
both coasts of Lower California. They are sim- 
ilar to the Leach's Petrel except that the rump is 
blackish. Data. San Benito Is., Lower Califor- 
nia, July 23, 1896. White egg laid on bare ground 
at the end of three foot burrow. Size 1.40 x 1. 
Collector, A. W. Anthony. 

108. ASHY PETREL. Oceanodroma Tiomochroa. 

Range. California coast, breeding on the Far- 
allones and Santa Barbara Islands. 

This species, while not common, nests in all 
manner of localities on the Farallones, conceal- 
ing their eggs under any rock or in any crevice 
that may attract their fancy. Their single white 
egg is only faintly if at all wreathed with fine 
dust-like specks of reddish brown. Size 1.15 x 
.86. Data. Farallone Is., California, June 12, 
1895. Egg laid on sand in crevice at the base of 
a stone wall; well concealed. Collector, Chester 
Barlow. 



108.1. SOCORRO PETREL. 

Oceanodroma socorroensis. 

Breeds on Socorro, San Benito and Coronado 
Islands, placing its eggs at the end of burrow. 
Data. San Benito Is., Lower California, July 12, 
1897. Single egg at the end of a burrow 3 feet 
in length. Egg pure white very finely wreathed 
with pale reddish brown. Size 1.15 x .87. Collec- 
tor, A. W. Anthony. 





70 



109- WILSON'S PETREL. 

Breeds in the southern hemisphere in February 
and March and spends the summer off the Atlan- 
tic coast as far north as Newfoundland. This spe- 
cies can be distinguished from Leach Petrel by 
its square tail and from the Stormy Petrel by its 
large size and yellow webs to its feet. These 
birds are the greatest wanderers of the genus, 
being found at different seasons in nearly all 
quarters of the globe. Their single egg is white. 
Size 1.25 x. 90. 

[110.] WHITE-BELLIED PETREL. 

Fregetta grallaria. 

A small species (length about 7.5 inches) in- 
habiting southern seas. Recorded once at Flor- 
ida. General plumage blackish. Upper tail cov- 
erts, bases of tail feathers, under wing coverts, 
and abdomen, white. 

[111.] WHITE-FACED PETREL. Pelagodroma 

marina. 

Range. Southern seas, accidentally north to 
the coast of Massachusetts. This beautiful spe- 
cies is of about the same size as the Leach's 
Petrel. It has bluish gray upper parts; the whole 
under parts, as well as the forehead and sides 
of head, are white. 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 

Oceanites oceanicus. 




White 



Wilson's Petrel 

White-billed Petrel 

White-faced Petrel 



These birds have the same characteristics as do others of the species, pat- 
tering over the water with their feet as they skim over the crests and 
troughs of the waves. They are not uncommon in the waters about New 
Zealand where they breed. Their single eggs are about the same as Leach's 
Petrel, are brilliant white and are, very strongly, for a Petrel egg, wreathed 
about the large end with dots of reddish brown. Size 1.32 x .90. Data. Chat- 
ham Is., New Zealand, January 7, 1901. Egg laid at end of a burrow. Collec- 
tor, J. Lobb. This egg is in Mr. Thayer's collection. 




71 




THE BIRD BOOK 

TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS. Order IV. STEGANOPODES 
TROPIC BIRDS. Family PHAETHONTIDAE 

Tropic Birds are Tern-like birds, having all the toes connected by a web, 
and having the two central tail feathers very much lengthened. 



112. YELLOW-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. Phccthon 
americanus. 

Range. Tropical regions, breeding in the Ba- 
hamas, West Indies and the Bermudas, casual in 
Florida and along the South Atlantic coast. 

The Tropic Birds are the most strikingly 
beautiful of all the sea birds; they are about 30 
inches in length, of which their long slender tail 
takes about 20 inches. They fly with the ease 
and grace of a Tern, but with quicker wing beats. 
They feed on small fish, which they capture by 




Dull purplish 

darting down upon, and upon snails which they 
get from the beach and ledges. They build their 
nests in the crevices and along the ledges of the 
rocky cliffs. While gregarious to a certain ex- 
tent they are not nearly as much so as the Terns. 
The nest is made of a mass of seaweed and weeds; 
but one egg is laid, this being of a creamy or pale 
purplish ground color, dotted and sprinkled with 
chestnut, so thickly as to often obscure the*!!3 Yellow - bill ? d Tropic Bird 
ground color. Size 2.10x1.45. Data Coney Is ^ Red-billed Tropic Bird 



/ 





TOTJPALMATE SWIMMERS 



113. RED-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. Phcethon cethereus. 

Range. Tropical seas, chiefly in the Pacific Ocean; north to southern 

California. 

They breed on several islands in the Gulf of California. This species differs 

from the preceding in having a red bill, and the back being barred with black. 

Their plumage has a peculiar satiny appearance and is quite dazzling when 

viewed in the sunlight. They 
are strong fliers and are met 
with, hundreds of miles from 
land. They often rest upon the 
water, elevating their long tails 
to keep them from getting wet. 
They nest, as do the preceding 
species, on rocky islands and 
are said to also build their nests 
in trees or upon the ground. 
The single egg that they lay 
has a creamy ground and is mi- 
nutely dotted with chestnut. 
Pale purplish size 2.40 x 1.55. Data. Daphone 

Is., Galapagos Is., South Pacific, March 6, 1901. Egg laid in hole of a sea cliff. 

The eggs are easily told from those of the yellow-billed by their much larger 

size. Collector, R. H. Beck. 




[113.1] RED-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. Phcethon rubricaudus. 

Range. Tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, accidental off 

the coast of Lower California. 

This is a singularly beautiful species resembling the latter except that the 

central tail feathers are bright red, with the extreme tips white. During 

August and September they 
breed in large colonies on 
small islands in the South 
Seas. On Mauritius Island 
they build their nests either 
in the trees or place them on 
the ground; the nest is made 
of seaweed, sticks and weeds; 
numbers of them nest on 

.*'.>* "*. f JK32WHB^^^V Laysan Is., of the Hawaiian 

group, concealing their nests 
on the ground under over- 
hanging brush. 

The single egg has a pale 
purplish ground speckled 
with brown. 





Pale purplish ground color 




73 



THE BIRD BOOK 





GANNETS. Family SULIDAE 

Gannets are large stoutly built birds, having the four toes joined by a web; 
they have a small naked pouch beneath the bill; the bill is a little longer than 
the head, and the tail is quite short. The plumage of the adults is generally 
white, that of the young grayish. 



114. BLUE-FACED BOOBY. Sula syanops. 

Range. Widely distributed in the tropical seas, 
north casually to Florida and breeding in the Ba- 
hamas. 

Like the rest of the Gannets, this one is stupid 
and will often remain on the nest until removed 
with the hand, merely hissing at the intruder. 
Often they lay their eggs on the bare ground, but 
sometimes the nest is lined with seaweed or grass. 
They lay either one or two eggs early in April. 
These eggs are of a dull white color and are heav- 
ily covered with a chalky deposit. Size 2.50 x 1.70. 
Data. Clarion Is., Mexico, May 24, 1897. Nest 
a mere hollow in the sand near the beach. Col- 
lector, A. W. Anthony. 

114.1. BLUE-FOOTED BOOBY. Sula nebouxi. 

Range. Pacific coasts and islands from the 
Gulf of California southward to Chili. 

These birds nest in numbers on the island of 
San Pedro Martir in the Gulf of California. They 
lay but a single egg, placing it upon the bare 
rock. Their breeding season extends from the 
latter part of March into May. The egg is a dull 
white, generally nest stained and is covered with 
the usual chalky deposit. Size 2.35x1.60. Data. 
Clarion Island, Mexico, May 21, 1897. Two eggs 
in a hollow in the sand near the beach. Collector, 
A. W. Anthony. 




Blue-faced Booby 

Blue-footed Booby 




.115. BOOBY. Sula leucogastra. 

Range. Tropical coasts and islands of the At- 
lantic; north casually to Georgia. 

The common Booby is an abundant bird on 
some of the islands of the Bahamas and Bermu- 
das; it is commonly called the Brown Booby be- 
cause the upper parts are of a brownish gray. 
These birds, as do the other Gannets, have great 
powers of flight and without apparent effort dart 



TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS 




Chalky bluish white, nest stained 

about with the speed of an arrow. They are 
quite awkward upon their feet and are not very 
proficient swimmers. They rarely rest upon the 
water except when tired. Hundreds and some- 
times thousands of them breed in company, lay- 
ing their eggs upon the bare rocks. Sometimes 
a few sticks or grasses will be placed about the 
bird to prevent the eggs from rolling away. They 
generally lay two eggs, chalky white and nest 
stained. Size 2.40x1.60. Data. Key West, Ba- 
hamas, April 14, 1891. No nest; two eggs laid on 
the bare rocks. 




Booby 
Red-footed Booby 



115.1. BREWSTER'S BOOBY. Sula brewsteri. 

Range. Pacific coast from Lower California southward. This Gannet re- 
places the common Booby on the Pacific coast. It nests abundantly on many 
islands in the Gulf of California, and in company with the blue-footed variety, 
on San Pedro Martir Island. They generally lay two eggs, placing them upon 
the bare rocks and surrounding them with a ring of sticks and seaweed to keep 
them in place. The eggs are chalky white and cannot be distinguished from 
those of the other Boobies. Data. San Benedicto Is., Lower California, May 
18, 1897. Single egg laid on the sand amid a few blades of grass. 




116. RED-FOOTED BOOBY. Sula piscator. 

This is another species that is only occasionally taken on the Florida coast. 
The habits of the birds and their nesting habits are the same as those of the 
others of the family. Two chalky white eggs are laid. Data. San Benedicto 
Is., Lower California, May 18, 1897. Single egg. Nest a few twigs of rank 
grass. Collector, A. W. Anthony. 

75 




THE BIRD BOOK 




117- GANNET. Sula bassana. 

Range. North Atlantic, breeding, in America, 
only on Bird Rocks in the St. Lawrence. 

These are the largest of the family, being 35 
inches in length. They feed on fish which they 
catch by diving upon, from the air. When flying 
their neck is carried fully extended. They rest 
on the water when tired, the numerous air cells 
beneath the skin, causing them to sit high up in 
the water and enabling them to weather the 
severest storm in perfect safety. The only known 
breeding place in America is Bird Rocks, where 
they nest by thousands, placing their nests in 
rows on the narrow ledges; the nests are made 
of piles of seaweed, mud and stones. They lay 
but one egg of dingy white color and covered with 
a chalky deposit. On St. Kilda Island, off the 
coast of Scotland, they breed by millions. They 
are very tame and will frequently allow them- 
selves to be touched with the hand. It is said 
that thousands of the young are killed by fisher- 
men every year and marketed in Edinburg and 
other places. Data. St. Kilda Island, Scotland, 
June 18, 1896. Single egg laid on a large mass of 
seaweed on a sea cliff. Collector, H. McDonald. 





Chalky bluish white 



76 



TOTIPALMATK SWFMMKKS 



DARTERS. Family ANHINGIDAE 

118. WATER TURKEY. Anhinga anhinga. 

Range. Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States and up the 
Mississippi Valley to Illinois. 

Anhingas or Snake Birds are curiously formed creatures with a Heron-like 
head and neck, and the body of a Cormorant. They live in colonies in inacces- 
sible swamps. Owing to their thin and light bodies, they are remarkable 

swimmers, and pursue and catch fisli 
under water with ease. When alarm- 
ed they have a habit of sinking their 
body below water, leaving only their 
head and neck visible, thereby having 
4 the appearance of a water snake. 
They also fly well and dive from their 
perch into the water with the greatest 
celerity. 

They nest in colonies in the swamps, 
placing their nests of sticks, leaves 
and moss in the bushes over the 
water. They breed in April, laying 
from three to five bluish eggs, covered with a chalky deposit. Size 2.25 x 1.35. 
Data. Gainesville, Florida, May 18, 1894. Nest in the top of a button-wood 
tree, made of leaves and branches, overhanging the water. Collector, George 
Graham. 




Chalky bluish white 




I M<: LI CAN POND 
Washington Zoological Park 




i i 



THE BIRD BOOK 



CORMORANTS. Family PHALACROCORACID^E 

Cormorants have a more bulky body than do the Anhingas; their tail is 
shorter and the bill strongly hooked at the tip. Cormorants are found in 
nearly all quarters of the globe. They are very gregarious and most species 
are maritime. They feed upon fish which they catch by pursuing under water. 
Most of the Cormorants have green eyes. 




TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS 



119. CORMORANT. PTialacrocorax carbo. 



Range. The Atlantic coast breeding from Maine 
to Greenland. 

The common Cormorant or Shag is one of the 
largest of the race, having a length of 36 inches. 

In breeding plumage, the black head and neck 
are so thickly covered with the slender white 
plumes as to almost wholly obscure the black. 
There is also a large white patch on the flanks. 
They nest in colonies on the rocky shores of New- 




Chalky greenish or bluish whitae 

foundland and Labrador, placing their nests of 
sticks and seaweed in rows along the high ledges, 
where they sit, as one writer aptly expresses it, 
like so many black bottles. A few pairs also nest 
on some of the isolated rocky islets off the Maine 
coast. During the latter part of May and dur- 
ing June they lay generally four or five greenish 
white, chalky looking eggs. Size 2.50 x 1.40. Data. 
Black Horse Rock, Maine coast, June 6, 1893. 
Four eggs in a nest of seaweed and a few sticks; 
on a high ledge of rock. Collector, C. A. Reed. 




Cormorant 
Double-crested Cormorant: 



120. DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax auritus auritus. 

Range. The Atlantic coast and also in the interior, breeding from Nova 
Scotia and North Dakota northward. 

This is a slightly smaller bird than carbo, and in the nesting season the white 
plumes of the latter are replaced by tufts of black and white feathers from 
above each eye. On the coast they nest the same as carbo and in company with 
them on rocky islands. In the interior they place their nests on the ground or 
occasionally in low trees on islands in the lakes. They breed in large colonies, 
making the nests of sticks and weeds and lay three or four eggs like those of 
the common Cormorant but averaging shorter. Size 2.30 x 1.40. Data. Stump 
Lake, North Dakota, May 31, 1897. Nest of dead weeds on an island. Six eggs. 
Collector, T. F. Eastgate. 





79 





Walter Raine 



NESTS OF DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS 



80 



TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS 

120a. FLORIDA CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax auritus ftoridanus. 

This sub-species is a common breeding bird in the swamps and islands of the 
Gulf coast and north to South Carolina and southern Illinois. The nests are 
placed in the mangroves in some of the most impenetrable swamps and are 
composed of twigs and lined with leaves or moss. They lay three or four chalky 
bluish white eggs. Size 2.30x1.40. Data. Bird Is., Lake Kissimee, Florida, 
April 5, 1898. Three eggs. Nest made of weeds and grass, in a willow bush. 

120b. WHITE-CRESTED CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax auritus cincinatus. 

Range. Northwestern coast of North America, breeding in Alaska, and south 
to the northern boundary of the United States, breeding both in the interior 
and on the coast, in the former case generally on the ground or in low trees 
on swampy islands and in the latter, on the rocky cliffs of the coasts and 
islands. The nests are built in the same fashion as the other Cormorants, and 
the three to five eggs are similar. Size 2.45 x 1.40. 

120c. FARALLON CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus. 

Range. This sub-species breeds on the coasts and islands of California and 
southward. 

In company with other species of Cormorants, these birds breed in large 
numbers on the Farallones, placing their nests well up on the higher ridges and 
rocks. They breed most abundantly during May. When nesting on the inland 
islands, they place their nests in low bushes. Their nests and eggs are similar 
to those of the other Cormorants. Size 2.40 x 1.50. Data. Farallones, Cali- 
fornia. Nest of weeds and seaweed on the rocks. Collector, W. O. Emerson. 



121. MEXICAN CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax vigua mexicanus. 



Range. Breeds abundantly from southern Texas, south through 

north rarely to Kansas; har 




Greenish white 



Mexico; 

recently 

been found breeding in limited num- 
ber on some of the Bahamas. In the 
interior they nest in trees, chiefly 
those overhanging or growing in the 
water. On the coasts they nest on the 
rocky ledges, as do the other Cormor- 
ants. They nest in colonies building 
their abode of twigs and weeds, and 
during May laying three or four eggs, 
greenish white in color and chalky, as 
are all the Cormorants. Size 2.25 x 1.35. 






81 







120c 122 



THE BIRD BOOK 

122. BRANDT'S CORMORANT. 

Phalacrocorax penicillatus. 

Range. Pacific coast breeding along the whole coast 
of the United States. 

This species is found more abundantly on the Faral- 
lones than is the Parallone Cormorant. Like the other 
Cormorants breeding on these islands, these cling closely 
to their nests, for fear of being robbed by the Gulls, that 
are ever on the watch to steal either eggs or young. 
Their nesting iiabits and eggs are identical with those of 
. the other species. Size 2.50 x 1.50. Data. Bird Island, 
California, May 24, 1885. A very bulky nest of seaweed 
on the rocks. Collector, A. M. Ingersoll. 

123. PELAGIC CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax pel- 

agicus pelagicus. 
Range. Coast of Alaska. 

These are perhaps the most beautiful species of Cor- 
morants, having brilliant violet green metallic reflec- 
tions and, in the breeding plumage, crests on the fore- 
head and nape, as well as large white flank patches. 
They breed in large colonies on the Aleutian Islands, 
placing their nests of sticks and sea mosses on the rocky 
ledges, often hundreds of feet above the sea level. Three 
or four eggs are laid during May and June. The young 
birds' when hatched are naked and black, and are re- 
pulsive looking objects, as are those of all the other Cormorants. The eggs 
are greenish white with the usual calcareous deposit. Size 2.30 x 1.40. 

123a. VIOLET-GREEN CORMORANT. Phalacro- 
corax pelagicus robustus. 

This sub-species is found on the Pacific coast from Washington to the Aleu- 
tian Islands. Their habits and nests and eggs are the same as those of the 
Pelagic Cormorant, nesting on the high cliffs of the pM^s^^-.r^-^a^ss^-.-agi 
rocky islands. The eggs are the same size as those of 
the preceding. 

123b. BAIRD'S CORMORANT. 
agicus resplendens. 

This variety breeds on the Pacific coast from Wash- 
ington south to Mexico. They nest on the Parallones, 
but in smaller numbers than the other varieties found 
there. Both the birds and their eggs are smaller than 
the preceding. Size of eggs 2.20 x 1.40. 

1 24. RED-FACED CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax urile. 

Range. Southwest coast of Alaska, migrating to 
Japan in the winter. 

This species differs from the Pelagic chiefly in having 
the forehead bare. They do not differ in their breeding 
habits from others of the family. That the Cormorants 
are expert fishermen may be seen from the fact that the 
Chinese tame and have them catch fish for them, placing 
a ring around their neck to prevent their swallowing the 
fish. Their nesting places are very filthy, being covered 
with excrement and remains of fish that are strewn 
around the nests. They breed in June laying three or 

four eggs. Size 2.50 x 1.50. j93 b 124 

82 



Phalacrocorax pel- 




TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS 

PELICANS. Family PELECANID^E 

Pelicans are large, short legged, web footed (all four toes joined by a web) 
birds, the most noticeable feature of which is the long bill with its enormous 
pouch suspended from lower mandible. This pouch, while normally contracted, 
is capable of being distended to hold several quarts. It is used as a scoop in 
which to catch small fish. Their skin is filled with numerous air cells, making 
them very light and buoyant. 

125. AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding in the interior, from Utah and 
the Dakotas northward. These large birds, reaching a length of five feet, are 
entirely white except for the black primaries. They get their food by approach- 
ing a school of small fish and, suddenly dipping their head beneath the sur- 
face, sometimes scoop up a large number of fish at a time; after allowing the 
water to run out of the sides of the mouth, they proceed to swallow their catch. 
They nest in large communities on islands in some of the inland lakes. 

Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Shoal Lake, Manitoba, furnish breeding ground 
for many thousands of Pelicans. They build their simple nests on the ground, 
making them of sticks and weeds. They generally lay two eggs, but often 
three or four. Size 3.45 x 2.30. Data. Egg Island, Great Salt Lake, June 19, 
1884. Two eggs. Nest a slight hollow in the ground, surrounded by a few 
sticks. Collector, F. F. Leonard. 






Chalky white 





83 




AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN 



84 



TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS 



126'. BROWN PELICAN. Pelecanus occidental. 

Range. Found on the South Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts of the United States. 

Brown Pelicans are about 50 inches in length; 
they have a blackish and grayish body and a 
white head and neck with a brown stripe down 
the back of the latter. The pouch is a dark green- 
ish brown. This species is maritime and is not 
found inland. They breed in large colonies on 
many of the islands in the Gulf of Mexico and on 




Brown Pelican 

White Pelican 



Chalky white 

Pelican Island on the east coast of Florida, in 
which latter place they are now protected from 
further depredations at the hand of eggers and 
gunners. Their fishing tactics differ from those 
of the White Pelican. They dive down upon the 
school of fish from the air and rarely miss mak- 
ing a good catch. Their nests are quite bulky structures made of sticks and 
weeds and grasses. These are generally located on the ground but occasionally 
in low mangroves, these latter nests being more bulky than the ground ones. 
They lay from two to five chalky white eggs during May and June. Size 3. x 
1.90. Data. Tampa Bay, Fla., May 29, 1894. Three eggs. Nest in the top of 
a stout mangrove; made of sticks, branches and leaves. Collector, Geo. Graham. 



127. CALIFORNIA BROWN PELICAN. Pelecanus calif ornicus. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia south to the Galapagos Islands. 

This bird is similar to the preceding, but larger and the pouch is reddish. 
They breed abundantly on the Coronado Islands and southward. Their habits, 
nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the Brown Pelican. Size of 
the three or four chalky white eggs is 3.10 x 1.95. Data. Coronado Islands, 
Calif., March 28, 1897. Three eggs. Nest of sticks, lined with green leaves, 
located on the ground. Collector, H. McConville. 



85 




THE BIRD BOOK 



MAN-O'-WAR BIRDS. Family FREGATID^E 






128. MAN-O'-WAR BIRD. Fregata aqtiila. 

Range. Tropical seas, north regularly in America to the South Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts, casually farther. 

Man-o'-war Birds or "Frigates," as they are 
often called, are remarkable birds in many re- 
spects. In comparison with their weight they 
have the largest expanse of wing of any known 
bird. Weighing only about four pounds they have 
an extent of from seven to eight feet, their wings 
being extremely long and pointed. The length of 
the bird is about 40 inches, of which the tail com- 
prises about 18 in., 10 inches of this being forked. 
They have a large bright orange gular sac, a long, 





White 

hooked bill, and small slightly webbed feet. Their 

powers of flight combine the strength of the 

Albatrosses and the grace of the Terns. They 

are very poor swimmers and do not dive, so are 

forced to procure their food by preying upon the 

Gulls and Cormorants, forcing them to drop their 

fish, which the pirates catch before it reaches the 

water. They also feed upon flying fish, catching 

them in the air, whither they have been driven by 

their enemies in their natural element. They nest in large colonies on some of 

the Bahama Islands and on some of the small Florida Keys. Their nests are 

small frail platforms of sticks and twigs and the single egg is laid in March 

and April. It is white and has a smooth surface. Size 2.80 x 1.90. Data. Key 

Verde, Bahamas, March 6, 1889. Single egg. Nest a frail affair of sticks on a 

cactus. Collector, D. P. Ingraham. 




Man-O'-War Bird 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 

Order V. ANSERES 



DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS. Family ANATIDAE 

The birds comprising this family are of greatly varying sizes, but all have 
webbed feet, and generally the bill is broader than high, and is serrated on the 
edges or provided with gutters to act as a strainer in assisting the birds to 
gather their food. 

12Q. MERGANSER. Mergus americanus. 

Range. North America, breeding from the 
northern border of the United States northward. 

The three species of Mergansers are almost 
exclusively fish eating birds. Therefore their flesh 
is unpalatable and they are known as "Pish 
Ducks." They are also sometimes called "Saw- 





Brownish buff 

bills" because of the teeth-like serration on both 
the upper and the under mandibles. Unlike the 
other species of ducks, their bills are long, slend- 
er and rounded instead of being broad and flat; 
it is also hooked at the tip. Like the Cormorants, 
they often pursue and catch fish under the water, 
their teeth-like bills enabling them to firmly hold 
their prey. 

The American Mergansers, Goosanders, or Shel- 
drakes, as they are often called, are found botii 
on the coast and in the interior. Except in cer- 
tain mountainous regions, they breed chiefly north 
of the United States. The male bird has no crest 
and the head is a beautiful green, while the female has a reddish brown crest 
and head, shading to white on the chin. They build their nest in hollow trees 
near the water. It is made of grasses, leaves and moss and is lined with feath- 
ers from the breast of the female. During May, they lay from six to ten eggs 
of a creamy or buff color. Size 2.70 x 1.75. Data. Gun Is., Lake Winnipeg. 
June 16, 1903. Eleven eggs in a nest of white down, located between two large 
boulders. Collector, Walter Raine. 




American Merganser 

Red-breasted Merganser 



<^gsr> 



87 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Hooded Merganser 
Mallard 



130. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. Mergus ser- 

rator 

Range. North America, breeding from north- 
ern United States northward. 

This species is more abundant than the pre- 
ceding. It is slightly smaller, being 22 inches in 
length, and the male is crested. Found abundant- 
ly in the United States in winter. Breeds com- 
monly in the interior of British America and in 
Labrador and Newfoundland. They make their 
nests on the ground, near the water, concealing 
them under rocks or tufts of grass. The nest is 
made of grasses, leaves and moss and lined with 
feathers. They lay, generally, about ten eggs of 
a buffy or greenish buff color. Size 2.50 x 1.70. 
Data. Lake Manitoba, N. W. Canada. Two eggs 
in a hollow lined with down, under a patch of rose 
bushes near shore. Collector, Jos. Karnaugh. 

131. HOODED MERGANSER. 
Lophodytes cucullatus. 

Range. North America, breeding locally through- 
out its range, in the interior. These are beautiful 




Grayish white 



little Ducks distinguished from all others by the semi-circular, compressed 
crest which is black with an enclosed white area. They make their nests in 
hollow trees, in wooded districts near the water, lining the cavity with 
grasses and down. They lay ten or twelve grayish white eggs. Size 2.15 x 1.70. 

132. MALLARD. Anas platyrhynchos. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America from northern United 
States northward, and wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. 

Contrasting with the preceding Pish Ducks, the Mallards are regarded as 
one of the most esteemed table birds. They feed on mollusks and marine 
insects which they generally reach by tipping in shallow water. They nest in 
many localities in the United States but more abundantly north of our borders. 
They nest in fields in close proximity to ponds or lakes, placing their nests 
of grasses and feathers in the tall grass. In May and June they lay from six 
to ten eggs of a buffy or olive color. Size 2.25 x 1.25. Data. San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, May 19, 1897. Nest made of grass, lined with down, placed on the edge 
of a field near a pond. 

8* 





Lake Winnipegosls, June 16, 1902 Walter Kaine 

NEST AND EGGS OF AMERICAN MERGANSER 

This species usually nest in holes in trees, but on this island they were nesting 

in holes under boulders. 



THE BIRD BOOK 




133. BLACK DUCK. Anas rubripes. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
the middle portions north to the Hudson Bay ter- 
ritory and Labrador. 

Throughout their breeding region, one or more 
pairs of these ducks nest in nearly every favorable 
locality. Their nests are placed on the ground 
in marshes, swamps or fields bordering a pond 
or lake, the nest being concealed in the long grass 




Black Duck 

Florida Duck 



Pale greenish buffi 

or reeds. They breed in equal abundance, either 
in the interior or along the sea coast; in the lat- 
ter case their nests are often placed beside of, or 
under an overhanging rock. It is made of weeds, 
grass and moss and is lined with feathers and 
down. They lay from six to twelve eggs during 
May and June; these are buff or greenish buff in 
color. Si^a 2.30 x 1.70. Data. Duck Is., Maine, 
June 3, 1893. Nest of grasses, concealed in a 
large tuft on water's edge. 



134. FLORIDA DUCK. Anas fulvigula fulvigula. 

Range. Florida and the GuK of the Mississippi. 

This is a similar, lighter colored, locally distributed race of the foregoing. 
The most noticeable difference in plumage between this and the Black Duck is 
the absence of markings on the chin. The habits are the same, and the eggs, 
which are deposited in April, are similar to those of the Black Duck, but 
smaller. Size 2.15 x 1.60. 





90 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



MOTTLED DUCK. Anas fulvigula macu- 
losa. 



Range. Gulf coast of Texas and up the Miss- 
issippi Valley to Kansas. 

The habits of this bird differ in no way -from 
the preceding ones. The six to ten eggs are 
greenish buff in color. Size 2.15 x 1.55. 

335. GADWALL. Chaulelasmus streperus. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in 
America, chiefly in the United States and north 
to Manitoba, chiefly in the interior. 





Widgeon 



Creamy buff 

South in winter to the Gulf. The males of these 
birds may be identified by the white speculum 
and the chestnut wing coverts. Gadwalls nest 
on the ground among the reeds of marshes or in 
the long grass of bordering fields; they make lit- 
tle or no nest but line the cavity with down from 
their breasts. They lay from seven to twelve Gadwall 
eggs of a creamy buff color. Size 2.10 x 1.60. 
Data. Benson Co., North Dakota, June 19, 1898. 

Eight eggs. Nest on the ground among rank grass on a low island in Devils 
Lake. Made of weeds lined with down. Collector, E. S. Rolfe. 

136. WIDGEON. Mareca penelope 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, 
breeding in America, only in the 
Aleutian Islands ; rare or accidental 
in other parts of the country. 

The European Widgeon is sim- 
ilar in build and plumage to the fol- 
lowing species, except that the 
whole head, with the exception of 
the white crown, is chestnut. They 
build their nests in the rushes, mak- 
ing them of reeds and grass and 
lining them with feathers. They 
lay from six to ten light buff color- 
ed eggs. Size 2.20 x 1.50, 



u 




THE BIRD BOOK 




137. BALDPATE. Mareca americana. 

Range. North America, breeding in the in- 
terior from Texas north to Hudson Bay. 

The Baldpate (so-called because of the white 
3rown) or American Widgeon is a handsomely 
marked bird and is regarded as a great table 
delicacy. The male birds cannot be mistaken for 
any other species because of the white crown, 




Baldpate 
Green-winged Teal 



Creamy white 

wing coverts and underparts and the broad green 
stripe, back of the eye. They breed locally in 
many parts of the country, building their nests 
of grass and weeds, neatly lined with feathers, 
on the ground in marshes. They lay from six 
to twelve creamy eggs. Size 2.15 x 1.50. Data. 
Lac Aux Morts, North Dakota. Eight eggs. Nest 
of grass and down on ground in a grassy meadow. 
Collector, E. S. Bryant. 

[138.] EUROPEAN TEAL. Nettion crecca. 

An old world species that is casually found on 
both coasts of America. 



139. GREEN-WINGED TEAL. Nettion carolinense. 

Range. Whole of North America, 

^******** breeding chiefly north of the United 

States. 

A small, handsome species, the male of 
which can readily be identified by the 
reddish brown head and neck, with the 
large green patch behind each ear ; length 
fourteen inches. Green-winged Teals are 
our smallest representative of the Duck 
family. They are eagerly sought by 
sportsmen, both because of their beauty 

/ ^^^^^^^^P^" and the excellence of their flesh. They 

are among the most common of Ducks in 
the interior, where they nest generally in 
tufts of grass along ponds, lakes or 
-as;,^ brooks. Nest of grass and weeds, lined with down from the bird. Eggs buffy, 





Buff 



four to ten in number. Size 1.85 x 1.25. 



92 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



140. BLUE-WINGED TEAL. Querquedula discors 

Range. North America, breeding from north- 
ern United States northward; rare on the Pacific 
coast. 

Another small species, known by the blue wing 
coverts and the white crescent in front of eye. 
They nest in the same localities with the preced- 
ing species, placing their nest of grass and weeds 
on the ground in meadows near water. Eggs 
buffy white. Six to twelve in number. Size 1.90 x 
1.30. 



141. CINNAMON TEAL. 
tera 



Querquedula cyanop- 



Range. Western United States, chiefly west 
of the Rocky Mountains. Casually east to Texas, 
Illinois and British Columbia. 

The Cinnamon Teal is another small Duck, 
marked by the uniform rich chestnut plumage and 
light blue wing coverts. The speculum is green. 
The nesting habits are the same as those of the 
Teals, the nests being placed on the ground in 
marshes or fields near water. Their nests are 
closely woven of grass and weeds and lined with 
down and feathers from the breast of the bird. 
The eggs are pale buff and number from six to 
fourteen. Size 1.85 x 1.35. 



[141.1.] RUDDY SHELDRAKE. 
C as area ferruginea. 

This is an Old World species that has acci- 
dentally occurred in Greenland. 




Blue-winged Teal 

Cinnamon Teal 




93 



THE BIRD BOOK 




142. SHOVELLER. Spatula clypeata. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding in 
the interior from Texas northward. 

This strikingly marked Duck is twenty inches 
in length, has a green head and speculum, blue 
wing coverts and chestnut belly. The bill is long 
and broad at the tip. It makes its nest on the 
ground in marshy places, of grass, weeds and 




Dull olive gray 



Lead gray 

feathers. Six to ten eggs constitute a complete 
set. They are greenish or leaden gray color. 
Sise 2.10 x 1.50. Data. Graham's Island, North 
Dakota, May 28, 1899. Nest of dead weed stems 
and grass, lined with down. Ten eggs. Collector, 
E. S. Bryant. 



PINTAIL. Dafila acuta. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in 
North America from northern United States north- 
ward, wintering south to Panama. This species, 
which is also known as the Sprig-tail, is very 
common in the United States in the 
spring and fall migrations. It is about 
thirty inches long, its length depend- 
ing upon the development of the tail 
feathers, the central ones of which are 
long and pointed. They breed casual- 
ly in many sections of the United 
States, but in abundance from Mani- 
toba to the Arctic Ocean. They nest 
near the water, laying from six to 
twelve eggs of dull olive color. Size 
2.20 x 1.50. Data. Graham's Island, 
Devil's Lake, N. Dakota, June 15, 1900. 
Ten eggs. Nest on the ground, of 
weeds, lined with down. Colony breed- 
ing. Collector, B. S. Bryant. 



04 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



144. WOOD DUCK. Aix sponsa. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from Labrador and British Columbia south to 
Florida. 

Bridal Duck is a name often given to this, the 
most beautiful of all Ducks. 

They are beautifully marked, have a large crest, 
and are iridescent with all colors of the rainbow. 
They frequent wooded country near ponds and 




Rich buff 

lakes, feeding on water insects and mollusks in 
the coves. They build their nests in hollow trees 
and stumps, often at quite a distance from the 
water. When the young are a few days old, they 
slide, scramble, or nutter down the tree trunk to 
the ground below, and are led to the water. The 
nest is made of twigs, weeds and grass, and warm- 
ly lined with down. The eggs are a buff color 
and number eight to fifteen. Size 2. x 1.5. 

[145.] RUFOUS-CRESTED DUCK. Netta rufina. 




Wood Duck 

Redhead 




A European species; a single specimen taken on Long Island in 1872. 
146. REDHEAD. Marila americana. 

Range. No f rth America at large, 
breeding from northern United 
States northward, chiefly in the in- 
terior. 

A bird commonly seen in the 
markets where it is often sold as 
the following species because of 
their similarity. The nests are 
placed on the ground in marshes or 
sloughs, and are made of grasses, 
lined with feathers. Eggs from 
six to fourteen in number, of a 
buffy white color. Size 2.40 x 1.70. 




LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



147. CANVAS-BACK. Marila valisineria. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 
chiefly in the interior from the United States to 
the Arctic Ocean. 

A noted table bird, especially in the south 
where it feeds on wild celery. Can be distinguish- 
ed from the Redhead by its darker head, lighter 
back, and gradually sloping bill. They nest abund- 
antly in Manitoba, their habits being the same as 
the preceding. They lay from six to ten eggs of 
a darker shade than the Redheads. Size 2.40 x 
1.70. Data. Haunted Lake, N. Alberta, June 12, 
1897. Ten eggs. Nest of reeds in a heavy reed 
bed out in the lake. Collector, Walter Raine. 



1 18. SCAUP DUCK. Marila marila. 

Range. North America, breeding from North 
Dakota northward, chiefly in the interior; south 
in winter to Central America. 





Canvas-hack 
American Scaup Duck 



Pale greenish gray 

This and the following species are widely known 
as "Blue-bills" owing to the slaty blue color of 
that member. Their plumage is black and white, 
somewhat similar in pattern to that of the Red- 
head, but darker, and the whole head is black. 

They nest, in marshes about many of the ponds and lakes in the interior of 
British America. The nest is made of marsh grasses and lined with feathers. 
The six to ten eggs are pale grayish or greenish gray. Size 2.50 x 1.70. Data. 
Saltcoats Marshes, N. W. Canada, June 15, 1901. Ten eggs. Nest in the grass; 
a depression lined with down and dried grasses. Collector, Walter Raine. 





97 



THE BIRD BOOK 




149- LESSER SCAUP DUCK. Marila affinis. 

Range. North America, breeding from North 
Dakota and British Columbia northward; win 
ters south to Central America. 

This Duck is distinguished from the preceding, 
chiefly by its size which is about two inches less, 
or 17 inches in length. The nesting habits are 
the same as those of the Greater Scaup and the 
eggs are similar but smaller. Size 2.25 x 1.55. 
Data. Northern Assiniboia, June 10, 1901. Ten 
eggs on grass and down at the edge of a lagoon. 
Collector, Walter Raine. 



150. RING-NECKED DUCK. Marila collaris. 

Range. North America, breeding in the inter- 
ior, from North Dakota and Washington north- 
ward. Winters from Maryland on the east and 
British Columbia on the west to Central America. 




Lesser Scaup Duck 

Ring-necked Duck 



Lead gray 

Similar to the Lesser Scaup in size and plum- 
age, except that it has a narrow chestnut collar 
around the neck, the back is black instead of 
barred with white, and the speculum is gray instead of white. The habits and 
nesting habits of the Ring-neck do not differ from those of the other Scaups. 
They lay from six to twelve eggs. Size 2.25 x 1.60. Data. Cape Bathurst, 
N. Y. T., June 18, 1901. Ten eggs in a slight hollow in the moss, lined with 
down. Collector, Captain Bodfish. 




98 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



151. 



GOLDEN-EYE. 
americana. 



Clangula clangula 



Range. North America, breeding both on the 
coast and in the interior, from the northern bord- 
er of the United States northward to the Arctic 
Ocean. 

These are handsome Ducks known as "Whis- 
tlers" from the noise of their wings when flying, 
ind "Greatheads" because of the puffy crest. The 




Grayish green 

head is greenish with a large round white spot in 
front of, and a little below the eye. The rest of 
the plumage is black and white. This species 
nests in hollow trees near the water, lining the 
cavity with grass, moss and leaves, and lining the 
nest with down from thefr breasts. In May and 
June they lay from six to ten eggs of a grayish 
green color. Size 2.30 x 1.70. 

152. BARROW'S GOLDEN-EYE. 
Clangula islandica- 

Range. Northern North America, breeding 
north of the United States except from the moun- 
tainous portions of Colorado northward. 

This Golden-eye differs from the preceding chiefly in the shape of the white 
spot before the eye, which in this species is in the form of a crescent. The 
size is the same, about 20 inches in length. The reflections on the head are 
purplish rather than greenish as in the preceding. The nesting habits are 
the same, they building in hollow trees near water. The six to ten eggs are 
not different from the preceding. Size 2.30 x 1.65. Data. Alfusa, Iceland, June 
30, 1900. Seven eggs. Nest of grass and down in a box attached to a tree by 
an islander. 




American Golden-eye 

Barrow Golden-eye 





99 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Buffle-head 

Old-squaw 



153. BUFFLE-PIEAD. Charitonetta albeola. 

Range. North America, breeding from United 
States northward. Winters south to Mexico. 

Gunners know this handsome little duck by 
the names of "Butter-ball," and "Dipper," a name 
also given to Grebes. It is also quite similar, but 
smaller (15 in. long), to the American Golden-eye 
but has a large white patch on the back of the 





Buff 



Dull buff 

head, from eye to eye. It is an active bird and, 
like the two preceding, is capable of diving to a 
great depth to get its food. Its nesting habits 
are like the preceding. Eggs eight to fourteen. 
Size 2 x 1.40. Data. Alberta, Canada, June 6, 
1899. Seven eggs. Nest in hole in tree stump, 
lined with down. Collector, Dr. George. 

154. OLD-SQUAW. Harelda hy emails. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the 

Arctic regions; south in winter to New Jersey 

and Illinois. 

The Long-tailed Duck, as it is called, 
is especially noticeable because the 
breeding plumage of the male differs 
markedly from that in the winter. In 
summer their general plumage is black- 
ish brown, with a white patch around the 
\ eye, and white belly. In winter they are 
\. largely white. The central tail feath- 
ers are much lengthened. They breed 
abundantly in Greenland, Alaska and the 
Hudson Bay Territory, placing their 
nests of grasses and weeds on the ground 
near the water. It is generally conceal- 
ed in the long grass. The eggs number 
from six to twelve. Size 2. x 1.50. Data 
N. Iceland, June 10, 1900. Nest on ground, 
lined with down. Collector, S. H. Wallis. 



100 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



155. HARLEQUIN DUCK. 
histrionicus. 



Histrionicus 



Range. Northern Hemisphere in America, 
breeding from Newfoundland and the Rocky 
Mountains in Colorado, northward. South in win- 
ter to California and New England. 

A beautiful and most gorgeous bird, not in col- 
ors, but in the oddity of the markings, the colors 
only including black, white, gray and chestnut. 
Either sex can be recognized by the small short 




Greenish buff 

bill. They breed mostly in single pairs along 
swiftly running streams, placing their nest, which 
is woven of weeds and grasses, in the ground 
near the water. It is also claimed that they some- 
times nest in hollow trees. They lay from five 
to eight eggs, yellowish or greenish buff in color. 
Size 2.30 x 1.60. Data. Peel River, Alaska, June 
13, 1898. Seven eggs in a hollow in river bank, 
lined with down. Collector, C. E. Whittaker. 







Harlequin Duck 

Labrador Due 





156. LABRADOR DUCK. 
dorius. 



Camptorhynchus labra- 



This bird, whose range was from Labrador to New Jersey in the winter, 
has probably been extinct since 1875, when the last authentic capture was 
made. It is a strange fact that a bird of this character should have been 
completely exterminated, even though they were often sold in the markets. 
Only forty-one specimens are known to be preserved at present and nothing 
is known in regard to their nesting habits or eggs. 



101 



THE BIRD BOOK 




157- STELLER'S DUCK. Polysticta stelleri. 

Range. Arctic regions in America, chiefly on 
the Aleutian Islands and northwest coast of 
Alaska. 

A very beautiful species eighteen inches long; 
head white, washed with greenish on the fore- 
head and nape; chin, throat, neck, back, tail and 
crissum, black; underparts chestnut; wing cov- 
erts white, the long scapulars black and white. 
It breeds on the rocky coasts and islands of 
Bering Sea. The six to 'nine eggs are pale olive 
green in color. Size 2.25x1.60. Data. Admir- 
alty Bay, Alaska, June 22, 1898. Nest on a hum- 
mock of the tundra, near a small pool, lined with 
grass and down. Collector, B. A. Mcllhenny. 



158. SPECTACLED EIDER. Arctonetta fischeri. 

Range. Coast of Alaska from the Aleutians 
to Point Barrow. 




>teller's Duck 

Spectacled Eider 



Pale olive green 




Like the rest of the true Eiders, this species is black beneath and mostly 
white above. The head is largely washed with sea green, leaving a large patch 
of white, narrowly bordered by black around each eye, thus resembling a pair 
of spectacles. The nests are made of grass and seaweed and lined with down; 
they are placed on the ground in clumps of grass or beneath overhanging 
stones. The five to nine eggs are an olive drab or greenish color. Size 2.70 
x 1.85. Data. Point Barrow, Alaska, June 15, 1898. Six eggs. Nest of moss 
and down in a hollow in dry tundra. Collector, E. A. Mcllhenny. 

159- NORTHERN EIDER. Somateria mollissima borealis. 

Range. North Atlantic coast, breeding from Labrador to Greenland and 
wintering south to New England. 

A large Duck similar to the next species, but with the base of the bill 
differing, as noted in the description of the following species, and with a more 
northerly distribution. The nesting habits are the same as those of the other 
Eiders. Six to ten eggs generally of a greenish drab color. Size 3. x 2, 

102 



LAMELLIROST^AL SWIMMERS 



160. EIDER. Somateria dresseri. 

Range. Atlantic coast, breeding from Maine to 
Labrador and wintering south to Delaware. 

This species differs from the preceding only in 
the fleshy part of the base of the bill, which ex- 
tends back on each side of the forehead, it being 
broad and rounded in this species and narrow and 





Greenish drab 

pointed in the Northern or Greenland Eider. This 
species, but more especially the Northern Eider, 
are the ones chiefly used for the eider-down of 
commerce. The preceding species is often semi- 
domesticated in Greenland, the people protecting Eider 
them and encouraging them to nest in the neigh- Pacific Eider 
borhood. They make their nests of seaweed and 
grass and warmly line it with down from their 

breast; this down is continually added to the nest during incubation until 
there is a considerable amount in each nest, averaging about an ounce in 
weight. The birds are among the strongest of the sea ducks and get their food 
in very deep water. Their flesh is not good eating. Their eggs number from 
five to ten and are greenish drab. Size 3. x 2. 



161. PACIFIC EIDER. Somateria v-nigra. 

Range. North Pacific from the Aleutian Islands northward, and east to 
Great Slave Lake. 

This bird is, in plumage, like the Northern Eider, except that it has a black 
V-shaped mark on the throat. They nest sparingly on the Aleutian Islands, 
but in great numbers farther north on the coast about Point Barrow. Their 
habits, nests and eggs are precisely the same as those of the eastern forms. 
Their eggs number from five to ten and are of olive greenish color. Size 3. x 2. 
Data. Cape Smythe, Alaska, June 8, 1900. Eight eggs. Nest a hollow in the 
moss, lined with grass and down. 

103 




THE BIRD BOOK 






162. KING EIDER. Somateria spectabilis. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in 
America from Labrador to Greenland and the 
Arctic Ocean; south in winter to the New Eng- 
land States and rarely farther on the eastern 
side, and to the Aleutians on the Pacific; also 
casually to the Great Lakes in the interior. 

A handsome and very different species from 
any of the foregoing, having the crown ashy blue, 
and the long scapulars black instead of white. 
It also has a broad V-shaped mark on the throat. 
Like all the other Eiders, the female is mottled 
brown and black, the different species being very 
difficult to separate. The nests are sunk in the 
ground and lined with down. Eggs number from 
six to ten. Size 2.80 x 1.80. Data. Point Barrow, 
Alaska, July 5, 1898. Five eggs. Nest a hollow 
in the moss on tundra lined with moss and down. 
Collector, E. A. Mcllhenny. 



163. SCOTER. Oidemia americana. 

Range. Northern North America, breeding 
from Labrador, the Hudson Bay region and the 
Aleutien Islands northward; winters south to 
Virginia, the Great Lakes and California. 

Scoters or "Coots" as they are generally called 
are sea ducks whose plumage is almost wholly 
black; they have fantastically colored and shaped 
bills. The American Scoter is entirely black 
without markings; base of bill yellow and orange. 
This species nest as do the Eiders, often conceal- 
ing the nest, of grass and feathers, under some 
overhanging rock. They lay from six to ten eggs 
of a dingy buff color. Size 2.50 xl.70. Data. 
Mackenzie Bay, June 15, 1899. Ten eggs. Nest 
a hollow in the sand, lined with down. 




Buff 
104 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 






[164.] VELVET SCOTER. Oidemia fusca. 

An Old World species that has accidentally oc- 
curred in Greenland. 



165. WHITE-WINGED SCOTER. Oidemia deglandi 

Range. Abundant in North America, breeding 
from Labrador, North Dakota and British Colum- 
bia, northward. Wintering south to the Middle 
States, southern Illinois and southern California. 

The largest of the Scoters, length 22 inches, 
distinguished by a large white speculum on the 
wing, also a white comet extending from under 
the eye backwards. It also has a yellow eye. 
Like the other Scoters, this species often feeds 
in very deep water. They are strong, active div- 
ing birds, and are also strong on the wing, gen- 
erally flying close to the surface of the water. 
Their flesh is not regarded as good eating, al- 
though they are often sold for that purpose. They 
nest on the ground, generally in long grass or 
under low bushes making a coarse nest of 
grasses, and sometimes twigs, lined with feathers. 
They lay from five to eight eggs of a pale buff 
color. Size 2.75 x 1.85. 



166. SURF SCOTER. Oidemia perspicillata. 

<Range. Northern North America, breeding 
north of the United States boundary, and winter- 
ing south to Virginia and southern California. 

The male of this species is entirely black, ex- 
cept for the white patches on the forehead and 
nape, and the vari-colored bill of black, white, 
pink and yellow. They nest either along the 
coast or in the interior, building a nest lined 
with down, in the marsh grass bordering small ponds. They lay from five to 
eight buffy cream colored eggs. Size 2.40 x 1.70. The females of all the 
Scoters are a dingy brownish color, but show the characteristic marking of the 
species, although the white is generally dull or sometimes mottled. Data. 
Mackenzie River, June 25, 1894. Six eggs in a nest of down on an island in the 
river. 




Surf Scoter 

White-winged Scoter 




105 




THE BIRD BOOK 




167. RUDDY DUCK. Erismatura jamaicensis. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 
chiefly north of the United States border except 
locally on the Pacific coast. Winters along the 
Gulf and through Mexico and Central America. 

This peculiar species may always be recognized 
by the brownish or chestnut upper parts, blackish 
crown, white cheeks and silvery white underparts. 
The bill is very stout and broad at the end, and 
the tail feathers are stiff and pointed like those 




Ruddy Duck 

Masked Duck 



Grayish white 

of a Cormorant. They build their nests in low 
marshy places, either placing them on the 
ground near the water or in the rushes ovei it. 
Their nests are made of rushes and grasses, 
sometimes lined and sometimes not, with down 
from the parents breast. The eggs number from 
six to twelve and are grayish in color. Size 2.40 
x 1.75. Data. Northern Assiniboia, Canada, June 
6, 1901. Eight eggs. Nest made of aquatic 
grasses, lined with down. Built in a tuft of rushes 
in a marsh. Collector, Walter Raine. 



[168.] MASKED DUCK. Nomonyx dominions. 

This is a tropical species which is resident in Mexico, Central America and 
in the West Indies. It occurs in Mexico north to the lower Rio Grande Val- 
ley and has in three known instances strayed to northern United States. The 
general plumage is a rusty chestnut, mottled with blackish, it has a black face 
and throat, with white wing bars. 




106 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



169. 



SNOW GOOSE. 
hyperboreus. 



Chen hyperboreus 



Range. North America west of the Mississippi 
Valley, breeding in northern Alaska and the Mac- 
kenzie River district. 

This smaller species of the Snow Goose nests 
on islands in rivers along the arctic coast. The 
nest is a depression in the ground, lined with 
grasses and, occassionally down. They lay from 
four to eight eggs of a buffy or yellowish white 
color. Size 2.75 xl.75. 

l69a. GREATER SNOW GOOSE. 

Chen hyperboreus nivalis. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in 
the Arctic regions and wintering chiefly on the 
Atlantic coast, south to Cuba. 








Grayish White Lesser Snow Goose 

Blue Goose 

This bird is like the preceding; except in size; 

about thirty-six inches, instead of twenty-six inches in length as is the lesser 
variety. The entire plumage is white except for the black primaries. They 
construct their nests of grasses on the ground the same as the preceding va- 
riety. The eggs number from five to eight and are cream colored. Size 3.40x 
2.40. 



169.1. BLUE GOOSE. Chen ccerulescens. 

Range. North America, principally in the interior, breeding from Hudson 
Bay northward and wintering along the Gulf coast. 

This species may always be recognized by the entirely white head and neck, 
the body being grayish or bluish gray. They nest on the ground as do the 
other geese laying from four to eight eggs of a brownish buff color. Size 2.50 
xl.75. Data Cape Bathurst, Arctic coast, June 29, 1899. Four eggs laid in a 
depression lined with grass, on an island. Collected with the parent bjrds by 
the Esquimaux. 

107 




THE BIRD BOOK 




i 




White-fronted Goose 



170. Ross's SNOW GOOSE. Chen rossi. 

Range. This beautiful species, which is simi- 
lar in plumage to the large Snow Goose, is but 
twenty-one inches in length. It breeds in the ex- 
treme north, and in winter is found in the west- 
ern part of the United States as far south as the 
Gulf of Mexico. Their nesting habits and eggs 
probably do not differ from others in the family 
except in the matter of size. 

[171.] WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Anser albi- 
frons albifrons. 

This European species is exactly like the Amer- 
ican except that it is said to average a trifle 
smaller. It is occasionally found in Greenland. 

171a. AMERICAN WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. 
Anser albifrons gambeli. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding in 
the Arctic regions and wintering south to the 
Gulf coast; not common on the Atlantic coast 
during migrations. 

These birds may be recognized by their mottled 
plumage, dark head and white forehead. This 
species is more abundant than any of the pre- 
ceding and nests in large colonies along the arc- 
tic coast and in Alaska. Their nests are made of 
dried grasses, feathers and down and are placed 
on the ground in a slight depression. From 
four to nine eggs are laid; these have a dull buff 
ground. Size 3.00x2.05. Date. Island in delta 
of Mackenzie River, June 10, 1&99. Pour eggs. 
Nest of grass and feathers on the ground on a 
small island. Collector, Rev. I. O. Stringer. 




[171-1.] BEAN GOOSE. Anser fabalis. 

This European spocies is casually found in Greenland. It is one of the 
most ccmmon of the Old World Species. 





108 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



172. 



CANADA GOOSE. 
canadensis. 



Branta canadensis 



Range. The whole of North America, breeding 
from northern United States northward, and win- 
tering in the southern parts of the United States. 

This species is the most widely known of Amer- 
ican Geese and is the most abundant. Its familiar 
"honk" has long been regarded as the signal of 
the coming of spring, and the familiar V-shaped 
formation in which the flocks migrate is always 
an object of interest to everyone. With the ex- 
ception of in North Dakota and Minnesota, they 
breed chiefly north of the United States. They 
construct quite a large nest of weeds and grass, 
and warmly line it with down and feath.ers. 
They lay from four to nine eggs of a buff or drab 
color. Size about 3.50x2.50. Data. Ellingsars 
Lake, North Dakota, May 18, 1896. Five eggs. 
Nest on an island in the lake, constructed of 
weeds and trash, and lined with a few feathers. 
Collector, Edwin S. Bryant. 

172a. HUTCHINS GOOSE. Branta canadensis 
hutchinsi. 

This sub-species is like the preceding except 
that it is smaller, thirty inches in length. It is 
a western variety, breeding in Alaska and along 
the Arctic coast and wintering to southern Cali- 
fornia. Its breeding habits, nests and eggs are 
the same as the common goose except that the 
eggs are smaller. Sibe 3.00 x 2.05. 

172b. WHITE-CHEEKED GOOSE. Branta cana- 
densis occidentalis. 

This bird is about the same size as the Canada 
Goose and the plumage is very similar except 
that the black sometimes extends on the throat, 
thereby isolating the white cheek patches, and 
there is a white collar below the back of the neck. It is a western species, 
breeding in Alaska and wintering along the Pacific coast of the United States. 
Its nesting habits and eggs are same as those of the Canada Goose except that 
the latter are a trifle smaller. 




Gooso 

Cackling" Goose 



I72c. CACKLING GOOSE. Branta canadensis minima. 

This bird is really a miniature of the Canada Goose, being but twenty-four 
inches in length. It breeds in Alaska and along the Arctic coast and migrates 
into the western parts of the United States. They are abundant birds in their 
breeding range, where they place their nests upon the shores of ponds, or on 
islands in inland rivers or lakes. The nests are made of weeds and grasses, 
lined with down. The eggs which are buff colored, number from four to nine 
and are laid during June and July. Size 2.30 x 1.95. 

109 





CANADA GEESE 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 



173. BRANT. Branta bernicla glaucogastra. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in the 
Arctic regions and wintering in the United States 
east of the Mississippi. 

The Brant resembles a small Canada Goose, 
except that the black of the neck extends on the 
breast, and only the throat is white. They are 
one of the favorite game birds and thousands are 
shot every fall and spring. Their nests and eggs 
are the same as the next species. 



174. BLACK BRANT. Branta nigricans. 

Range. Western North America, breeding in 
Alaska and wintering on the Pacific coast of the 
United States. Rare east of the Mississippi. 





Brant 
Black Brant 



Grayish 

This species is like the last except that the 
black extends on the under parts. This species 
nests very abundantly in northern Alaska, laying 
their eggs in a depression in the ground, lined with down. Favorite locations 
are the many small islets in ponds and small lakes. They lay from four to 
eight grayish colored eggs. Size 2.80 x 1.75. Data. Cape Bathurst, North 
West Territory, Junes 22, 1901. Seven eggs in a small hollow in the ground, 
lined with down. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish. 





111 



THE BIRD BOOK 





Rarnacle Goose 

Emperor Goose 



[175.] BARNACLE GOOSE. Branta leucopsis. 

This Old World species occurs frequently in 
Greenland and very rarely is found on the main- 
land of this continent. 

176. EMPEROR GOOSE. Philacte canagica. 

Range. Alaska, south in winter casually to Cal- 
ifornia. 

This handsome species is twenty-six inches in 
length; it may be known from the mottled or 
"scaly" appearance of the body, and the white 
head with a black chin and throat. While not un- 
common in restricted localities, this may be con- 
sidered as one of the most rare of North American 
Geese. Their nests are built upon the ground 
and do not differ from those of other geese. They 
lay from three to seven eggs of a dull buff color. 
Size 3.10x2.15. Data. Stuart Island, Alaska, 
June 16, 1900. Six eggs laid in a slight hollow in 
the ground, lined with a few feathers and some 
down. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish. 






Egg of Canada Goose Buffy drab 
112 



177. BLACK-BELLIED TREE-DUCK. 
cygna autumnalis. 

Range. Tropical America, north in the Rio 
Grande Valley to southern Texas. 

These peculiar long-legged Ducks are very 
abundant in southern Texas during the summer 
months. They build their nests in hollow trees, 
often quite a distance from the water. They lay 
their eggs upon the bottom of the cavity with 
only a scant lining, if any, of feathers and down. 
They are very prolific breeders, raising two broods 
in a season, each set of eggs containing from ten 
to twenty. These eggs are creamy or pure white, 
size 2.05 x 1.50. The first set is laid during the 
latter part of April or early in May, and fresh 
eggs may be found as late as July. They are 
especially abundant about Brownsville and Corpus 
Christi, Texas. Data. Hidalgo, Mexico, May 29, 
1900. Ten eggs in a hole in an old elm tree on 
side of lake in big woods near town. Eight feet 
from the ground. Collector, F. B. Armstrong. 



LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS 

Dendro- 




White 



Black-bellied Tree duck 

Fulvous Tree-duck 



FULVOUS TREE-DUCK. Dendrocygna bicolor. 

Range. This species is tropical like the last, but the summer range is ex- 
tended to cover, casually the whole southwestern border of the United States. 

This bird is long-legged like the last, but the plumage is entirely different, 
being of a general rusty color, including the entire under parts. The nesting 
habits and eggs are the same as those of the Black-bellied Duck, the white eggs 
being laid at the bottom of a cavity in a tree. They number from eight to (in 
one instance) thirty-two eggs in one nest. This species is nearly as abundant 
as the preceding in southern Texas. 





THE BIRD BOOK 





Whistling Swan 



[179-] WHOOPER SWAN. Olor cygnus. 

This European variety frequently is found in 
Greenland and formerly, regularly bred there. 
It nests in secluded swampy places in northern 
Europe. 

180. WHISTLING SWAN. Olor columbianus. 

Range. North America, breeding in the Arc- 
tic Circle, and wintering south to the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

These birds, which are nearly five feet in 
length, are snow white with the exception of 
the black bill and feet. The Whistling Swan 
is distinguished from the next species by the 
presence of a small yellow spot on either side 
Df the bill near its base. Their nests are made 
of a large mass of rubbish, weeds, grass, moss, 
feathers and occasionally a few sticks. It is 
generally placed in a somewhat marshy place 
in the neighborhood of some isolated pond. 
The eggs are of a greenish or brownish buff 
color, and number from three to six. Size 4.00 
x 2.75. Data. Mackenzie River. Nest a mass 
of weeds, sods and grass, lined with feathers; 
on an island near the mouth of the river. Col- 
lector, I. O. Stringer. 



181. TRUMPETER SWAN. Olor buccinator. 

Range. Interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico northward, breed- 
ing from northern United States northward. 

This is a magnificent bird, about five and one-half feet in length. Its plum- 
age is exactly like that of the preceding except that the bill is entirely black, 
and the nostral is located nearer the eye. Their nesting habits and eggs are 
the same as those of the Whistling Swan. While a few pairs may breed within 
the United States by far the greater number are found in the extreme north, 
from Hudson Bay to Alaska. The eggs may average a trifle larger than those 
of the preceding species. 





114 



LAMELLIROSTRAL GRALLATORES. Order VI. ODONT- 

OGLOSS^E 

FLAMINGOES. Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE 

182. FLAMINGO. Phcenicopterus ruber. 

Range. Tropical and sub-tropical America on 
the Atlantic coasts, breeding in the Bahamas and 
West Indies; north to Florida and casually to the 
South Atlantic States. 

These remarkable and grotesque appearing 
birds attain a length of about 48 inches. The 
plumage varies from white to a deep rosy red. It 
requires several years for them to attain the per- 
fect adult plumage, and unlike most birds, they 
are in the best of plumage during the winter, the 
colors becoming faded as the nesting season ap- 
proaches. The birds are especially noticable be- 
cause of the crooked, hollow, scoop-shaped bill, 
and the extremely long legs and neck. The feet 
are webbed, but more for the purpose of support- 
ing them upon the mud flats than for use in swim- 
ming. The nests are usually built on a sandy 
point of an island; they are mounds of earth, grass 
and rubbish from one to two feet in height, the 
top being hollowed to receive the eggs. One or 
two eggs are a complete set. The shell is pale 
blue, but this is covered with a heavy white chalky 
deposit. The eggs are laid in June and July. 
Size 3.40x2.15. 




American Flamingo 

Roseate SpoonbT 



IBISES, STORKS, HERONS, etc. Order VII. HERODIONES 

The members of this order are wading birds, consequently they all have 
long legs and necks. They have four toes, not webbed. 

SPOONBILLS. Family PLATALEIDAE 

183. ROSEATE SPOONBILL. Ajaia ajaja. 

Range. Tropical America, north in summer to the Gulf States. They form- 
erly nested in remote swamps along the whole Gulf coast, but are now confined 
chiefly to the Everglades in Florida. 

115 




THE BIRD BOOK 



This bird, with its broad, flat bill, bare head, and rosy plumage with carmine 
epaulets and tail coverts, seem more like the fanciful creation of some artist 
than a real bird of flesh and blood. Its plumage and colors are strikingly clear 

and beautiful. Full plumaged 

- - ._ adult birds have very brilliant 

carmine shoulders and tail cov- 
erts, a saffron colored tail, and a 
lengthened tuft of bright rosy 
feathers on the foreneck. This 
species breed in small colonies 
-J in marshy places, often in com- 
'* pany with herons and ibises. 
* Their nests are rather frail plat- 
W forms of sticks, located in bush- 
es or trees, from four to fifteen 
feet from the ground. The eggs 
are laid during the latter part 
of May and June. They are 
three or four in number and 
have a ground color of dull 
white, or pale greenish blue and 
are quite heavily blotched with several shades of brown. Size 2.50 x 1.70. 






Chalky bluish white 
Egg of American Flamingo 




116 



WADING BIRDS 



IBISES. Family IBIDID^ 



Ibises are gracefully formed birds having a long 
curved bill and a bare face. 



184. WHITE IBIS. Guara alba. 

Range. This is a tropical and sub-tropical 
species which is found along the Gulf coast, and 
north to South Carolina, west to Lower California. 

These handsome birds are wholly white, with 
the exception of black primaries. The legs and 
the bare skin of the face is orange red. These 
birds are very abundant in most marshy localities 





Scarlet Ibis 



Grayish 

along the Gulf coast, especially in Florida, where 
they nest in rookeries of thousands of individuals. 
Owing to their not having plumes, they have not 
been persecuted as have the white herons. They 
build their nests of sticks and grasses, in the 
mangroves a few feet above the water. In other White ibis 
localities they build their nests entirely of dead 
rushes, attaching them to the standing ones a foot or more above the surface 
of the water. They are quite substantially made and deeply cupped, very dif- 
ferent from the nests of the Herons. Their eggs are from three to five in num- 
ber, vary from grayish ash to pale greenish or bluish in color, blotched with 
light brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. The nesting season is during May and June. 
Data. Tampa Bay, Fla., June 4, 1895. Three eggs. Nest of sticks and a few 
weeds in small bushes on an island. Collector, Fred Doane. 

[185.] SCARLET IBIS. Guara rubra. 

Range. Occasionally, but not recently met with in the southern states. 
Their habitat is tropical America, they being especially abundant along the 
Orinoco River in northern South America. 

Full plumaged adults of this species are wholly bright scarlet, except for the 
primaries, which are black. Their nests are built in impenetrable thickets, 
rushes or mangroves, the nests being constructed like those of the White Ibis. 
The eggs, too, are very similar to those of the preceding species, but both the 
ground color and the markings average brighter. While still common in some 
localities, the species is gradually becoming less abundant, chiefly because of 
the demand for their feathers for use in fly-tying. 

117 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Glossy Ibis 

White-faced Glossy Ibis 
Wood Ibis 



186. GLOSSY IBIS. Plegadis autumnalis. 

Range. This tropical and sub-tropical species, 
is chiefly found in the Old World. It is occasion- 
ally found in southeastern United States where it 
sometimes breeds. Its habits, nesting habits and 
eggs are just the same as the next species. 

187. WHITE-FACED GLOSSY IBIS. Plegadis 

guarauna. 

Range. A sub-tropical species found in the 
southwestern parts of the United States, rarely 
found east of the Mississippi. 

This species differs from the Glossy Ibis in 
having the feathers on the front of the head white, 
the rest of the plumage is a dull brownish chest- 
nut, with greenish reflections on the back. As 
these birds are not in demand commercially, their 
numbers have not decreased, and thousands of 
them breed in colonies in southern Texas. They 
build a substantial nest of reeds and rushes woven 
about the upright canes, close to the surface of the 
water. Their eggs are laid during May, and num- 
ber from three to four. They are easily distin- 
guished from those of the Herons, being of a 
deeper greenish blue color and averaging more 
elongate. Size 1.95x1.35. Data. Corpus Christi, 
Texas, May 26, 1899. Pour eggs. Nest of twigs 
and rushes on side of river. Collector, F. B. 
Armstrong. 



STORKS and WOOD IBISES 
Family CICONHDAE 




188. WOOD IBIS. Mycteria americana. 

Range. A sub-tropical species which is resident along the Gulf coast and 
which strays casually north to New England and Colorado. 

This peculiar member of the Stork family has the whole head and part of the 
neck bare and covered with numerous scales; the bill is large, long and heavy; 
the plumage is white, except for the black primaries and tail. It is a large 
bird about four feet in length. They are quite abundant in swamps along the 




11$ 



Gulf coast, where they place their nests, which 
are platforms of sticks, in trees and bushes over 
the water. They lay three eggs which are white, 
and have a rough surface. Size 2.75 x 1.75. 

[189.] JABIRU. Jabiru mycteria. 

This large bird, which is the only true Stork 
that claims a place in our avifauna, is a native 
of South and Central America, wandering north, 
casually to Texas. Their nests are large plat- 
forms of sticks in very high trees. 

BITTERNS and HERONS 
Family ARDEIDAE 

Herons and Bitterns are long-legged waders, 
having straight, pointed bills, and with the head 
feathered, except for the lores. 

190. BITTERN. Bautaurus lentiginosus. 

Range. United States and southern British 
provinces, breeding in the northern half of the 
United States and wintering in the southern por- 
tion. 



WADING BIRDS 





Bittern 



Jabiru 



Brownish drab 



This species, with its mottled rusty brownish plumage, is one of the best 
known of the Heron family. It is known locally by a great many names, nearly 
all of which have reference to the "booming" or "pumping" sound made during 
the mating season. They build their nests in swampy or marshy places, plac- 
ing them on the ground, frequently on a tussock, entirely surrounded by water. 
The nest proper is only a few grasses twisted about to form a lining to the 
hollow. They lay from three to five eggs of brownish drab. Size 1.95 x 1.50. 

They do not breed in colonies, generally, but one or two pairs nesting in one 
marsh. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 3, 1897. Four eggs laid in a grass lined 
hollow in middle of a hummock of earth and grass, in middle of marsh. Col- 
lector, James Jackson. 





THE BIRD BOOK 





191. LEAST BITTERN. Ixobrychus exilis. 

Range. Common throughout the United States, 
especially in the eastern part, and in the southern 
British provinces. 

This small variety of Bittern is very common 
in the southern portions of the United States, but 
less so and locally distributed in the northern 
portions of its range. They are very quiet and 
sly birds, and their presence is often unsuspected 
when they are really quite abundant. When ap- 
proached, they will re- 
main perfectly quiet, with 
the body erect and the 
head and neck pointed 
skyward, in which posi- 
tion their yellowish 
brown plumage strongly 
resembles the rushes 
among which they are 
found. Their nests are 
made of strips of rushes 
woven about upright 

stalks, generally over water. They lay from 
three to five eggs of a pale bluish white color. 
Size 1.20 x .90. Data. Avery's Island, La., May 1, 
1896. Four eggs. Nest of strips of rushes woven 
together to form a platform and fastened to saw 
grass growing on the bank of a stream. Collector, 
E. A. Mcllhenny. 

191.1. CORY'S LEAST BITTERN. Ixobrychus 
neoxenus. 

This rare species, of which about twenty speci- 
mens are known is probably resident in Florida, 
wandering north in the summer, specimens hav- 
ing been taken in Ontario, Canada, and in several 
localities in eastern United States. It is very different from the Least Bittern, 
having a more uniform chestnut coloration, especially on the under parts. It is 
twelve inches in length. Mr. C. W. Crandall has a set of five eggs of this 
species, taken on the Caloosahatchee River, Fla., April 15, 1891, by S. B. Ladd. 
nest was made of grasses and rushes placed in the cane two feet above the 
water. 



Pale bluish gray 



Least Bittern 

Cory's Least Bittern 




120 



192. GREAT WHITE HERON. 
Ardea occidentalis. 

Range. This species occurs in the- United 
States regularly, only in the southern parts of 
Florida. It is a resident of the West Indies. 
This large white Heron is about the same size 
as the Great Blue Heron; it has none of the 
slender plumes found on the smaller White Her- 
ons. These birds are not uncommon in southern 
Florida, especially on the Keyes, where they build 
their nests in company with Great Blue Herons. 
Their nesting habits and eggs are very similar 
to those of the Blue Heron. Size of eggs 2.25 x 
1.80. Data. Outside of Torch Key, Florida, June 
16, 1899. Nest a platform of sticks about five feet 
from the ground, in a mangrove tree. Three eggs. 
Collector, O. Tollin. 



WADING BIRDS 






GREAT BLUE HERON. 
herodias. 



Ardea herodias 



Range. Nearly the whole of North America, 
except the extreme north; resident south of the 
middle portions of the United States and migra- 
tory north of there. 

This handsome Heron is about four feet in 
length. Its general color is a bluish gray, reliev- 
ed by a black crest, primaries and patches on the 
sides, and a white crown. In the south they breed 
in large colonies, often in company with many 
other species. In the northern portions of their 
range they breed singly or in companies of under 
a hundred individuals. They generally place 
their rude platforms of sticks well up in trees, 
near ponds, swamps or rivers, but in the most 
northerly parts of their range, where trees are 
scarce, they often build on the ground. Unless 
they are disturbed, they return to the same breed- 
ing grounds, year after year. They lay from three to five eggs of a greenish 
blue color. Size 2.50 x 1.50. Data. Duck Island, Maine, May 20, 1883. Three 
eggs. Nest of sticks and twigs, about fifteen feet from the ground. Collector, 
R. B. Gray. 

194a. NORTHWEST COAST HERON. Ardea herodias fannini. 

This darker sub-species of the breeding is found along the Pacific coast, 
north to Sitka, Alaska. Its nests and eggs do not differ from the former 
species. 




Great White Heron 

Great Blue Heron 






121 




THE BIRD BOOK 



194b. WARD'S HERON. Ardea herodias rvardi. 

This sub-species is a resident in Florida. It is 
a lighter variety than the common. It nests to- 
gether with the Great Blue Heron and its habits 
are the same. 

[195.] EUROPEAN HERON. Ardea cinerea. 

This species is only an accidental straggler in 
Greenland. It is very similar to our Blue Heron 
and is the one which was formerly used to fur- 
nish sport for the royalty when falconry was at 
its height. 

196. EGRET. Herodias egretta. 

Range. Resident in the southern portions of 
the United States, straggling northward casually 
to the northern parts. 

This is one of the beautiful Herons which have 
been sought by plume hunters till they are upon 
the verge of extermination. They are entirely 
white, with a long train of beautiful straight 
"aigrettes" flowing from the middle of the back. 
In remote localities, quite large colonies of them 
may still be found, but where they numbered 
thousands, years ago, they can be counted by 
dozens now. They breed in impenetrable swamps, 
very often in company with the following spe- 
cies, and also with Louisiana and Little Blue 
Herons, and White Ibises. Their nests are but 
frail platforms, generally in bushes over the 
water. Their usual complement of eggs numbers 
from three to five, four as the most common num- 
ber. They are generally laid during the latter 
part of May, but often on account of their being 
disturbed, nests with eggs may be found in July. 
The eggs are a light bluish green in color. Size 
2.25x1.45. Data. Gainesville, Florida, April 14, 1894. Four eggs on a plat- 
form of sticks and grass, in a buttonwood bush over six feet of water. Collec- 
tor, George Graham. 




Snowy Egret 
Egret 



? 

**-! 



197- SNOWY EGRET. Egretta candidissima candidissima. 

Range. Common now only in restricted lo- 
calities in the Gulf States and Mexico. 

This species, which is smaller than the last, 
being but twenty-four inches in length, is also 
adorned with "aigrettes," but they are beauti- 
fully recurved at the tips. Owinjf to the merci- 
less slaughter to which they have been sub- 
jected, their ranks have been woefully decimat- 
ed, and it is to be hoped that the remaining 
ones may be safely protected. Their nesting 
habits are the same as the last, although, of 
course, the eggs are smaller. Size 1.80 x 1.25. 

122 




Light greenish blue 



WADING BIRDS 



198. REDDISH EGRET. Dichromanassa rufescens. 

Range. In the United States, this species is 
confined chiefly to the Gulf States. 

It is somewhat larger than the last species, the 
head and neck are rufous, the body is bluish gray, 
and the back is adorned with slender gray plumes. 
It also has a white phase. This Egret is very 
abundant along the whole Gulf coast, but especial- 



Pale bluish green 

ly so in Texas. Their nesting habits are identi- 
cal with those of the other small Herons and 
Egrets. The three or four eggs are rather of a 
more greenish blue than the preceding. Size 1.90 
x 1.45. Data. Gainesville, Florida, April 14, 1894. 
Three eggs. Nest of sticks and straw in a but- 
ton-wood tree, two feet above the water. Collec- 
tor, George Graham. 



199. LOUISIANA HERON. Hydranassa tricolor 
ruficollis. 

Range. Subtropical America, north regularly 
to the Gulf States and casually farther. 

This Heron is of about the size of the Reddish 
Egret, but the neck is longer, more slender and 
dark, while the chin, throat and underparts 
are white. The plumes from the back are 
short, reaching barely to the end of the 
tail. They nest in large colonies in com- 
pany with Egrets and Little Blue Herons, 
placing their nests in the mangroves, only 
a few feet above the water. Their nests are 
the same as those of the other species, a 
slight platform of sticks, and the three to 
five eggs are practically not distinguishable 
from those of the Snowy or Little Blue 
Herons. Size 1.75 x 1.35. 



123 




Reddish Egret 

Louisiana Heron 




Pale bluish green 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Little Blue H< 



Green Heron 



200. LITTLE BLUE HERON. Florida ccerulea. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north 
casually to New England and Manitoba; west to 
Kansas and Nebraska. 

A smaller species than the preceding, length 
22 inches, plumage a uniform slaty blue chang- 
ing to purplish red on the head and neck. They 
also have a white phase, but always show traces 




Pale bluish green 

of the slaty blue, especially on the primaries. 
Young birds are always white. They breed in 
immense rookeries during April and May. Their 
nesting habits and eggs are very similar to the 
last species, although the eggs average a trifle 
smaller. Size 1.75x1.25. Data. Avery's Island, 
Louisiana, April 21, 1896. 5 eggs. Nest a flat 
and frail platform of twigs in a Mimosa tree 
growing in floating turf, over deep water in a 
large swamp. Collector, E. A. Mcllhenny. 



201. 



GREEN HERON. 
virescens. 



Butorides virescens 



Range. Temperate and sub-tropical America, 
breeding north to the British Provinces. 




This is the smallest of our Herons, and is well known all over the country. 
Sometimes they breed in numbers in rookeries, in company with the larger 
Herons, but in most sections of the country they will be found nesting, one or 

two pairs together, along the border- of some 
swamp or stream. They have a greater diversity 
of building sites, than do any of the other Herons 
and frequently nest a long ways from water. 
Their nests may be found in alders, birches or 
even apple trees. It is the usual Heron type of 
platform, upon which the three to six eggs are 
laid. They are a pale greenish blue in color, and 
measure 1.45 x 1.10. Data. Avery's Island, Louis- 
iana, April 10, 1894. 5 eggs on a platform of 
twigs placed in a willow tree growing on the edge 
Light bluish green o f a pond. Collected by E. A, Mcllhenny. 



124 




WADING BIRDS 

201a. FRAZAR/S GREEN HERON. Butorides virescens frazari. 

A darker variety found in Lower California; nesting the same as the common 
species. 

201b. ANTHONY'S GREEN HERON. Butorides virescens anihonyi. 

A lighter, desert form found in the arid portions of the interior of southwest- 
ern United States and Mexico. 




NEST AND EGGS OF GREEN HERON 



125 






202. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. 
Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. 

Range. North America from southern British 
Provinces, southward; winters along the Gulf 
coast and beyond. 

A well known bird, often called "quawk" from 
the sound of its note frequently heard in the even- 
ing. While, in some localities, only a few pairs 
of these birds are found nesting together, most 
of them gather together into large colonies dur- 
ing the breeding season. In New England they 
generally select a remote pine grove as their 




Black-crowned Night Heron 
Yellow-crowned Heron 



Pale bluish green 

breeding grounds. If not disturbed they will re- 
turn to this same place each year. Their nests 
are built of sticks and lined with small twigs, 
and are placed well up towards the tops of the 
trees. 

Frequently several nests will be found in the 
same tree, and I have counted as many as fifty 
nests in view at the same time. In large swamps 
in the south they generally nest at a low eleva- 
tion, while in the marshes of Wisconsin and Minnesota, large colonies of them 
nest on the ground, making their nest of rushes. Like all Heronries, those of 
this species have a nauseating odor, from the remains of decayed fish, etc., 
which are strewn around the bases of the trees. Their eggs number from three 
to five and are of a pale bluish green color. Size 2.00 x 1.40. Data. Uxbridge, 
Mass., May 30, 1898. 4 eggs. Nest of sticks, about thirty feet up in a pine tree. 
Many other nests. Collector, H. A. Smith. 

203. YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. Nyctanassa violacea. 

Range. Sub-tropical America, breeding along the Gulf coast and to Lower 
California; casually farther north, to Illinois and South Carolina. 

A handsome grayish colored species, with long lanceolate plumes on the 
back, and two or three fine white plumes from the back of the head, like those 
of the Black-crowned species. Its black head, with tawny white crown and ear 
coverts, renders it unmistakable. This species nests in colonies or by pairs, 
like the preceding, and very often in company with other Herons. They lay 
from three to six eggs, very similar in size, shape and color to those of the 
Black-crowned Heron. 

126 



WADING BIRDS 

CRANES, RAILS, Etc. Order VIII. PALUDICOL^ 
CRANES. Family GRUIDAE 



Cranes are large, long-legged, long-necked birds, somewhat resembling 
Herons. Their structure and mode of living partakes more of the nature of 
the Rails, however. They are found upon the prairies, where besides shell 
fish from the ponds, they feed largely upon grasshoppers, worms, etc. 

204. WHOOPING CRANE. Grus americana. 
Range. Interior of North America, breeding 

from about the latitude of Iowa northward to the 
Arctic regions ; winters in the Gulf states and 
southward. 

The Whooping Crane is the largest of the fam- 
ily in America, measuring 50 inches or more in 
length. The plumage of the adults is pure white, 
with black primaries. The bare parts of the head 
and face are carmine. It is a very locally dis- 
tributed species, in some sections being practi- 
cally unknown, while in a neighboring locality it 
may be rated as common. They are very shy 
birds and are not easily obtained. They nest 
either upon the solid earth or in marshy places 
over the water. In either case the nest is a very 
bulky mass of grass and weeds from two to three 
feet in diameter and raised perhaps a foot above 
the ground. They lay two eggs of a brownish 
buff color, irregularly blotched with brown, and 
with fainter marking of gray. Size 3.75 x 2.50. 
Data. Torkton, northern Assiniboia, northwest 
Canada. Nest a mass of marsh hay, three feet in 
diameter, on the prairie. The birds seen, but very 
wary. Collector, Cowbry Brown. 

205. LITTLE BROWN CRANE. 
Grus canadensis. 

Range. North America in the interior, breed- 
ing from Hudson Bay and southern Alaska north 
to the Arctic coast; south in winter to Mexico. 

This uniform gray colored Crane differs from 
the next species only in size, being about three 
feet in length, while the Sandhill averages three 
and one-half feet. The eggs cannot be distin- -.*-. ^~rr 
guished with any certainty. P Little Brown Crane 




& 



^ 





THE BIRD BOOK 




Brownish buff 
EGG OF WHOOPING CRANE 





Buff 
EGG OF LITTLE BROWN CRANE 



128 



WADING BIRDS 



206. SANDHILL CRANE. Grus mexicana. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from the Gulf States, locally north to the south- 
ern parts of the British Provinces. 

This is the most common and the most south- 
erly distributed member of the family. In some 
sections of Florida and Texas it is regarded as 
abundant. They nest in marshy places near se- 
cluded ponds. The nests are masses of grass, 
weeds and roots, generally placed in marshes and 
entirely surrounded by water. The two eggs are 
similar to those of the Whooping Crane, but the 
ground color is lighter. The eggs of the two spe- 
cies cannot always, with certainty, be distinguish- 
ed. Size 3.75 x 2.40. Data. Carman, Manitoba, 
May 31, 1903. 2 eggs. Nest on a knoll in a 
marsh, hidden by dead rushes and weeds; a flat 
loose structure of broken rushes and reeds. Col- 
lector, Chris Forge. 

COURLANS. Family ARAMIDJE 

207. LIMPKIN. Aramus vociferus. 

Range. This bird is a native of the West 
Indies and Central America, but occurs regularly 
north to the southern portions of Florida. 

This strange bird is the only member of its fam- 
ily found in the United States. It may be likened 
to a large Rail or a small Crane, being apparent- 
ly, a connecting link between the two. It is about 
two feet in length, and the plumage is mottled 
brownish and white. It lives in the marshes, 
from whence, until late at night, emanate its 
strange cries, which are likened to those of a 
child in distress. They nest in the most impen- 




Sandhill Crane. 
Limpkin. 




Buffy white 

etrable parts of swamps, building their nests of rushes, grass and weeds, in 
tangled masses of vines a few feet above the ground or water. They lay from 
three to eight eggs having a ground color of buff or grayish white and blotch- 
ed with light brown. Their coloration is very similar to those of the Cranes. 
Size 2.30 x 1.70. They nest in April and May. 

129 




WADING BIRDS 



RAILS, GALLINULES and COOTS. Family RALLID^E 

Members of this family are almost exclusively frequenters of marshes, 
where they lead a shy, retiring life and are more often heard than seen. 



208. KING RAIL. Rallus elegans. 



Range. Fresh water marshes of eastern United States from New England 
and the Dakotas, southward. Very abundant on the South Atlantic coast, in 
the inland marshes. 

This is one of the largest of the Rails, (17 
inches in length) and may be known by the 
richness of its plumage, the breast and wing 
coverts being a rich cinnamon color. It is 
almost exclusively a fresh water species and is 
very rarely found around a salt water marsh. 
Its nest is built on the ground, in a tuft of grass 
and weeds woven about the upright stalks. 
They lay from five to twelve eggs having a 
cream colored ground, sparingly speckled with 
brown and lilac. Size 1.60 x 1,20. Data. Clark 
County, Missouri, June 6, 1893. 10 eggs. Nest Cream color. 

composed of reed stalks; a slightly concave mass 8 inches across, and only 
two inches above the water, in a clump of reeds. Collector, Ed. S. Currier. 




2()f). BELDING'S RAIL. Rallus beldingi. 

Range. Lower California and the islands in the Gulf. 

This is a locally confined species, very similar to the preceding but darker 
and with the flank bars narrower. Its nesting or eggs will not differ from those 
of the King Rail. 



CALIFORNIA CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus obsoletus. 



Range. Salt marshes of the Pacific coast of the United States. 

This species is like a dull colored King Rail, 
with reference to the markings of the back, or 
a bright colored Clapper Rail, as it has a cinna- 
mon colored breast. It is an abundant species 
in nearly all the salt marshes along the coast, 
They make their nests on the higher parts of 
the marsh, where it is comparatively dry, build- 
ing them of grass and strips of rushes. They 
lay from four to nine eggs of a light buff color, 
boldly spotted with brown, and with fainter 
markings of lilac. Size 1.75 x 1.25. Data. 
Palo Alto, Gal., May 1, 1899. Nest of marsh 
grass under a small bush on bank of slough. 
Collector, Ernest Adams. 




Light buff. 



131 



THE BIRD BOOK 




coast 



; F 211. CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus crepitans 
crepitans. 

Range. Salt marshes of the Atlantic 
from southern New England southward. 

A grayish colored Rail, about the size of, and 
with the markings similar to those of the King 
Rail. It is as exclusively a salt water species as 
the King Rail is a fresh water one. With the 
possible exception of the Carolina or Sora Rail, 
this is the most abundant of all the Rails, hun- 




Buff. 

dreds nesting in a single marsh on the South 
Atlantic coast. Their nests are built of rushes 
and weeds, and are placed on the ground either in 
the tall grass bordering the marshes or attached 
to the rushes in the midst of the marsh. The 
nesting season commences during April and con- 
tinues through May. They lay from six to four- 
teen eggs, of a buff color spotted irregularly with 
brown and gray. Size 1.70 x 1.20. 

21 la. LOUISIANA CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus crep- 
itans saturatus. 

The habitation of this subspecies is limited to 
the coast of Louisiana. It is very similar to the proceeding but is said to be 
brighter in plumage. 



King Rail. 
Clapper Rail. 




21 Ib. FLORIDA CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus crepitans scotti. 

Range. Western coast of Florida. 

This bird is also similar to crepitans but is much darker and brighter. 

21 Ic. WAYNE'S CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus crepitans waynei. 

Range. South Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Florida. 

This subspecies is a little darker than crepitans, being about midway be- 
tween that species and Rallus scotti. The nests and eggs of any of these sub- 
species cannot be distinguished from those of the common Clapper Rail. 

211.2. CARIBBEAN CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus longirostris caribaeus. 

Range. West Indies and east coast of Mexico, north to southern Texas. 
This species is similar to the Clapper, but has a shorter and relatively stouter 
bill. 

132 



WADING BIRDS 



212. VIRGINIA RAIL. Rallus virginianus. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from the Middle States and California, northward 
to British Columbia and Labrador, and wintering 
along the Gulf coast; most abundant in the east. 

A small Rail, 9 inches 
long, very similar in 
markings and colora- ^'' 

tion to the King Rail. 
It is found chiefly in 
fresh water swamps, 
where it builds its nests 
in tufts of rushes. The 
eggs number from six 
to fourteen, and are 







creamy white, or white, 



Creamy white. 



speckled with reddish brown. Size 1.25 x .90 Data. 
Fighting Island, Detroit River, Michigan, May 
30, 1904. Nest made of marsh grass, in rushes, 6 
inches above the water. Collector, E. Leroy King. 

[213.] SPOTTED CRAKE. Porzana porzana. 

This common European species is casually 
found in Greenland. It breeds in large numbers 
throughout temperate Europe, nesting as do the 
American Rails. 

214. SORA. Porzana Carolina. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from the southern parts of the British posses- 
sions, south to the Gulf coast. 

This abundant species of Rail may be readily 
known by its small size, about eight inches long, 
and the black face and throat of the adult. These 
are the "Rail-birds" or "Ortolans" which are an- 
nually slaughtered by thousands, for sport and marketing, during their fall mi- 
gration. It is only because of the large families 
that they rear, that they are able to withstand this ^ * . *> 

yearly decimanation of their ranks. They nest 
either in salt of fresh water marshes, making a jj^y 
rude structure of grass, weeds and strips of rushes, 
on the ground, generally concealed in a tuft of ghass 
in a tangled swamp or marsh. During May, they 
lay from six to sixteen eggs of a bright, buffy gray 
color, spotted with reddish brown and lavender. 
Size 1.25X.90. Bright buff. 




Sora 
Virginia Rail. 






133 




Rich buff. 




THE BIRD BOOK 

215. YELLOW RAIL. 

Coturnicops noveboracensis. 

Ranrge. Locally distributed in temperate North 
America, from New England and Nova Scotia, to 
California and British Columbia; south to the 
Gulf States in winter. 

This is a very handsome species, with plumage 
of glossy brown, yellowish buff, black and white; 
length seven inches. They are very shy and se- 
cretive, and are probably 
more common than gener- 
ally supposed. Their nest- 
ing habits are the same 
as those of the preceding. 
Their eggs are of a rich 
buff color, speckled in the 
form of a wreath about 
the large end, with red- 
dish brown. They are 
relatively narrower than 
those of other Rails. Size 

1.10 x .80. Data. Benson Co., North Dakota, June 
4, 1901. Set of ten eggs collected by Rev. P. B. 
Peabody. This set is in the collection of Mr. 
John Lewis Childs. 

216. BLACK RAIL. Creciscus jamaicensis. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from northern United States southward. 

Smallest of the rails; 5 inches in length. A 
dark slaty colored bird with 
white specks, and a patch of 
dark chestnut on the fore 
back. This diminutive spe- 
scies is very hard to find be- 
cause of its retiring habits, 
but according to Mr. Brews- 
ter it may be located by the 
clicking sound of its song. 

Their nests are woven of strips of rushes or grasses, and are well "cupped" 
to receive the eggs. They are on the ground on the border of, or in, marshy 
places. Mr. Childs has a fine set of eight eggs, taken by Arthur T. Wyane, at 
Mt. Pleasant, S. C., June 10, 1903. The nest was located in an oat field. The 
eggs have a creamy white ground, and are specked all over with reddish brown. 
Size 1.03 x. 75. 




Yellow Rail. 
Black Rail 




[216.1.] FARALLON RAIL. 

Known only from a single specimen, which is 
censis and without the white specks on the back. 



Creciscus coturniculus. 

slightly smaller than jamai- 




134 



WADING BIRDS 



[217-] CORN CRAKE. Crex crex. 

This European Rail is casually found in Green- 
land and along the Atlantic coast of North Amer- 
ica. It is the most abundant of European Rails 
and is found breeding in marshes, meadows and 
along streams. 



218. PURPLE GALLINULE. lonornis martinicus 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States; casu- 
ally north in eastern United States to Massachus- 
etts and Ohio. 




Pale buff. 

A very handsome bird with purplish head, 
neck and under parts, and a greenish back. Like 
all the Gallinules and Coots, this species has a 
scaly crown plate. An abundant breeding species 
in the southern parts of its range. Its nests are 
made of rushes or grasses woven together and 
either attached to living rushes or placed in tufts 
of grass. They lay from six to ten eggs of a 
creamy or pale buff color sparingly blotched with 
chestnut. Size 1.60 x 1.15. Data. Avery's Island, 
Louisiana, May 7, 1896. Ten eggs. Nest of dry rushes, woven to standing ones 
growing around an "alligator hole" in a marsh. Collector, E. A. Mcllhenny. 




Purple Gallinule. 
Corn Crake. 





135 



THE BIRD BOOK 





21Q. FLORIDA GALLINULE. Gallinula galeata. 

Range Temperate North America, from New 
England, Manitoba and California, southward. 

A grayish colored bird of similar size to the 
last (13 inches long), with flanks streaked with 
white, and with the bill and crown plate reddish. 
They nest in 
colonies in 
marshes and 
swamps, build- 
ing their nests 
like those of 
the Purple 
Gallinule. The 
eggs, too, are 
similar, but 
larger and 
slightly duller. 
Size 1.75x1.20. 
Data. Monte- 
zuma marshes, Florida, June 6, 1894. Eleven 
eggs. Nest of dead flaggs, floating in two feet of 
water. Collector, Robert Warwick. 




Pale buff. 



[220.] EUROPEAN COOT. Fulica atra. 

A European species very similar to the next, 
and only casually found in Greenland. Nesting 
the same as our species. 



Florida Gallinule. 
Coot. 





Grayish. 



221. COOT. Fulica americana. 

Range. Whole of temperate North America, 
from the southern parts of the British Provinces, 
southward; very common in suitable localities 
throughout its range. 

The Coot bears some resemblance to the 
Florida Gallinule, but is somewhat larger, 
its bill is white with a blackish band about 
the middle, and each toe has a scalloped 
web. They inhabit the same marshes and 
sloughs that are used by the Rails and Gal- 
linules as nesting places, and they have the 
same retiring habits, skulking through the 
grass to avoid observation, rather than fly- 
ing. Their nests are either floating piles 
of decayed vegetation, or are built of dead 
rushes in clumps of rushes on the banks. 
They generally build in large colonies. The 
eggs number from six to sixteen and have 



a grayish ground color, finely specked all over the surface with blackish. 
1.80x1.30. 



136 



Size 




Greenish buff 



SHORE BIRDS. Order IX. LIMICOL^E 
PHALAROPES. Family PHALAROPODIDAE 

Phalaropes are small Plover-like birds, but with lobate webbed feet, similar 
to those of the Grebes and Coots. 



222. RED PHALAROPE. Phalaropus fulicarius. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the 
far north, and migrating to the middle portions 
of the United States, chiefly on the coasts. 

The Red Phalarope during the breeding season 
has the underparts wholly reddish brown; they 
are very rarely seen in the United States in this 
dress, however for it is early changed for a suit 
of plain gray and white. 
This species has a much 

x 1 -" w*^K stouter bill than the two 

following; it is about nine 
inches in length. All the 
Phalaropes are good swim- 
mers, and this species, es- 
pecially, is often found in 
large flocks off the coast, 
floating on the surface of 
the water; they feed largely upon small marine 
insects. Nests in hollows on the ground, lined 
with a few grasses. The eggs are three or four 
in number, generally of a greenish buff color, 
spotted and blotched with brown and blackish. 
Data. Myvates, Iceland, June 19, 1897, Collector, 
C. Jefferys. 



223. NORTHERN PHALAROPE. Lobipes labatus. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the 
northern parts of the British Provinces. 

This is the smallest of the Phalaropes ^being 
about eight inches long; in summer it has a 
chestnut band across the breast and on the side 
of the neck. Its habits and nesting habits vary 
but little from those of the Red Phalarope, al- 
though its distribution is a little more southerly, 
and it is not as exclusively maritime as the pre- 
ceding species. It is found on both coasts of the 
United States, but more common on the Pacific side, 
during the fall and spring, when going to or re- 
turning from its winter quarters in the tropics. 
Their eggs cannot, with certainty, be distinguished 
from the preceding species. 



137 



Red Fhaiarope. 
Northern Phalarope. 




Greenish buff. 



THE BIRD BOOK 

\ 




Male, female, young. 
Wilson's Phalarope 



224. WILSON'S PHALAROPE. 
Steganopus tricolor. 

Range. Interior of temperate North America, 
breeding from the latitude of Iowa, northward, 
and wintering south of the United States. 

This is the most handsome species of the fam- 
ily, being of a very graceful form, of a grayish 
and white color, with a broad stripe through the 
eye and down the neck, where it fades insensibly 
into a rich chestnut 
color. It is an ex- 
clusively American 
species and is rare 
ly found near the 
coast. It builds its 
nest generally in a 
tuft of grass, the 
nests also being of Brownish buff, 

grass. The eggs 

are of a brownish or greenish buff color, spotted 
and blotched with black and brown. Size 1.30 x 
.90. Data. Larimore, N. D., May 30, 1897. Nest 
a shallow depression, scratched in the sand, under 
a tuft of grass on an island. Collector, T. F. 
Eastgate. 






138 



SHORE BIRDS 



AVOCETS and STILTS. Family RECURVIROSTRIDyE 



225. AVOCET. Recurvirostra americana. 

Range. Western North America, breeding 
north to Northwest Territory. 

The Avocet can be known from any other bird 
by its up-curved bill, light plumage, webbed feet 
and large size (length about 17 inches). These 
waders are quite numerous in suitable localities 





American Avocet 
Black-necked Stilt. 



Greenish buff. 

throughout the west, constructing their nests in 
the grass, bordering marshy places. The nest is 
simply a lining of grass in a hollow in the ground. 
They lay three or four eggs of a dark greenish 
or brownish buff color, boldly marked with 
brown and black. Size 1.90x1.30. Data. Rush 
Lake, Assiniboia. Pour eggs laid in a depression 
in the sand, lined with dry weeds. Many birds 
nesting in the colony. 

226. BLACK-NECKED STILT. 

Himantopus mexicanus. 

Range. Like the last, this species is rarely 
found east of the Mississippi, but is very abund- 
ant in the United States west of that river. 

A black and white wader, with ex- 
eremely long red legs; otherwise a grace- 
fully formed bird. It breeds in large 
colonies anywhere in its range, making 
its nests of weeds and sometimes a few 
twigs, on the ground beside of, or in the 
marshes. Their eggs number three or 
four and are brownish or greenish buff 
with numerous markings of brownish 
black, these markings being somewhat 
lengthened and mostly running length- 
wise of the shell. They nest during 
April in the southern parts of their 
range and through May and June in the 

northern. Size of eggs 1.80x1.25. Data. Freshwater Lake, southern Califor- 
nia, June 5, 1891. Four eggs laid on a mud flat near the water's edge; no nest. 
Collector, Evan Davis. 

139 




Greenish buff. 




THE BIRD BOOK 



SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, Family SCOLOPACID^ 

Members of this family are long-legged waders, of either large or small size, 
and found either about streams or ponds in the interor or along the coasts. 
They feed upon small shell fish, or insects which they get usually by probing 
in the soft mud. 



227. EUROPEAN WOODCOCK. 
Scolopax rusticola. 







This European bird is similar to the American 
Woodcock, but is larger and is barred beneath. 
Their habits are the same as those of our species. 

228. WOODCOCK. Philohela minor. 

Range. Eastern North America, north to the 
British Provinces, breeding throughout its range. 

This is one of the most eagerly sought game 
birds of the east. Their flight is very rapid and 
erratic, and accompanied by a peculiar whistling 
sound made by the rapid motion of the wings; it 
requires a skillful 
marksman to 
bring them down. 
They frequent 
boggy places es- 
pecially "runs" 
lined with alders, 
where they bore 
in the soft ground 
for worms and 
grubs. Their 
eggs are laid up- 




Buffy gray. 



AmerTTTcrn 
Wilson' 



on the bare 

ground among 

the leaves and sticks; they are of about the color 

of dead leaves, as is also the bird, making it quite 

difficult to discover their nests. They lay three 

or four eggs of a buffy color, with yellowish brown 

spots. Size 1.50x1.15. 




[229.] EUROPEAN SNIPE. Gallinago gallinago. 

A common species in Europe; of casual or accidental appearance in Green- 
land. The bird does not differ essentially from our Snipe and its habits are 
the same. 



X40 




C. A. Reed. 



WOODCOCK ON HER NEST. 
141 



SHORE BIRDS 



230. WILSON SNIPE. Gallinago delicata. 

Range. North America, breeding from northern United States northward; 
winters along the Gulf States and to California, and southward. 

Another favorite game bird, but one which re- 
quires skill to hunt successfully. Of about the 
same size as the Woodcock (11 inches long). 
This species, to a great extent frequents the same 
haunts used by Woodcock, but is especially fond 
of open marshy meadows, with winding brooks. 
Their nests are depressions in grassy banks, gen- 
erally unlined; the three or four eggs have an 
olive gray color and are strongly marked with 
blackish brown. Size 1.50 x 1.10. Data. Lake 
Winnipegosis, Manitoba, June 10, 1903. Nest in 
a hollow on a tuft of marsh grass, the four eggs 
having their points together. Collector, Walter 
Raine. 




Olive gray. 



[230.1.] GREATER SNIPE. Gallinago media. 

A European species, only American as having accidentally occurred at Hud- 
son Bay; similar in appearance to the preceding species. 




NKST AND EGGS OF WOODCOCK. 



143 




THE BIRD BOOK 



fffr "" 



231. DOWITCHER. Macrorhamphus griseus. 

Range. North America, most abundant in 
the eastern parts; breeds in the extreme north, 
and winters from the Gulf States to Northern 
South America. 

This species is 
commonly known 
as "Red-breasted 

, .^^aoewm - Snipe" in late 

^^^^e?k spring and sum- 

X^^^a.^^^/A mer because ofi 

^m^SL "^^^^Sfe^ the rich > rusty 

1 " red coloration of 

the underparts, 
and as "Gray- 
back in winter 
because of its 
color at that sea- 
son. They are very common along the Atlan- 
tic coast during the Spring migration; they 
can be easily identified by their very long 
bills, which are over two inches in length and 
nearly one quarter the length of the whole 

They nest during June, placing their three or four eggs in a slight hol- 
low, which may or may not be lined with dried grass or leaves. The eggs have 
a greenish or brownish buff color and are boldly marked with dark brown. 
They do not differ greatly from those of the Snipe. Data. Mackenzie River, 
June 27. 1900. Four eggs in a hollow in the grass, lined with dead grass. Col- 
lector. Walter Raine. 





Grenish buff 






Dowitcher. 



bird. 





LOON. 



144 



SHORE BIRDS 



232. LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER. 

Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus. 

Range. Whole of North America, but not com- 
mon on the Atlantic coast; breeds in the Arctic 
regions and migrates chiefly through the central 
and western parts of the United States to Mexico. 
This bird is practically the same as the last, but 
is a trifle larger and the bill averages about a 
half inch longer. They are very numerous in 

tifceir breeding 
haunts, and, during 
their migrations, fly 
in large compact 
. flocks. They are 
u not very timid, and 
consequently fall an 
easy prey to the gun- 
ners. Their nesting 
habits and eggs are 
the same as the last 
species, except that 
the eggs may average a trifle larger. Size 1.75 x 
1.15. Data. Norton Is., Alaska, June, 1900. Nest 
a small hollow in the dry ground. Four eggs. 
Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish. 




' .. -' V * 

ut^'f. "? s. &, 
jfcjk- - y 



Greenish buff. 



Micropalama himan- 



233. STILT SANDPIPER. 
topus. 

Range. North America, east of the Rocky 
Mountains; breeds in the Arctic regions and win- 
ters from the Gulf States southward. 

In the summer, these birds may be known by 
the reddish coloration of the underparts, which 
are numerously barred; they are smaller than 
the preceding, length about eight inches. Their 
nesting habits are the same as those of the ma- 
jority of the members of the family. The three 

or four eggs are buffy or grayish, and are blotched and spotted with shades of 
brown. Size 1.40 x 1.00. 







145 



10 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Knot. 
Purple Sandpiper. 



234. KNOT. Tringa canutus. 

Range. Arctic regions in summer; south 
through the United States, chiefly on the At- 
lantic coast, to South America. 

Of about the same size as the Dowitchers, length 
10.5 inches, but with a much shorter bill. In 
summer the entire under parts are a uniform red- 
dish chestnut color. They are known to breed 
in Arctic America, from Point Barrow and Hud- 
son Bay, northward, but no authentic eggs are 
known, at present, to exist in collections. One 
taken from a bird by Lieut. Greely, was a pea 
green color, specked with brown; size 1.10x1.00. 
As it was not fully developed, it was probably 
correct neither as to size nor color. 



235. PURPLE SANDPIPER. Arquatella maritima 
maritima. 

Range. Arctic regions, wintering south to the 
Middle States and the Great Lakes, but chiefly 
on the coast. 

A grayish and blackish colored species, about 
nine inches long. It nests in northern Labrador, 
about Hudson Bay and 
in Iceland. Its eggs are 
a grayish buff color 
handsomely splashed 
with rich shades of 
brown and obscure 
markings of darker 
gray. Data. North- 
ern Iceland, June 7, 
1897. Four eggs. Nest 
a hollow in the ground 
among grass and weeds 




Grayish buff. 
and lined with a few 



grasses. Collector, C. Jefferys. 



235a. ALEUTIAN SANDPIPER. Arguatella maritima couesi. 

Range. Supposed to be a resident on the coast and islands of Alaska, from 
the Aleutians northward. 

A very similar species to the preceding; scarcely distinguishable. These 
Sandpipers, which are found in Alaska at all seasons of the year, breed during 
May and June. Their nesting habits are the same as those of the preceding 
bird and the eggs are indistinguishable. Size 1.40 x 1.00. Data. Unalaska, 
Bering Sea, June 3, 1898. Nest containing four eggs, a depression in the moss, 
lined with grasses and bits of moss. The eggs were laid with their small ends 
together. 




146 



SHORE BIRDS 

237- PRIBILOF SANDPIPER. 

Arquatella maritina ptilocnemis. 

Range. Coast and islands of Bering Sea, south 
in winter to southern Alaska. 

This bird, which is ten inches in length, has 
the feathers of the upper parts edged with 
rusty, and the underparts light, with a distin- 
guishing patch of black on the breast. Similar in 
appearance to the Red-backed Sandpiper, but not 
so reddish above, and the latter has the black 
patch on the belly. They breed commonly on 
the Pribilof and other islands in Bering Sea, 
nesting the same as other Sandppers. Their four 
eggs are similar to those of the preceding, but 
average darker. Size 1.50 x 1.05. 

238. SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER. 
Pisobia aurita. 

Range. An Asiatic species, quite abundant in 
Alaska in the summer; supposed to migrate 
south in winter, wholly on the Asiatic side of 
the Pacific. 

A similar bird, in appearance, to the following, 
but slightly smaller and with the breast more 
ruddy. Its nesting habits probably do not differ 
from those of the following Sandpiper. 

239- PECTORAL SANDPIPER. Pisobia maculata. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding in 

the Arctic regions, and wintering south of the 

United States, most abundant in the eastern parts 

of the United States during migrations. 

This species is blackish brown above, with 

light brown edgings to the feathers, and white 

below, except the chest, which is brownish, 

streaked with black. A very peculiar species, 

having the power, during the mating season, of in- 
flating the throat to a great extent, making a balloon- 
like appendage, nearly the size of the bird. They 
have more the habits of Snipe, than do most of the 
Sandpipers, frequenting grassy meadows or marshes, 
in preference to the seashore. Their nests are 
grass lined depressions, and the eggs are grayish 
or greenish buff, blotched with brown. Size 1.45 x 
1.00. Data. Cape Smythe, Alaska, June 1900. Four 
eggs in a hollow in the ground, lined with grass 




Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 
Pectoral Sandpiper. 






147 



THE BIRD BOOK 




White-rumped Sandpiper 
Baird's Sandpiper 
Least Sandpiper. 



240. WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER. 
Pisobia fuscicollis. 

Range. North America, breeding from Labra- 
dor and southern Greenland, northward and win- 
tering from central to Southern South America; 
most common on the Atlantic coast. 

This species is 7.5 inches in length, and has 
white upper tail coverts; otherwise it is marked 
similarly to the preceding Sandpiper. Its nest- 
ing habits are the same as those of the majority 
of the family, and the three or four eggs that they 
lay cannot be distinguished from those of the fol- 
lowing species. Size 1.30 x .90. These are one 
of the most common of the beach birds along 
the Atlantic coast during migrations; they are 
very often known as Bonaparte Sandpipers. 



241. BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. Pisobia bairdi. 

Range. North America, chiefly in the interior, 
breeding along the Arctic coast and about Hud- 
son Bay, and wintering south of the United 
States. 

A very similar species to the preceding, but 
without the white rump. Their nests are hollows 
in the ground, generally concealed in a tuft of 
grass, and lined with grasses and a few leaves. 
They lay three or four eggs having a grayish 
colored ground, and marked with different shades 
of brown, and also with some faint markings of 
lilac. Sh;e 1.30 x .90. Data. Peel River, Arctic 
America, June 18, 1898. Pour eggs, taken with 
the bird by an Indian. Eggs in a slight hollow 
on the river bank. 




242. LEAST SANDPIPER. Pisobia minutilla. 

Range. North America, breeding from the southern parts of the British 
Provinces northward; winters from southern United States southward. Com- 
mon in the interior and on both coasts. 

This is the smallest of our Sandpipers, being under six 
inches in length. Except for size, they are similar in ^aBBB^k^ 
appearance to Baird's Sandpiper, only the back is browner. 
A very abundant species during migrations, being found 
on the seashore or in marshes, nearly always in company 
with other species of the family. Their nests are the same 
as other Sandpipers, and the eggs are grayish, thickly 
specked with brown. Size 1.15 x .80. Data. Peel River, 
Arctic America, June 20, 1899. Nest simply a depression 
in the river bank, lined with grass. 



148 




Grayish. 



SHORE BIRDS 



[242.1.] LONG-TOED STINT. 
Pisobia damacensis. 

An Asiatic species accidentally found on the 
Alaskan shores. It is a very similar bird to the 
Least Sandpiper, and about the same size. As 
implied by its name, it has unusually long toes. 
[24-3.] DUNLIN. Pelidna alpina alpina. 

A very common Sandpiper in the British Isles 
and in Europe, but only casually occurring as a 
straggler along the Atlantic coast. Very similar 
to the next species, but a trifle smaller. The nest 
and eggs do not differ from the following. 

243a. RED-BACKED SANDPIPER. Pelidna alpina 
sakhalina. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 

from southern Greenland, Labrador, Hudson Bay 

and the Yukon, northward, wintering from the 

Gulf States south- 
ward. This hand- 
some species is 
similar to the Pribi- 
lof Sandpiper, but is 
smaller (length 8 
inches), the upper 
parts are more red- 
dish, the breast 
more heavily streak- 
ed, and it has a black 

patch on the belly instead of on the breast as in 

ptilocnemis. Their nesting habits are similar to 

others of the family; they lay three or four eggs 

with a brownish or greenish buff color, heavily 

blotched and spotted with shades of brown and 

chestnut. Size 1.40x1.00. Data. Peel River, Arctic America, June 30, 1899. 

Nest a simple cavity in the ground, lined with a few grasses and three or four 

leaves. Collector, J. O. Stringer. 




Greenish huff. 




Red-backed Sandpiper. 
Curlew Sandpiper. 



244. CURLEW SANDPIPER. Erolia ferruginea. 

Range. A common Old World species, but regarded as rare in eastern North 
America and northern Alaska. 

A bird of slighter build, but similar coloration to the Knot; smaller (length 
eight inches) and with a slightly decurved bill. Until within recent years, eggs 
of these birds were rarely seen in collections, and I believe they have not yet 
been taken in this country, although a few pairs nest along our Arctic coast. 
Their eggs are very similar to those of the Red-backed Sandpiper, but average 
somewhat larger. Size 1.50 x 1.05. Data. Kola, northern Lapland, June 15, 
1898. Four eggs laid in a grass-lined hollow in the ground. Collector, J. 
Ramberg. 




149 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Spoonbill Sandpiper. 
Semipalmated Sandpiper 



[245.] SPOONBILL SANDPIPER. 

EurynorTiynchus pygmeus. 

A very rare Asiatic species, which has been 
taken in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. A very pecu- 
liar bird having the end of the bill broadened 
and flattened into a sort of spatula. Otherwise 
very similar to the Least Sandpiper, but with 
the breast and sides of neck ruddy in summer. 
About 75 specimens of this rare bird are known 
to exist. 

246. SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 
Ereunetes pusillus. 

Range. Whole of North America, but chiefly 
in the eastern and central parts, breeding about 
the ponds and streams of Labrador and Hudson 
Bay, and northward. These little Sandpipers are 
abundant during the migrations either in marshes 
or on beaches. They are most often found in 
company with other species, such as the Spotted 
and Least Sandpipers. Their appearance is very 
similar to that of the Least Sandpipers, but they 
are slightly larger and the feet are partially 
webbed. Their eggs have a greenish buff or gray- 
ish ground color and are 
spotted with brownish or 
blackish, sometimes, so 
heavily as to completely 
obscure the shell color. 
Size 1.20 x .80. Data. 
Small island near Okak, 
Labrador, July 3, 1895. 2 
eggs. Nest a hollow at the 
foot of a tuft of grass, 
lined with a few bits of grass and small leaves. 
Eggs unmistakable in this dark type. 




Grayish. 





150 



SHORE BIRDS 




Grayish buff. 



247. WESTERN SANDPIPER. Ereunetes mauri. 



Range. Western North America, breeding in 
the Arctic regions and migrating through the 
United States, chiefly west of the Mississippi to 
the Gulf States and southward. 

Scarcely to be distinguish- 
ed from the preceding spe- 
cies, but the upper parts are 
said to be brighter and the 
bill, to average a trifle long- 
er. The nesting habits and 
eggs are precisely the same 
as those of the Semipalmated 
variety. Data. Cape Prince 
of Wales, Alaska, June 28, 1898. Four eggs. Nest 
a neatly rounded hollow, sunk into a mossy hum- 
mock in marshy ground. Collector, Joseph Grin- 
nell. 



248. SANDERLING. Calidris leucophaea. 

Range. Found in all parts of the northern hem- 
isphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle and 
wintering in North America, from California and 
South Carolina southward. 

A handsome and abundant species, found dur- 
ing migrations by thousands on beaches and about 
large bodies of water in the interior. They are 
one of the lightest colored of the Sandpipers, 
either in winter or summer plumage. In summer 
the upper parts are a light rusty color and black, 
and the whole underparts are white. Owing to 
their extreme northerly distribution in summer, 
but few of their eggs have been taken. Their 
nesting habits are like those of the other Sandpip- 
ers. The three or four eggs are greenish buff in 
color, spotted and blotched with brown. Size 1.45 x 
Alaska, June 18, 1897. Three eggs in a depression on 




Western Sandpiper. 

Sanderling-. 
Marbled Godwit. 

.95. Data. Peel River, 
the ground. 



249. MARBLED GODWIT. Limosa fedoa. 

Range. North America, breeding, chiefly in the interior, from northern 
United States northward. 

Godwits are large Plovers with long slightly upcurved bills. This species 
is 19 inches in length, is of a nearly uniform ruddy color and is handsomely 
marbled above, and barred below with black. Their eggs are laid upon the 
ground in the vicinity of ponds or rivers; sometimes there is no lining and 
again a few straws or grasses may be twisted around the depression. Their 
eggs number three or four and have a ground color of grayish or greenish buff, 
sometimes quite dark, and are blotched with dark brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. 
Data. Devil's Lake, N. D., June 10, 1895. Four eggs laid on the ground in the 
middle of an un-used road. Lined with a few grasses. Collector, W. F. Hill. 



v- 



161 



THE BIRD BOOK 




250. PACIFIC GODWIT. 

Limosa lapponica baueri. 

Range. Coasts and islands of the Pacific Ocean 
on the Asiatic side, north in summer to Alaska. 

This species is more uniform and brighter rud- 
dy beneath than the preceding, and the back is 
not marbled as strongly. Even in Alaska where 
it breeds, it is not a common species, and it only 
occurs elsewhere on the Pacific coast of America, 
casually. The nesting habits are the same, but 
the eggs are somewhat darker than those of the 
preceding, but not as dark as those of the follow- 
ing species. Size 2.20x1.45. 

251. HUDSONIAN GODWIT. Limosa haemastica 

Range. North America, east of the Rocky 
Mountains, breeding in the Arctic regions and 
wintering south of the United States. 




Brownish. 



Pacific Godwit. 
Hudsonian Godwit. 



This species is apparently not as common or is 
more locally distributed during migrations than 
is the Marbled Godwit. They are more abundant in their breeding grounds and 
are occasionally seen in large flocks. They are smaller than the Marbled 
Godwit (length 18 inches) and are deep reddish brown below. They lay four 
eggs on the ground, in marshes or near ponds or streams, lining the hollow 
with weeds and dried leaves. The eggs have a dark brownish buff ground 
color and are blotched with brownish black. Size 2.20 x 1.40. Data. Macken- 
zie River, Arctic America. Four eggs laid in a hollow in the ground. Collector, 
J. O. Stringer. 

[252.] BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. Limosa limosa. 

A European and Asiatic species only casually occurring in Greenland. Very 
similar in appearance to our Hudsonian Godwit, which is frequently called by 
the name of this species. The nesting habits and the eggs are precisely like 
those of the American bird. 

[253.] GREEN SHANK. Glottis nebularia. 

A common bird in Europe and the British Isles, but only American as having 
been taken once in Florida. A very similar species to the following. 



152 



SHORE BIRDS 



254. GREATER YELLOW-LEGS. 
Totanus melanoleucus. 

Range. Whole of North America, nesting in 
the British Provinces and rarely in the northern 
part of the Mississippi Valley. 

This and the next species are much sought by 
sportsmen during their migrations; they are 
commonly called "Tell-tale," the present species 
being the "Greater Tell-tale." They are blackish 
above, speckled with white, and below are white 
and, in summer, marked with arrowhead spots of 
black. The legs, as implied by the name of the 




Grayish white. 

bird, are yellow and long; length of bird, 14 
inches. They nest most abundantly in localities 
remote from habitations, in the interior of Can- 
ada. The eggs are generally laid on the ground, 
near a marsh or on the bank of a stream, with 
little or no lining to the nest. They are grayish 
white, boldly splashed with several shades of 
brown, and with lilac. Size 1.65 x 1.25. Data. 
Whale River, Labrador, June 10, 1902, Eggs laid 
on the ground in an open marsh. 




Greater Yellow-legs. 
Yellow-legs. 



255. YELLOW-LEGS. Totanus flavipes. 

Range. North America, breeding chiefly in the interior and eastern parts of 
Canada, and rarely in the upper Mississippi Valley. This species is very sim- 
ilar to the preceding, but is smaller; length 
10.5 inches. It is also called the "Lesser 
Telltale," a name applied because of their 
wariness, and because, when they fly, they 
warn all other species within hearing, of 
danger. Their eggs are laid on the ground, 
and in similar localities to the preceding. 
They are three or four in number, grayish 
or buffy in color, and are quite heavily 
blotched and spotted with rich brown and 
grayish or lilac. Size 1.60 x 1.20. Data. 
Whale River, Labrador, June 14, 1902. Pour 
eggs laid on the ground in a large marsh. Buffy. 

153 





THE BIRD BOOK 




256. SOLITARY SANDPIPER. 

Helodromas solitarius solitarius. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding 
chiefly north of the United States boundary, 
but apt to be found nesting in any part of its 
range; winters south of the United States. 

A bird with a greenish gray back, barred 
with white, and white below; length 8.5 inches. 




Solitary Sandpiper. 



Clay-colored. 

This species is one of the oddities among the 
waders. They are most always met with, sing- 
ly or in pairs, and are very rarely seen, even 
in very small flocks. Their preference is for small ponds or streams in wet 
woods or open meadows, rather than marshes which are frequented by other 
species. They are occasionally seen during the nesting season, even in the 
southern parts of their range, and they probably breed there although their 
eggs are very rarely found. The eggs are clay-colored, spotted with brownish 
black. Data. Simco Island, Kingston, Ontario, June 10, 1898. 5 eggs in a 
shallow depression on the ground, lined with a few grasses. 





NEST OF SPOTTED SANDPIPER, 

154 



256a. WESTERN SOLITARY SANDPIPER. Helo- 
dromas solitarius cinnamomeus. 

Range. North America, west of the Plains; 
breeds in British Columbia and probably south 
of there, also. 

This bird is like the last, except that the spots 
on the back are buffy instead of white. Its nest 
and eggs will not differ in any respect from those 
of the eastern form. 

[257-] GREEN SANDPIPER. Helodromas acro- 

phus. 

This species, which very closely resembles our 
Solitary Sandpiper, is common in the northern 
parts of the Old World. It has only accidentally 
strayed to our shores. 

258. WILLET. Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 

semipalmatus. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding north 
to the Middle States and occasionally straying to 



SHORE BIRDS 





Buff. 



Western Sandpiper 

Willet. 



the Canadian border, especially in the Mississippi Valley. 

These large waders are among the most abundant of the marsh or beach 
birds. They breed in small companies in marshes, frequently in those which 
are covered with water at high tide, building a frail nest of grasses and weeds, 
where it will be barely out of reach of the highest water. The three or four 
eggs have a brownish, or sometimes greenish, buff ground color and are blotch- 
ed with umber, and have fainter markings of lilac. Size 2.00 x 1.50. Data. 
Sandy Bank, South Carolina, May 3, 1901. Nest on the ground, secreted in the 
high grass. Made of dead marsh grass, lined with finer grasses. 





155 



THE BIRD BOOK 




258a. WESTERN WILLET. 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus. 

Range. Western North America, breeding 
north to Manitoba and British Columbia. Casual- 
ly found on the South Atlantic coast during mi- 
grations. 

A larger and paler form of the preceding spe- 
cies; length 15.5 inches. The nesting habits are 
the same, and the eggs cannot be distinguished 
from those of the common Willet. Data. Re- 
fugio, Texas, May 18, 1900. 4 eggs in a grass 
lined depression on the bay shore flat. Collec- 
tor, J. W. Preston. 



25Q. WANDERING TATTLER. 
canus. 



Heteractitis in- 



Wandering Tattler. 

Ruff. 
Upland Plover. 



Range. Pacific coast of North America, breed- 
ing from British Columbia northward. 

This is a handsome species, uniform grayish 
above and white below, closely barred (in sum- 
mer) with blackish. During the breeding sea- 
son it is found on the rugged coasts and islands of 
Alaska, and casually south. It breeds in the 
marsh grass near the shores and along the banks 
of streams. 



[260.] RUFF, Machetes pugnax, 

A common European species, occasionally found 
on the Atlantic coast of North America. It is a 
species remarkable for its pugnacity during the 
mating season; in size and appearance it is about 
like the Upland Plover, with the exception of the 
"ruff" which adorns the neck and breast of the 
male bird, 




261. UPLAND PLOVER. Bartramia longicauda. 

Range. North America, chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains, breeding from 
middle United States, northward. 

A handsome bird, 12 inches in length, '^^' r 

generally known as the "Upland Plover," 
from its habit of frequenting dry side hills, 
where it feeds upon grasshoppers and 
worms. It is a favorite bird with many 
sportsmen. It builds a nest of grasses, on 
the ground in a tuft of grass in the middle 
of fields. The three or four eggs have a buff 
ground and are blotched with yellowish 
brown. Size 1.75 x 1.25. Data. Stump Lake, 
N. D., June 10, 1897. Nest of grass, lined 
with wool, under a tuft of grass left by the 
mower. Collector, Alf. Eastgate. 




Buff. 



J56 




NEST AND EGGS OF UPLAND PLOVER. 



Walter Uaine. 





THE BIRD BOOK 

262. BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. 

Tryngites subruficollis. 

Range. Interior of North America, breeding 
from the Hudson Bay region to the Arctic coast. 

A buffy colored species, with a peculiarly mar- 
bled back. Size 8.5 inches long. It is an upland 
species like the last. The nests are scantily lined 
depressions in the ground. The eggs have a 
grayish white ground 
and are boldly blotched 
with rich brown and 
chestnut with fainter 
markings of lilac. Size 
1.45 x 1.05. Data. Cape 
Smythe, Alaska, June, 
1900. 4 eggs in a hol- 
low in dry spot on a 
marsh. Collector, H. H. 
Bodfish. Grayish white. 

263. SPOTTED SANDPIPER. Actitis macularia. 

Range. Whole of North America from Hudson 
Bay southward, breeding throughout its range. 

A small wader about 7.5 inches in length, with 
brownish gray upper parts, and white underparts 
thickly spotted with blackish, especially on the 
breast and flanks. This is the most abundant of 
all the shore birds, and its "peet-weet" is a famil- 
iar sound to every country boy. It has a peculiar 
habit of continually moving its tail up and down, 
when at rest on a stone or when running along 
the shore; from these characteristic actions it 
has received the very common names of "Teeter- 
tail" and "Tip-up." They build their nests on the 
ground near ponds, brooks or marshes, generally 
concealing it in a tuft of grass or weeds on the 
shore or in the high grass at the edge of the 
meadows. The eggs number from three to five and are of a grayish buff color, 
spotted and blotched with blackish brown. The young, like those of all the 
shore birds, are hatched covered with down, and run about as soon as born. 
They are anxiously attended by the parents and at 
the least sign of danger, conceal themselves beneath ^ 3^5 ^. 
a tuft of grass or behind a small stone, where they ^ r 
remain perfectly motionless until called by the old 
birds. The adults frequently attempt to lead an en- 
emy away from the young by feigning a broken 
wing, or lameness. Size of eggs 1.35 x .90. Data. 
Parker County, Ind., May 22, 1901. Nest about six 
yards from bank of creek, among weeds on a sand 
bar; a hollow in the sand lined with weeds. Collec- 
tor, Winfield S. Catlin. Buff. 




Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 
Spotted Sandpiper. 





158 



264. LONG-BILLED CURLEW. 
Numenius americanus. 

Range. Breeds in the South Atlantic states 
and northward in the interior to Manitoba and 
British Columbia. 

This is the largest of the family of shore birds, 
having a length of about 24 inches. Its plumage 
is of a buffy color, much variegated above with 
black and brown ; the bill is strongly curved down- 
ward and is from four to eight inches in length. 
Their nests are located on the ground in meadows 



SHORE BIRDS 




Greenish buff. 

or on the prairies, and three or four eggs are laid, 
of a buff or greenish buff color, covered with 
numerous spots of brownish black. Eggs of the 
common Curlew of Europe, have been very fre- 
quently used as belonging to this species, but the 
eggs of our species have a lighter and more 
greenish ground, and the spots are smaller and 
more numerous. Size, 2.50 x 1.80. 




Long-billed Curlew. 

Hudsonian, Curlew, 



265. HUDSONIAN CURLEW. Numenius hudsonicus. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and win- 
tering south of the United States. 

This species is smaller (length 
17 inches), darker, more grayish 
and has a shorter bill than the pre- 
ceding species. It also has white 
median and lateral stripes on the 
top of the head. The nesting hab- 
its are the same as those of the 
Long-billed species; the three or 
four eggs have a brownish bulf 
ground color and are blotched with 
blackish brown. Size 2.25 x 1.60. 
Data. McKenzie River, Arctic 
America. Nest a pile of grass, 
moss and weeds on an island in 
the river. 




Brownish buff. 



159 




THE BIRD BOOK 





Eskimo Curlew. 



266. ESKIMO CURLEW. Numenius borealis. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in 
the Arctic regions and wintering in South 
America; migrating through the eastern half 
of the United States, more abundantly in the 
interior than on the coast. 

A still smaller species than the last (length 
14 inches) and very similar to it. A few years 
ago this was considered the most abundant of 
the curlews, but so persistently have they been 
hunted that they are now practically extermin- 
ated. They were the most unsuspicious of the 
shore birds, and would allow the near approach 
of the gunner, and the penalty may now be 
seen. Only a short while ago they were very 
often found, during migration, in company with 
ether waders such as the Golden or Black- 
bellied Plovers. . Their nests are simply hollows 
in the plains, lined with a few grasses, dried 
leaves, or moss. The three or four eggs are the 
same as the last for color but are smaller; 
size 2.00 x 1.45. 




[267.] WHIMBREL.' Numenius phaeopus. 

A European species casually appearing in Greenland; very similar to the 
Hudsonian Curlew, but with the rump white, 

This species is known as the 

Jack Curlew in England and ^^^dBUBH^G* 

Scotland, where it is very abund- 
ant, and is a favorite game bird. 
It breeds in the northern parts 
of Europe and Asia, and in the 
extreme north of Scotland and 
on the Shetland Islands. The 
eggs are laid in hollows on the 
ground on higher parts of the 
marshes. The three or four eggs 
have an olive or greenish brown 
color and are blotched with dark 
brown. Size 2.30 x 1.60. Data. 
Native, Iceland, May 29, 1900. 
Six eggs. Nest a depression in 
the ground, lined with dried 
grass. Olive br o W n. 



[268.] BRISTLE-THIGHED CURLEW. Numenius tahiliensis. 

Range. Islands and coast on the Asiatic side of the Pacific; casually found 
in Alaska. A very peculiar species with many of the feathers on the flanks 
terminating in long bristles. 



160 




SHORE BIRDS 



PLOVERS. Family CHARADRIID^E 



Plovers are stouter built birds than those of 
the previous family, have larger head, shorter 
necks and but three toes, the bill also is much 
harder and shorter. 



[269-] LAPWING. Fanellus vanellus. 

An abundant European species accidentally 
occurring on the Atlantic coast. It may read- 
ily be recognized by its long black crest, black 
chin and throat, and white under parts. It 
breeds throughout temperate Europe, laying 
its eggs in hollows on the ground. The eggs 
have a dark grayish buff ground and are spot- 
ted with black. Size 1.85x1.30. 




Grayish. 



[269-1-] DOTTEREL. Eudromias morinellus. 

A European bird supposed to have been accidentally taken on the Atlantic 
coast. 



BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. Squatarola squatarola. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering 
from the Gulf States to northern South America. 

This is a remarkably handsome spe- 
cies when in the summer dress. The up- 
per parts are largely white with black 
spots and bars on the back, wings and 
tail; the throat, sides of head, breast 
and fore under parts, black. In winter, 
brownish-black, somewhat mottled, above; 
below, dull white. Young similar to win- 
ter adults, but the back is spotted with 
yellowish-white. While these handsome 
plover migrate to some extent, and some- 
times in large flocks, through the inter- 
ior of the United States, they are chiefly 
and most abundantly found on the coast. 
This species has a very small hind toe. 
It is a very familiar bird to sportsmen 

and gunners, to whom it is generally known by the names of "Bull-head," or 
"Beetle-head Plover." They are very numerous in the fall, during which sea- 
son the underparts are entirely white. The eggs are either laid upon the bare 
ground or upon a slight lining of grass-es of dead leaves. They are three or 
four in number, brownish or greenish buff in color and boldly marked with black. 
Size 2.00 x 1.40. Data. Point Barrow, Alaska, June, 1900. Nest a small hollow 
on side of hillock, lined with dry grass. 



Ifil 




Grenish buff. 



11 



SHORE BIRDS 



[272.] EUROPEAN GOLDEN PLOVER. 
Charadrius apricarius. 

A European bird, similar to the next, casually 
found in Greenland. 

It is a very abundant bird throughout Europe, 
breeding in the northern parts. Its habits, nests 
and eggs are the same as those of the American 
bird. 



272. GOLDEN PLOVER. 
dominions. 



Charadrius dominions 



Range. Whole of North America, breeding in 
the Arctic regions and wintering south to Pata- 
gonia. 





Black-bellied Plover. 
Golden Plover. 



w 



Greenish buff. 

This handsome bird is about the same size as 
the Black-bellied Plover (10.5 inches long). No 
hind toe. Back and tail mottled with black and 
yellow; below, more or less entirely black to the 
tail. Young and winter adults, more or less spot- 
ted with yellow and blackish-brown above, and 
grayish-white below, with indistinct streaks on the breast. Often confused with 
the last species in this plumage, but is smaller, bill smaller and more slender, 
and the axillars, or feathers nearest the body, under the wings, are gray while 
those of the Black-bellied Plover are black. This species is now regarded as 
rare on the North Atlantic coast during migrations, while in the interior it is 
more abundant than the last species. They do not seem to be as suspicious as 
the Black-bellies, and a flock will often allow a close approach, even when they 
see you. They nest abundantly along the coast and islands of the Arctic Ocean. 
The four eggs are very similar to those of the preceding, but smaller. Size 1.90 
x 1.30. Data. Peel River, Arctic America, June 1, 1898. Nest of grasses and 
leaves on the ground in the moss. 

272a. PACIFIC GOLDEN PLOVER. Charadrius dominions fulvus. 

Range. An Asiatic species, breeding in northern Asia and on the islands 
and coast of Asia. Very like the preceding, but more golden color on the back 
and wings. Nesting and eggs the same. 

163 





NEST AND EGGS OF KILLDEER. 



A. R. Spaid. 



SHORE BIRDS 



273. KILLDEER. Oxyechus vociferus. 

Range. Temperate North America from the 
southern parts of Canada southward. Next to the 
Spotted Sandpiper, this bird is the most common 
of the shore birds in the United States. It is 
rarely seen in New England, but is common south 
of there and in the interior of the country to Can- 
ada. 

They are very noisy birds, continually uttering 
their "kil-deer, kil-deer" from which they take 




Grayish buff. 

their name. They nest anywhere on the ground, 
generally near water, placing their nests in fields, 
cornfields or meadows. The eggs are drab or 
greenish buff and profusely spotted with black. 
Size 1.50x1.10. Data. Refugio county, Texas, 
May 11, 1899. 4 eggs in a depression on the 
ground, lined with a few grasses. 



SEMIPALMATED. 
Mgialitis semipalmata. 

Range. North America, breeding in the inter- 
ior of Canada and wintering south from the Gulf 
States. 




Kildeer. 
Semi-palmated Plover. 



Small web between ..the bases of the two outer 
toes. Single broad,black band across the breast; 
black line from base of bill to eye. They are very 
abundant on our seacoast in Fall, both in flocks 
composed entirely of their own kind, and also 
with Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers. They 
usually keep on the inner side of sandbars or 
muddy flats bordering marshes, rather than on the 
open ocean beach. It is also found in smaller 
flocks, about ponds and marshes in the interior of 
the country. They are usually unsuspicious and will allow a close approach, or 
if you are still, will run by within a very few feet. Nest on the ground; eggs 
buffy, sparsely specked with black, 1.30x.90; June. 

165 




Buff 




THE BIRD BOOK 





275. RING PLOVER. JEgialitis hiaticula. 

Range. A European bird that breeds abund- 
antly in Greenland. It nests in great numbers on 
the banks of streams 
and in fields, laying 
its eggs in hollows on 
the ground, generally 
without any lining. 
Their three or four 
eggs are practically 
not distinguishable 
from those of the Semi- 
palmated Plover, but 




BufCy. 



larger; siae, 1.40x1.00. The bird, too, is similar, 
but the toes are not palmated, and the black 
breast band is wider. 

[276.] LITTLE RINGED PLOVER. 
JEgialitis dubia. 

An Old World species, accidentally occurring 
on the Pacific coast. Like the last species, but 
smaller. The eggs, too, are smaller; size 1.20 

x.85. 

277. PIPING PLOVER. JEgialitis meloda. 

Range. Eastern North America, chiefly along 
the Atlantic coast, breeding from the Carolinas 
north to Newfoundland. 

A handsome little bird, with a black crescent 

i on each side of neck, a small black patch on top 

of the head, and without any black on the lores 
or ear coverts. It is the lightest colored of any 
of the eastern Plovers. Length, 7 inches. Young, 
similar, but the black replaced by grayish, as is 

the case with the last species. This species, apparently, never could be classed 

as abundant and of late years, it is becoming rather rare along our Atlantic 

coast; this is probably more due to the building of 

summer resorts and homes along their former breeding 

grounds than to hunters. They are rather more shy 

than the last species, but will usually attempt to es- 
cape by running along the beach or by hiding, rather 

than by flight. Owing to their light colors it is very 

difficult to see them at any distance. They lay their 

eggs upon the sandy beaches in slight, and generally 

unlined, hollows. The eggs have a pale clay colored 

ground and are sparsely specked with small black 

dots. Size 1.25 X 1.00. Clay Color, 



Ring Plover. 
Snowy Plover. 





166 



SHORE BIRDS 



278. SNOWY PLOVER. JEgialitis nivosa. 

Range. Breeds along the Pacific coast of the United States, and from Texas 
to Manitoba in the interior. Winters on the California coast and south to Chili. 

Snowy Plovers are very much like the Piping, but 
are smaller (length 6.5 inches), have a longer and 
more slender bill, and have a small black patch on 
the side of head. It is the palest colored of the 
Plovers. Large numbers of them nest along the 
Pacific coast and in Texas; north of Texas, in the 
interior, they are locally distributed. The eggs are 
pale clay color, marked with small scratchy dots of 
black. Size 1.20 x .90. Data. Newport Beach, Cali- 
fornia, May 1, 1897. Nest a hollow in the sand, a 
short distance above high water; lined with broken 
shell. Collector, Evan Davis. 




Pale buff. 



[279-] MONGOLIAN PLOVER. JEgialitis mongola. 

An inhabitant of the Old World, awarded a place in our avifauna because of 
its accidental occurrence at Alaska. 




SPOTTED SANDPIPER AND NEST. 



167 



C. A. Reed. 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Wilson's Plover 
Mountain Plover. 





280. WILSON'S PLOVER. 

Octhodromus rvilsonius. 

Range. An abundant breeding species on the 
Gulf coast, coast of Lower California, and on the 
Atlantic coast north to Virginia, and casually 
farther. 

A common Plover, which may be distinguished 
from others of the genus by its comparatively 
large heavy black bill, and the single broad black 
band across the 
breast, and not ex- 
tending around the 
back of the neck. 
They nest on peb- 
bly "shingle" or in 
the marsh, back of 
the beaches. Their 
eggs are an olive 
gray color and are 
spotted and scratch- 
ed with blackish Olive gray 
brown, with some 

fainter markings of gray. Size 1.40x1.05. Data. 
Corpus Christi, Texas, May 10, 1899. 4 eggs 
laid on the ground among drifted grass on a salt 
marsh near town. Collector, Frank B. Arm- 
strong. 



281. MOUNTAIN PLOVER. Podasocys montanus 

Range. Plains and prairies of western North 
America, breeding from the central portions 
north to Manitoba, and wintering in California 
and southward. 

A very peculiar species, inhabiting even the 
driest portions of the western prairies. It is 9 
inches in length, and has a plumage of a pale 
buffy tone. It seems to be less aquatic than any 
other American Plover and is rarely found in the 
vicinity of bpdies of water. It nests on the ground 
anywhere on the prairie, laying its eggs in a 
slight hollow. The eggs are brownish gray in 
color and are spotted and blotched with blackish 
brown. Data. Morgan county, Colorado, May 7, 
1902. Nest a slight hollow on the ground, near a 
large cactus bed and close to a water hole. No 
lining to nest. Collector, Glenn S. White. 



SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. Family APHRIZHXE 

282. SURF BIRD. Aphriza virgata. 

This species, which is found on the Pacific 
coast from Alaska to Chili, seems to be the 
connecting link between the plovers and the 
Turnstones, having the habits of the latter 
combined with the bill of the former. Its nest 
and eggs are not known to have been yet dis- 
covered. 





Creamy. 



Turnstone. 



283. TURNSTONE. Arenaria interpres. 

Range. The distribution of this species, which is grayer above than the fol- 
lowing, is supposed to be confined, in America, to the extreme north from 
Greenland to Alaska. Its habits and eggs are precisely like the next. 



283a. RUDDY TURNSTONE. Arenaria interpres morinella. 

Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions, and migrates through all parts of the 
United States, south to the southern parts of South America. This species has 
the upperparts variegated with reddish brown, black and white; the underparts 
are pure white, except for a black patch on the throat, branching upward to the 
eye and back to the sides of the breast. It has a peculiar, slightly up-turned 
bill, which is used, as their name implies, for turning over pebbles and stones 
in their search for food. They nest commonly in northern Labrador, about 
Hudson Bay and in Alaska, laying their eggs in scantily lined hollows on the 
ground, near water. The eggs are very peculiar and beautiful, having a light 
grayish or cream color ground, peculiarly marbled with many shades of brown 
and lilac. Size 1.65 x 1.10. Data. Mackenzie River, Arctic America, June 28, 
1900. Four eggs in a grass lined depression in the sand. 





169 



THE BIRD BOOK 



284. BLACK TURNSTONE. Arenaria melanocephala. 




Grayish. 



Range. Pacific coast of North America, breed- 
ing from British Columbia northward, and winter- 
ing south to Lower California. 

This species, which has the form and habits of 
the preceding, is blackish above and on the breast; 
the rump and the base of the tail are white, being 
separated from each other by the black tail cov- 
erts. Their nesting habits are in no wise differ- 
ent from those of the common turnstone. The 
eggs are similar, but the markings are not so 
strikingly arranged. Size 1.60 x 1.10. Data. 
Kutlik, Alaska, June 21, 1898. Nest simply a de- 
pression in the sand on the sea beach. 



OYSTER-CATCHERS. Family H^EMATOPODID^ 

[285.] EUROPEAN OYSTER-CATCHER. Hcematopus frazari. 

This European species is very similar to the American one which follows, 
casually occurs in Greenland. 



It 




286. OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus palliatus. 

Range. Breeds on the coast of the South 
Atlantic States and Lower California and win- 
ters south to Patagonia. Oyster-catchers are 




American Oyster-catcher. 



Buff. 

large, heavy-bodied birds, with stocky red legs 
and long, stout red bills. The present species 
has the whole upper parts and entire head and 
neck, blackish ; underparts and ends of secondaries, white; length, 19 inches. They 
are abundant breeding birds on the sandy beaches of the South Atlantic States, 
and casually wander north to Nova Scotia. They lay their two or three eggs 
on the ground in slight hollows scooped out of the sand. The eggs are of a 
buffy or brownish buff color, and are irregularly spotted with blackish brown, 
with subdued markings of lavender. Size 2.20x1.50. Data. Sandy Point, S. 
C., May 12, 1902. Three eggs on the sand just above high water mark; nest a 
mere depression on a small "sand dune" lined with pieces of shells, 



170 



SHORE BIRDS 

286.1. FRAZAR'S OYSTER-CATCHER. Hcematopus bachmani. 

Range. Lower California. 

This species is darker on the back than the preceding, 
and the breast is mottled with dusky. Bill very long, 
heavy, compressed, and thin and chisel-like at the tip. 




Brownish buff. 

Bill and eyes red; legs flesh color; under parts white, and 
a white wing bar. These are large, awkward looking birds. 
It is not an uncommon wader in its somewhat restricted 
range. Its nesting habits are the same as those of the 
preceding one, but the markings are generally more sharply 
defined. The one figured is from a set in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. 




287-286.1 



287- BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER. Haematopus bachmani. 

Range. Pacific coast of North 

America from Lower California , ^MM 

north to Alaska. 

This species is the same size as -W^F<t ^ 

the Oyster-catcher, but the plumage 
is entirely black both above and be- 
low. They are found upon the 
rocky coasts and islands, more fre- 
quently than upon sandy beaches. 
Their eggs are laid upon bare rocks 
or pebbles with no attempt at lin- 
ing for the nest. The eggs are an 
olive buff in color, spotted and 
blotched with brownish black. 
Size 2.20 x 1.55. Breeding through- 
out the Aleutian Islands, British 
Columbia and south to Lower California. 



to'l*: 



*'/ 




Olive buff. 
Three or four eggs are laid. 





171 



THE BIRD BOOK 




JACANAS. Family JACANHXE 

288. MEXICAN JACANA. Jacana spinosa. 



Range. Tropical America, north in summer 
to the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, and 
casually to Florida. 




Mexican Jacana. 



Yellowish olive. 

a^ j^r 

r^P^i^,^ This interesting species has most of its 

structural characters similar to the Plovers, 
but has more the appearance and habits of the 
Rails. They are about eight inches long, the 
head and neck are black, the body chestnut, 
and the wings largely greenish yellow. They 
have long legs, long toes and extremely long toe nails, a scaly leaf on the fore- 
head, and a sharp spur on the shoulder of the wing. Owing to their long toes 
and nails, they are enabled to walk over floating weeds and rubbish that would 
sink beneath their weight, otherwise. They build their nests on these little 
floating islands in the marsh; they are also sometimes made of weeds and 
trash on floating lily pads. They lay from three to five eggs of a yellowish 
olive color, curiously scrawled with brown and black. Size 1.22 x .95. Data. 
Tampico, Mexico, June 3, 1900. Three eggs. Nest of weeds and drift on lily 
leaf floating in fresh water pond near town. 



F 





^ 



172 




NEST AND EGGS OF BOB-WHITE 



C. A. Reed. 




w s 

o 

ffl fc 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 

GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. Order X. GALLING 
GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, ETC. Family TETRAONIDAE 

The members of this family are birds of robust form, subdued (not brightly 
colored) plumage, comparatively short legs and necks; the tarsi and toes are 
feathered in the Ptarmigan, the tarsi, only, feathered in the Grouse, and the 
tarsi and toes bare in the Partridges and Bob-whites. They feed upon berries, 
buds, grain and insects. 



289. BOB-WHITE. 

Colinus virginianus virginianus. 

Range. United States east ot North Dakota and 
Texas and from the southern British Provinces to 
the Gulf coast. 

A celebrated "game bird" which has been hunt- 
ed so assiduously in New England that it is upon 
the verge of extermination, and the covers have 
to be continually replenished with birds trapped 
in the south and west. They frequent open fields, 
which have a luxuriant 
growth of weeds, or 
grain fields in the fall. 
Their nests are built 
along the roadsides, or 
beside stonewalls or 
any place affording sat- 
isfactory shelter. The 
nest is made of dried 
grasses and is arched 
over with grass or 
as to conceal the eggs, 
eggs, 
when 



White. 

overhanging leaves 

They lay from ten to twenty pure white 

which are very frequently nest stained 



so 




found. Size 1.20 x .95. Often two or three broods 
are raised in a season, but frequently one or more 
broods are destroyed by rainy weather. 

289a. FLORIDA BOB-WHITE. 
Colinus virginianus floridanus. 

Range. This sub-species, which is found in the 
southern half of Florida, is very much darker 
than the northern Bob-white, and is numerously 
barred below with black. Its nesting habits and 
eggs are identical with those of the preceding. 

289b. TEXAS BOB- WHITE. Colinus virginianus texanus. 

Range. Texas ; casually north to Kansas. A grayer variety of the Bob-white, 
The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the Bob-white, except that 
the eggs may average a trifle smaller. Size 1.18 x .92. 

291. MASKED BOB-WHITE. Colinus ridgwayi. 

Range. Sonoran region of Mexico north to southern Arizona. 

The female of this species is like that of the Texan Bob-white. Their nesting 
habits and eggs are in all respects like those of the other Bob-whites. Size of 
eggs, 1.20 x. 95. 

175 



Bobwhite. 
Florida Bobwhite. 
Masked Bobwhite. 



THE BIRD BOOK 





292. MOUNTAIN QUAIL. Oreortyx picta picta. 

Range. Pacific coast of North America from 
California to Washington. 

This is the largest of the Partridges, being 11 
inches in length. It is of a general grayish color, 
with chestnut throat patch, and chestnut flanks, 
barred with white. 
Two long plumes ex- 
tend downward from 
the back of the head. 
This species nests 
abundantly in the 
mountainous portions 
of northern California 
and throughout Oregon, 
and is gradually in- 
creasing in numbers in 
Washington. As a rule 
they nest only on the 
higher mountain ranges, placing their nest of 
leaves under the protection of an overhanging 
bush or tuft of grass. Their eggs number from 
six to fifteen, and are of a pale reddish buff color. 
Size 1.35 x 1.05. 




Reddish buff. 



PLUMED QUAIL. 
fera. 



Oreortyx picta plumi- 



Mountain Partridge 
Scaled Partridge. 




Range. Mountain ranges of California and 
Lower California, chiefly in the southern parts of 
the former. This species is like the latter except 
that it is grayer on the back of the head and 
neck. Its nesting habits and eggs are like the 
preceding. 

292b. SAN PEDRO QUAIL. 

Oreortyx picta confinis. 

Range. San Pedro Mountains, Lower California 
This .species, which is grayer above than the preceding two, breeds only in 
the highest peaks of its range. Otherwise its nesting habits and eggs are the 
same as the other Plumed Partridges. 

293. SCALED QUAIL. Callipepla squamata squamata. 

Range. Mexico and southwestern border of the United States. 

This blue gray species is 10 inches in length; the 
feathers on the neck and underparts have narrow 
dark borders, thus giving the plumage a scaly ap- 
pearance, from which the birds take their name. 
They have a small tuft of whitish or buffy feathers 
on the top of the head. It is especially abundant in 
the dry arid portions of its range, being found often <fr 
many miles away from water. Their eggs are laid 
in a shallow hollow under some small bush or cactus, 
and number from eight to sixteen; they are creamy 
white, finely specked with buff or pale, brownish. 
Size 1.25 X .95. Creamy white. 

176 




GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 



293a. CHESTNUT-BELLIED SCALED QUAIL. Cal- 
lipepla squamata castanogastris. 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and 
and southward into Mexico. 

This sub-species is like the last with the addi- 
tion of a chestnut patch on the belly. Their 
breeding habits do not vary in any particular way 
from those of the Scaled Partridge. 

294- CALIFORNIA QUAIL. Lophortyx calif or- 
nica calif ornica. 



Range. Coast region of California, Oregon, 
Washington and British Columbia. 

This is one of the most beautiful of the Part- 
ridges, with its crest of feathers rising from the 
crown and curving forwards so that the broaden- 
ed ends hang directly 
over the bill. It is 
about the size of the pre- 
ceding species, and is dis- 
tinguished from the fol- 
lowing one by its white 
forehead, chestnut patch 
on the belly and the scaly 
appearance of the feathers 
in that region, by its dark 
crown and the gray flanks 
They lay from eight to 
twenty eggs with a creamy white or buffy ground 
color, handsomely blotched with shades of brown 
and yellowish brown. Size 1.20 x .93 




Creamy white 
with white streaks. 




California Partridge 

Gambel's Partridge 



294a. VALLEY PARTRIDGE. Lophortyx calif ornica vallicola. 

Range. Interior portions of California, Oregon and Washington. 
The nesting habits of this grayer sub-species do not differ in any manner 
from those of the above species. The eggs are indistinguishable. 

t 

295. GAMBEL QUAIL. Lophortyx gambeli. 

Range. Southwestern United States from Texas to California; north to Utah. 

This handsome species differs from the California 
in the Chestnut crown and flanks, and the black 
patch on the belly. They are very abundant in Ari- 
zona, both on the mountains and in the valleys, and 
apparently without any regard to the nearness to, or 
remoteness from a water supply. They breed during 
May, laying their eggs on the ground under any 
suitable cover. The eggs cannot be distinguished 
from those of the California Partridge, except that 
they average a trifle larger. Size 1.25 x.95. Buff 

177 






12 



THE BIRD BOOK' 




Mearns Partridge 



296. MEARNS QUAIL. 

Cyrtonyx montezumce mearnsi. 

Range. Mexico, north to southern Arizona 
and New Mexico, and to western Texas. 

A remarkable species about 9 inches long; 
often called 'Tool Quail" because of its eccen- 
tric and clownish markings, streaks and spots 
of black, white, buff, gray and chestnut. It is 
met with in small flocks on the mountains and 
less frequently in the valleys. It frequents 
scrubby wooded places rather than open hill 
sides and is very easy to approach and kill; 
this confidence or stupidity together with its 
clownish appearance are the reasons for its 
commonly used local name. Their nests are 
hollows in the ground, lined with grasses and 
concealed by overhanging tufts of grass. The 
eggs, which are pure white, are not distinguish- 
able with certainty from those of the Bob- 
white, but average longer. Size 1.25 x .95. 



297. DUSKY GROUSE. Dendragapus obscurus obscurus. 





< Rocky Mountain region from central Montana south to New Mexico. 
With the exception of the Sage Grouse, this species is the largest of the fam- 
ily, being about 20 inches in length. The general tone of its plumage below is 
gray; above, blackish gray and the tail blackish with a broad terminal band of 
light gray. They frequent the wooded and especially the coniferous districts, 
where they build their nests under fallen trees or at the bases of standing ones. 
They lay from six to ten eggs of a buffy color, sparsely spotted and blotched 
with brownish. Size 2.00x1.40. 

297a. SOOTY GROUSE. Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. 

Range. Mountain ranges along the f ,< 

Pacific coast from California to Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

Like the last, this somewhat darker 
sub-species is met with in timbered 
regions, where its habits are about the 
same as those of the Ruffled Grouse, 
except, of course, that they are not 
nearly as shy as the Grouse in New 
England. Their eggs are laid in hol- 
lows beside stumps or under logs. 
The eggs are buff colored, spotted with 
reddish brown. Size 2.00 x 1.40. Rich 








178 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 



297b. RICHARDSON'S GROUSE. 

Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni. 

Range. Northern Rocky Mountains from cen- 
tral Montana to British Columbia. 

A dark variety with no terminal band of gray 
on the tail. Its habits, nesting and eggs are pre- 
cisely like those of the preceding species. 



298. HUDSONIAN SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. 

Canachites canadensis canadensis. 

Range. Northern United States and southern 
British Provinces; west to Minnesota. 

A dark species, smaller than the last (15 inches 
long), and easily recognized by its black throat 
and extensive black patch on the breast. The 

habits of this spe- 
cies and the two va- 
rieties into which it 
has been sub-divided 

are ^ e same > as a 

species, they are 
very tame, will not 
fly unless actually 
obliged to, and fre- 
quently allow them- 
selves to be knocked 
down with sticks. 
Their nests are hol- 
lows in the leaves on the ground, generally under 
the sheltering branches of a low spreading fir 
tree. The six to fifteen eggs are a bright buff 
color, blotched and spotted boldly with various 
shades of brown. Size 1.70 x 1.25. 




Bright buff 




Sooty Grouse 



Spruce Grouse 



298b. ALASKA SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. Canachites canadensis osgoodi. 

Range. Alaska. 

This variety is practically the same as the preceding, the birds not al- 
ways being distinguishable; the nest and eggs are the same as the Can- 
ada Grouse. 



298c. CANADA SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. Canachites canadensis canace. 

Range. Labrador and the Hudson Bay region. 

Like the last, this variety is hardly to be distinguished from the Hudsonian. 
Its nesting habits and eggs are the same. 



179 




THE BIRD BOOK 




299- FRANKLIN'S GROUSE. 

Canachites franklin franklini. 

Range. Northwestern United States and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

This species is very similar to the Canada 
Grouse, the most apparent difference being the 
absence of the brownish gray tip to the tail, and 
the upper coverts are broadly tipped with white. 
This species, 
which is very 
abundant in the 
northwest, has 
the same stupid 
habits of the east- 
ern bird. During 
the mating seas- 
on, the males of 
both this and the 
preceding species 
have the same 



habit . of "drum- 
ming" that the 
Ruffed Grouse has. 




Brownish buff 



Ruffed Grouse 



Their nests are placed on 
the ground under bushes or fir trees and from 
eight to fifteen eggs are laid. These are brown- 
ish buff in color, spotted and blotched with rich 
brown. They are very similar to the eggs of the 
Canada Grouse. Data. Moberly Peak, Cascade 
Mts., British Columbia, June 9, 1902. 7 eggs in a 
slight hollow on the ground. Collector, G. P. 
Dippie. 

300. RUFFED GROUSE. Bonasa umbellus um- 
bellus. 

Range. Eastern United States from Minnesota 
to New England; south to Virginia. 





The Ruffed Grouse is "King of the Game Birds" 
in the east, where it has been hunted so freely, 
that it has become very wary and requires a skill- 
ful marksman to bring it down. Because of the 
cutting off of all heavy timber, and the vigor with 
which they are pursued by hunters, they are be- 
coming very scarce in New England, and within 
a few years they will probably be practically ex- 
tinct in that section. Their favorite resorts are 
heavily timbered woods or low growth birches. 
Their nests are hollows in the leaves under fallen 
trees, beside some stump or concealed among the 
small shoots at the base of a large tree. The bird 
sits very close, but when she does fly, goes with the familiar rumble and roar 
which always disconcerts the novice, the wind created by her sudden flight 
generally causing the leaves to settle in the nest and conceal the eggs. They 
lay from eight to fifteen eggs, of a brownish buff color, sometimes with a few 
faint markings of brown, but generally unspotted. Size 1.55 x 1.15. The young 
of all the Partridges and Grouse are born covered with down and follow their 
parents soon after leaving the shell. The adults are very skillful in leading 
enemies away from their young, feigning lameness, broken wings, etc. The 
nesting habits and eggs of the three sub-species are precisely the same in every 
respect as those of this bird. 

180 



Brownish buff 



THE BIRD BOOK 




299 300a 



300a. CANADA RUFFED GROUSE. 
Bonasa umbellus togata. 

Range. Northern t United States and southern British 
Provinces from Maine and Nova Scotia west to Washing- 
ton and British Columbia. 

SOOb. GRAY RUFFED GROUSE. Bonasa umbellus um- 
belloides. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Colorado to 
Alaska. 

A grayer species than the common. 

300c. OREGON RUFFED GROUSE. Bonasa umbellus 
sabini. 

Range. Pacific coast from California to British Co- 
lumbia. 

A dark species with the prevailing color a reddish tone. 





J. B. Pardoe 



NEST AND EGGS OF RUFFED GKOUSE, 
182 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 



301. WILLOW PTARMIGAN. 

Lagopus lagopus lagopus. 

Range. Arctic regions, in America south nearly 
to the United States border, and casually to 
Maine. 

Ptarmigan are Grouse-like birds, feathered to 
the toe nails; they have many changes of plum- 
age, in winter being nearly pure white, and in 
summer largely reddish brown or grayish, bar- 
red with black. 
In the breeding 
plumage they 
have red comb- 
like wattles over 
the eye. In other 
seasons, their 
plumage varies in 
all degrees be- 
tween winter and 
summer. They 
nest on the 




Brownish buff 



ground in hollows 

among the leaves, 

lined with a few grasses, and sometimes feathers. 

They lay from six to sixteen eggs which have a 

ground color of buff or brownish buff, heavily 

speckled, blotched and marbled with blackish 

brown. Size 1.75 x 1.25. 



301 a. ALLEN'S PTARMIGAN. 

I^agopus lagopus alleni. 

Range. Newfoundland. A very similar bird to 
the preceding; eggs indistinguishable. 




Willow Ptarmigan 

Rock Ptarmigan 



302. ROCK PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rupestris rupestris. 




Buff 



Range. Chiefly in the interior of British 
America, from the southern portions to Alaska 
end the Arctic Ocean. 

A species with a smaller bill and in summer 
a grayer plumage, more finely barred with 
black. Its nesting habits are the same as the 
other species, it nesting on the ground in such 
localities as would be frequented by the Ruffed 
Grouse. Its eggs cannot be positively distin- 
guished from those of the Willow Ptarmigan. 
Size 1.70x1.20. 




183 



THE BIRD BOOK 

302a. REINHARDT'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rupestris reinhardi. 

Range. Labrador and Greenland; an eastern variety of the preceding species. 
Its habits, nesting habits and eggs are just the same as those of Rock Ptarmigan. 

302b. NELSON'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rupestris nelsoni. 

Range. Unalaska, of the Aleutian chain. An abundant species in its 
restricted range, making its nest on the ground in the valleys. Eggs like the 
others. 

302c. TURNER'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rupestris atkhensis. 

Range. Atka Island, of the Aleutian chain. Nests and eggs not distinctive. 

302d. TOWNSEND'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rupestris torvnsendi. 

Range. Kyska Island of the Aleutian group. 

On account of the constantly changing plumage of these birds, while interest- 
ing, they are very unsatisfactory to study, and it is doubtful if anyone can iden- 
tify the different sub-species of the Rock Ptarmigan, granting that there is any 
difference, which is doubtful. 

302.1. EVERMANN'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus evermanni. 

Range. Attu Island, of the Aleutian group. 

This is, in summer, the darkest of the Ptarmigans, having little or no rufous 
and much blackish. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the 
Rock Ptarmigan. 




303. WELCH'S PTARMIGAN. Lagopus rvelchi. 

Range. Newfoundland. 

This species, in summer, is more grayish 
than the Rock Ptarmigan, and is very finely 
vermiculated with blackish. It is a perfectly 
distinct species from the Allen Ptarmigan, 
which is the only other species found on the 
island. They inhabit the higher ranges and 
hills in the interior of the island, where they 
are quite abundant. They build their nests on 
the ground under protection of overhanging 
bushes. The eggs are laid in a hollow in the 
dead leaves, sometimes with a lining of grasses. 
The eggs do not differ in size or appearance 
from those of the Rock Ptarmigan. Data. Newfoundland, June 3, 1901. Nest 
a slight hollow in the moss, besides a fallen stump; lined with a few feathers. 
Collector, E. H. Montgomery. 

X84 




Buff" 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 



304. WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN. Lagopus leucurus leucurus. 

Range. Higher ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from New Mexico north to 
Alaska. 

Ptarmigan are remarkable birds in that they are in an almost continual state 
of molting, nearly every month in the year showing them in different stages of 
plumage, ranging from the snow-white winter dress to the summer one in which 
reddish-brown prevails on Willow Ptarmigan and a black and gray barred effect 
predominates on the other species. Notice that they are feathered to the toes, 
in winter the feathers on the toes growing dense and hair-like, not only prqtect- 
ing the toes from the cold but making excellent snowshoes which enable them 
to walk with impunity over the lightest snow. 

Ptarmigan form the staple article of diet for northern foxes, and were it not 
for the fact that their plumage changes to correspond to the appearance of the 
ground at the various seasons they would fare hardly indeed. 

In spring the little red combs above the eyes of the males are swollen and 
conspicuous. At this season they strut and perform curious antics, such as all 
Grouse are noted for. 

This species differs from any of the preceding in having at all seasons of the 
year, a white tail; it is also somewhat smaller than the Rock Ptarmigan. They 
nest abundantantly near the summits of the ranges in Colorado, making their 
nests among the rocks, and generally lining them with a few grasses. During 
June, they lay from six to twelve eggs having a creamy background, speckled 
and blotched with chestnut brown. Size 1.70 x 1.15. 

304a. KENAI WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN. Lagopus leucurus peninsularis. 

Range. Kena'i Peninsular, Alaska. A similar but paler (in summer) variety 
of the preceding. The nesting habits or eggs will not differ. 

305. PRAIRIE CHICKEN. Tympanuchus americanus americanus. 

Range. The prairies, chiefly west of the Mississippi; north to Manitoba, east 
to Ohio, and west to Colorado. 

This familiar game bird of the west is about 18 inches in length, brownish 
above and grayish below, with bars of brownish black both above and below. 
In the place of the ruffs of the Ruffled Grouse, are long tufts of rounded or 
square ended feathers, and beneath these a peculiar sac, bright orange in the 




Olive buff 
185 



THE BIRD BOOK 







Prairie Chicken 

Heath Hen 



breeding season, and capable of being inflated to 
the size of a small orange; this is done when the 
bird makes its familiar "booming" noise. They 
are very good "table birds" and although they are 
still very abundant in most of their 'range, so 
many are being killed for market, that it has 
become necessary to make more stringent laws 
relating to the killing and sale of Pinnated 
Grouse, as they are often called. They nest any- 
where on the prairie, in hollows on the ground 
under overhanging bushes or tufts of grass. They 
lay from eight to fifteen eggs having a buffy or 
olive buff ground color, sparingly and finely 
sprinkled with brown ; size 1.70 x 1.25. 




305a. ATTWATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN. Tympanu* 

chus americanus attwateri. 
* 

Range. Coast region of Louisiana and Texas. 
This is a slightly smaller and darker variety of 
the Pinnated Grouse. Its eggs cannot be distin- 
guished from those of the more northerly dis- 
tributed bird. 



306. HEATH HEN. Tympanuchus cupido. 

Range. Island of Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 

This species is similar to the preceding, but has the scapulars more broadly 
tipped with buff, the axillars barred, and the pinnated feathers on the neck 
pointed. It is slightly smaller than the western species. It is found on the 
wooded portions of the island, where its breeding habits are the same as those of 
the Ruffed Grouse. Mr. Brewster probably has the only authentic set of the 
eggs of this species. They are of a yellowish green color and are unspotted. 
Size 1.70 x 1.25. A number of Prairie Hens liberated on the island several 
years ago are apparently thriving well, and nests found there now would be 
fully as apt to belong to this species. 




GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 



Pale buff 



307. LESSER PRAIRIE CHICKEN. 

Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. 

Range. Prairies from southwestern Kansas 
through Indian Territory to western Texas. 

A smaller and paler species than the Prairie 
Chicken. Never as abundant as the common Pin- 
nated Grouse, this species appears to be becoming 
scarcer each year. Its nests are concealed under 
overhanging brush or placed under a large tuft oi! 
prairie grass, and are generally lined with a few 
grasses or leaves. They lay from eight to twelve 
eggs of a buffy color, much lighter than those of 
the Prairie Chicken, and unmarked. Size 1.65 x 
1.25. 



308. SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. 

Pedioecetes phasianellus phasianellus. 

Range. Interior of British America, from 
the United States boundary northwest to the 
Yukon. 

Sharp-tailed Grouse are similar in form to 





Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse 



Buffy drab 

the Prairie Chicken, but are somewhat smaller 

and very much lighter in color, being nearly 

white below, with arrowhead markings on the 

breast and flanks. This species is very abundant in Manitoba and especially so 

on the plains west of Hudson Bay. Their nests are generally concealed under 

a thicket or a large tuft of grass, and are lined with grasses and feathers. 

They lay from <Sx to fi fteen eggs of a drab color, very minutely specked all over 

with brown. Size 1.70 x 1.25. 

308a. COLUMBIAN SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. Pedioecetes phasianellus col- 

umbianus. 

Range. Northwestern United States and British Columbia to central Alaska. 
Both the nesting habits and eggs of this variety are the same as the last, with 
which species, the birds gradually intergrade as their ranges approach. 
308b. PRAIRIE SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. Pedioecetes phasianellus campes- 

tris. 

Range. Plains of the United States from the Mississippi to the Rockies. 
This sub-species shades directly into the two preceding where their ranges meet, 
and only birds from the extreme parts of the range of each show any marked 
differences. The nesting habits and eggs of all three are not to be distin- 
guished. 

187 




THE BIRD BOOK 




309*. SAGE HEN. 

Centrocercus urophasianus. 

Range. Sage plains of the Rocky Mountain 
region from British Columbia to New Mexico, 
and from California to Dakota. This hand- 




Pale greenish drab 

some bird is the largest of the American 

Sage Hen Grouse, being about 30 inches long (the hen 

bird is about six inches shorter). It may easi- 
ly be recognized by its large size, its peculiar graduated tail with extremely 
sharp pointed feathers, and the black belly and throat. Their nests are hollows 
scratched out in the sand, under the sage bushes, generally with no lining. 
The nesting season is during April and May, they laying from six to twelve 
eggs of a greenish drab color, spotted with brown. Size 2.15 x 1.50. 




PHEASANTS. Family PHASIANID^E 

* * * RING-NECKED PHEASANT. Phasianus torquatus. 

Several species of Pheasants have been introduced into the United States, 
among them being the Ring-necked, English, and 
Green Pheasants. The Ring-necked species seems 
to be the only one that has obtained a really strong 
foothold, it being now very abundant in Oregon 
and Washington, and adjacent states, and also 
found in abundance on many game preserves in 
the east. The males of any of the species may at 
once be distinguished from any of our birds by 
the long tail. Their nests are hollows in the 
leaves under tufts of grass or bushes. They lay 
from eight to fourteen eggs of a buff or greenish 
buff color, unmarked ; size 1.50 x 1.30. 

188 




Greenish buff 



THE BIRD BOOK 



TURKEYS. Family MELEAGRID^E 




310. WILD TURKEY. 

Meleagris gallopavo silvestris. 

Range. Eastern United States from southern 
Middle States south to central Florida and west 
to the Missippi Valley and eastern Texas. These 
magnificent birds, which once ranged over the 
whole of eastern United States, are being yearly 
confined to a smaller range, chiefly because of the 
destruction of their natural covers, and from per- 





Buffi 

secution by hunters. They are generally very 
wary birds and either escape by running through 
the underbrush or by flying as soon as a human 
being appears in sight. Their nests are made 
under tangled growths of underbrush or briers. 
Their eggs, which are laid during April and May, 
range from eight to sixteen in number. They are 
Sag-e Hen o f a buff color sprinkled and spotted with brown- 

Wild Turkey . gh gize 2 55 x 1 9Q Data . Hammond, La., April 
17, 1897. Fifteen eggs. Nest hollow scraped in the ground under a bush on 
the edge of a pine woods; lined with grasses and leaves. Collector, E. A. Mc- 
Ilhenny. 

' 

' -' .. . - !, 

310a. MERRIAM'S TURKEY. Meleagris gallopavo merriami. 

Range. Southwestern United . Slates, .from. Colorado ^outh. .timrngh. western 
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to Mexico. 

This variety is abundant throughout its range, its nesting habits and eggs 
being practically indistiguishable from those of the eastern form. 

190 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 

31 Ob. FLORIDA TURKEY. Meleagris gallopavo osceola. 

Range. Southern Florida. 

A small variety of the Wild Tur- 
key, about 42 inches long. They 
breed in the tangled thickets in the 
higher portions of the southern 
half of Florida, laying from ten to 
sixteen eggs of a brighter and 
deeper buff color than the northern 
variety, and smaller; size 2.30 x 
1.75. Their nests are generally lin- 
ed with grasses and occasionally 
with feathers. The female sits 
very close when incubating and will 
not fly until almost trod upon, 
trusting to her variegated mark- 
ings to conceal her from observa- 
tion. Greenish buff 

310c. Rio GRANDE TURKEY. Meleagris gallopavo intermedia. 

Range. Lowlands of the southern parts of Texas and northern Mexico. A 
sub-species which differs slightly in plumage and not at all in nesting habits or 
eggs from the common Wild Turkey. 

CURASSOWS AND GUANS. Family CRACID^E 

311. CHACHALACA. Ortalis vetula mccalli. 




Range. Eastern portions of Mexico, north 
to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 
A very peculiar grayish colored bird with a 





Chachalaca 



Buffy white ^ 

greenish gloss to the back, and a long, broad 
tail, quite long legs, and with the face and 
sides of the throat devoid of feathers. They 
are very abundant birds in some localities, and very noisy during the breeding 
season, their notes resembling a harsh trumpeting repetition of their name. 
They are ground inhabiting birds, but nest in low bushes. Their nests are 
made of sticks, twigs, leaves, or moss and are generally frail, flat structures 
only a few feet above the ground. During April, they lay from three to five 
buffy white eggs, the shell of which is very rough and hard. Size 2.25 x 1.55. 

191 





THE BIRD BOOK 

PIGEONS AND DOVES. Order XL COLUMBA 
Family COLUMBIDAE 

Pigeons and doves are distributed throughout nearly every temperate and 
tropical country on the globe, nearly five hundred species being known, of 
which twelve occur within our limits. Their plumage is generally soft and 
subdued colors, the head small, the wings strong and the flight rapid. 

312. BAND-TAILED PIGEON. Columba fasciata fasciata. 

Range. The Rocky Mountains and westward to the Pacific, from British 
Columbia south to Mtexico. 

This large species may be generally recognized 
by the white crescent on the nape; it is about 15 
inches in length. They nest abundantly on the 
mountain ranges, sometimes in large flocks, and 
again, only a few pairs together. Their nests are 
rude platforms of sticks and twigs either in bushes 
or in large trees in heavily wooded districts. The 
two eggs which are laid during May or June are 
pure white in color, and like those of all the 
pigeons, equally rounded at each end. Size 
1.55 x 1.10. White 

312a. VIOSCA'S PIGEON. Columba fasciata vioscce. 

Range. Southern Lower California. This is a paler variety of the preceding 
species and is not noticeably different in its habits, nesting or eggs. 

313. RED-BILLED PIGEON. Columba flavirostris. 

Range. Mexico and Central America, north to southern Texas, Arizona and 
New Mexico. 

This species, characterized by its red bill, purplish colored head, neck and 
breast and absence of iridescent markings, is abundant in the valley of the 
Lower Rio Grande, where they build their frail nests in thickets and low bushes, 
and during May and June lay their white eggs. Size of eggs, 1.55 x 1.05. 

314. WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON. Columba leucocephala. 

Range. Resident of the West Indies; in summer, found oh the Florida Keys. 
This species, which can be identified by its white crown, nests in trees or man- 
groves on certain of the Florida Keys, laying its two white eggs on its rude 
platform of sticks and twigs. Size of eggs 1.40 x 1.05. Nests in April and 
May. 

[314.1.] SCALED PIGEON. Columba squamosa. 

A West Indian species, a single specimen of which was taken at Key West, 
Florida. 

A dark colored species, with purplish head, neck and breast; named from the 
scaly appearance of the iridescent feathers on the sides of the neck. 

192 



PIGEONS 



315. PASSENGER PIGEON. 

Ectopistes migratorius. 

Range. Formerly, North America east of the 
Rockies; casually seen in the upper Missis- 
sippi Valley, now extinct. 

A handsome species (see frontispiece) with 
ruddy underparts, grayish upperparts and a 

long graduated 
tail. This species 
years ago found 
in flocks of thous- 
ands or millions, 
is now practical- 
ly exterminated, 
chiefly by being 
hunted and trap- 
ped. A few pairs 
probably now nest 
in the interior, 
from northern 

United States to Hudson Bay. Their nests are 
very rude, frail platforms of twigs, on which 
two white eggs are laid, they being longer and 
narrower, comparatively, than those of other species. Size of eggs, 1.50 
Data. Southwest shore of Lake Manitoba, June 1, 1891. Nest of twigs 
aspen tree. 




White 




Passenger Pigeon 



xl.02. 
in an 




316. MOURNING DOVE. Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. 

Range. North America from New England, Manitoba and British Columbia, 
southward. 

Now that the Pas- 
senger Pigeon has 
disappeared, this 
species becomes the 
only one found in 
the east, with the ex- 
ception of the little 
Ground Dove in the 
South Atlantic and 
Gulf States. While, White 

sometimes, small flocks of them nest in a com- 
munity, they generally nest in companies of 
two or three pairs. Their nests are generally 
at a low elevation, in trees, bushes and often 
upon the ground. Their nests are made en- 
tirely of twigs and rootlets, and eggs may be 
found from early in April until the latter part 
of September, as they often raise two or three 
broods a season. The two eggs are white. 
Size 1.15 x .80. Data. Refugio Co., Texas, May 
3, 1899. Two eggs laid on the ground in a 
slight cradle of twigs. Collector, James J. 
Carroll. 

1113 




Mourning- Dove 




13 



THE BIRD BOOK 




NEST AND EGGS OF MOURNING DOVE 



H. B. Stough 



317. ZENAIDA DOVE. Zenaida zenaida. 

Range. West Indies; in summer, on the Florida Keys, but not in great num- 
bers. 

This species is similar in size to the Mourning Dove, but it has a short and 
square tail, and the secondaries are tipped with white, and the underparts more 
ruddy. They generally nest upon the ground, but occasionally in small bushes, 
laying two white eggs a trifle larger than those of the preceding species. Size 
1.20 x.90 The nests are made of grasses and twigs, on the ground under bushes. 





194 



PIGEONS 



318. WHITE-FRONTED DOVE. 

Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera. 

Range. Mexico and Central America north 
to southern Texas. 

Slightly larger than the last, much paler be- 
low, with no black ear mark as in the two pre- 
ceding species, and with the forehead whitish. 
They build their nests of sticks, grasses and 
weeds, and place them in tangled vines and 
thickets a few feet from the ground. Their 
two eggs, which are laid in May and June, 
have a creamy white or buffy color. Size 1.15 
x .85. They canot be called a common species 
within our borders. 

319. WHITE-WINGED DOVE. 

Melopelia asiatica. 

Range. Central Am- 
erica, Mexico and the 
W southwestern border of 
the United States. 
This species is 12 in- 
ches in length, has a 
black patch on the ear 
coverts, white tips to 
the greater and lesser 
coverts and some of the 
secondaries, and broad 
white tips to the outer tail feathers, which are black. This species is very 
abundant in some localities within our borders. Their nests are very frail plat- 
forms of twigs placed in trees or bushes or precariously suspended among 
tangled vines. Their two eggs are white or creamy white, and measure 
1.15 x .85 




White-fronted Dove 

White-winged Dove 



White 



320. GROUND DOVE. Columbigallina pa&serina terrestris. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States to eastern Texas. 

The Ground Doves are the smallest of the family, measuring but about 6.5 
inches in length. Their nesting habits and eggs are exactly like those of the 
next to be described. They are very abundant, especially along the South At- 
lantic coast. 



320a. MEXICAN GROUND DOVE. Chcemepelia passerinus pallescens. 

Range. Border of the United States from Texas to southern 
California and southward. 

This paler sub-species builds a nest of twigs and weeds, 4 
placing the flat structure either in low bushes or on the 
ground. Their two white eggs are laid during April to July, 
they sometimes rearing two broods a season. Size of eggs, 
.85 x .65. White 



320b. BERMUDA GROUND DOVE. Chcemepelia passerina bermudiana. 

Range. Bermuda. Smaller and paler than the last; otherwise the same in 
nesting habits and eggs. 



195 




THE BIRD BOOK 

321. INCA DOVE. Scardafella inca. 

Range. Mexican border of the United States 
south to Central America and Lower California. 

This handsome species is about the size of 
the last, but its tail is longer and graduated, 
consequently its length is 
greater, it being about 8 
inches long. It is not an 
uncommon species along 
our Mexican border, but is 
not nearly as abundant as 
is the Ground Dove. It is 
often called "Scaled Dove" 

because af the blackish edges of nearly all iU 
feathers. They build fairly compact nests of 
twigs, rootlets and weeds, these being placed 
in bushes at a low elevation. They are two in 
number and pure white. Size.85 x .65. 

[322.] KEY WEST QUAIL DOVE. 

Geotrygon chrysia. 

Range. West Indies, rarely found at Key 
West, although supposed to have been common 
there in Audubon's time. This species is of 
about the size of the Mourning Dove, has rusty 
colored upper parts, and is whitish below, the 
white below the eye being separated from that of the throat by a stripe of dusky 
from the base of the bill. They nest in trees, laying two buffy white eggs. 
Size 1.15 x. 90. 




Inca 



Ground Dove 



[322.1.] RUDDY QUAIL DOVE. Geotrygon montana. 

Range. Central America, north to eastern Mexico and the West Indies; once 
taken at Key West. This species is similar to the last but has no white streak 
under the eye, and the underparts are buffy. Eggs, creamy white. Size 
1.15 x. 90. 

[323.] BLUE-HEADED QUAIL DOVE. Starnoenas cyanocephala. 

Range. Cuba, accidentally straying to Key West, but not in recent years. 

It is a beautiful species, with a bright blue crown, black throat and stripe 
through the eye, separated by a white line under the eye. The rest of the 
plumage is of a brownish or rusty color. Eggs buffy white. Size 1.30 x 1.05. 





196 



VULTURES, HAWKS and OWLS. Order XII. RAPTORES 
AMERICAN VULTURES. Family CATHARTIDAE 

Vultures are peculiarly formed birds of prey, having a bare head and neck, a 
lengthened bill strongly hooked at the end for tearing flesh, and long, strong, 
broad wings upon which they float in the air for hours at a time without any 
visible flapping. They are scavangers and do great service to mankind by de- 
vouring dead animal matter, that, if allowed to remain, would soon taint the 
atmosphere. Their eyesight and sense of smell is very acute. They do not, 
except in very unusual cases, capture their prey, but feed upon that which has 
been killed or died of disease. 





Ashy gray 



CALIFORNIA VULTURE. Gymnogyps calif ornianus. 

Range. Apparently now restricted to the coast ranges of Calitornia, casually 
inland to Arizona, and formerly to British Columbia. 

This large bird, which weighs about 20 pounds, measures about 4 feet in 
length, and has an expanse of wings of about 10 feet. Its plumage is blackish 
with lengthened lanceolate feathers about the neck, and with the greater wing 
coverts broadly tipped with grayish white (in very old birds). The birds are 
very rare in their restricted range and are becoming scarcer each year, owing to 
their being shot and their nests robbed. While the eggs are very rarely found 
and only secured at a great risk, they are not as unobtainable as many suppose, 
as may be seen from the fact that one private collection contains no less than 
six perfect specimens of the eggs and as many mounted birds. These birds lay 
but a single egg, placing it generally in caves or recesses in the face of cliffs, 
hundreds of feet from the ground, and often in inaccessable locations. The eggs, 
are of an ashy gray color and measure about 4.45 x 1.55. 

198 



BIRDS OF PREY 



325. TURKEY VULTURE. Cathartes aura septentrionalis. 

Range. America, from New Jersey on the Atlantic coast, 
Manitoba and British Columbia, south to southern South 





324 32;"> 



Creamy \vhite 

America, wintering in the southern half of the United 
States. 

The plumage of this small Buzzard (length 30 inches) is blackish brown, the 
naked head being red. It is very common in the southern and central portions 
of its range, where it frequents the streets and door yards picking up any refuso 
that is edible. It is a very graceful bird while on the wing, and can readily be 
identified when at a distance from the fact that, when in flight, the tips of the 
wings curve upward. The two eggs which constitute a set are laid upon the 
ground between large rocks, in hollow stumps, under logs, or between the 
branching trunks of large trees, generally in large woods. They frequently 
nest in communities and again, only a single pair may be found in the woods. 
Its nesting season ranges from March until June in the different localities. 
The eggs are creamy or bluish white, spotted and blotched with shades of brown, 
and with fainter markings of lavender. Size 2.70 x 1.85. 



,326. BLACK VULTURE. Catharista uruba. 

Range. More southerly than the preceding; north regularly to North Caro- 
lina and southern Illinois, and west to the Rocky Mountains. 

This species is about the same size, or slightly smaller than the Turkey 
Vulture; its plumage is entirely black as is also the naked head, and bill. In 
the South Atlantic and Gulf States, the present species is even more abundant 
than the preceding, and might even be said to be partially domesticated. The 
nesting habits are the same as those of the Turkey Buzzard but their eggs 
average longer and the ground color is pale greenish or bluish white rather than 
creamy. They are spotted and blotched the same. Size 3.00 x. 2.00. 






199 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Bluish white 
EGG OP BLACK VULTURE 




NEST AND EGGS OF TURKEY VULTURE 



N. W. Swayne 



BIRDS OF PREY 



KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES. Family BUTEONID^ 

The members of this family are chiefly diurnal; they get their living by 
preying upon smaller animals or birds. They have strong sharply hooked 
bills, powerful legs and feet armed with strong, curved and sharply pointed 
talons. 

327. SWALLOW-TAILED KITE. 
Elanoides forficatus. 

Range. Southern United States; casually 
north to New York and Manitoba. 





White 

This most beautiful Kite can never be mis- 
taken for any other; its whole head, neck and 

underparts are snowy white, while the back, wings and tail are glossy blue 
black, the wings being very long and the tail long and deeply forked. The ex- 
treme length of the bird is 24 inches. As a rule nests of this bird are placed 
high up in the tallest trees; they are made of sticks, weeds and moss. Two 
eggs, or rarely three, constitute a full set. They are white or bluish white, 
spotted with brown. The one figured is an unusually handsome marked speci- 
men in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. Average size of eggs, 1.80 x 1.50. 
Data. Yegna Creek bottoms, Texas, April 27, 1891. Two eggs. Nest of sticks 
and green moss, the same moss also being used for lining; in an elm tree 80 
feet up. 

328. WHITE-TAILED KITE. Elanus leucurus. 

Range. Southern United States, north to the Carolinas, Illinois and middle 
California. 

This species can be recognized by its light 
bluish gray mantle, black shoulders and white 
tail. It is a very active species, feeding upon 
insects and reptiles, and small birds and mam- 
mals. The nests of these species are placed 
in trees at quite an elevation from the ground, 
being made of sticks, weeds and leaves. The 
eggs are creamy white, profusely blotched and 
spotted with reddish brown and umber. Size 
1.65 x 1.25. Data. Los Angeles, Cal., April 9, 
1896. Nest in fork of willows about 25 feet up. 
Made of willow twigs and weed stalks, lined 
with pieces of bark. 

201 




Creamy white 



THE BIRD BOOK 

328, BRHI 





329. MISSISSIPPI KITE. 

Ictinia mississippiensis. 

Range. Southeastern United States, north 
to South Carolina and Illinois. 




White-tailed Kite 

Mississippi Kite 



Bluish white 

A small species ( length 14 inches) with the 
head, neck, and undeparts gray, and the back, 
wings and tail blackish, the tips of the secon- 
daries being grayish. They live almost ex- 
clusively upon insects, such as grasshoppers, 
and small reptiles. They build their nests of sticks and weeds well up in tall 
trees. The eggs are two or three in number and normally bluish white, un- 
marked, but occasionally with very faint spots of pale brown. Size 1.65 x 1.25. 
Data. Giddings, Texas, May 31, 1887. Nest of sticks and weeds, with green 
pecan leaves in the lining; placed in the top of a live oak sapling, 20 feet from 
the ground. Collector, J. A. Singley. 

330. EVERGLADE KITE. Rostrhamus sociabilis. 

Range. South America, north to southern Florida and Mexico. 

This peculiar species has a long, slender, curved bill, blackish plumage, with 
white rump and bases of outer tail feather. They feed largely upon snails, 
both land and water varieties. They nest at a low elevation in bushes or under 
brush, often over the water. The nests are 
of sticks, weeds and leaves. The three eggs 
are light greenish white, spotted and splashed 




Pale greenish white 

with chestnut brown. Size, 1.70 x 1.30. Nest 
in a custard apple tree, 6 feet from the ground, 
built of twigs, lined with small vine stems and f 
willow leaves. 

202 




Everglade Kite 




NEST AND EGGS OF MARSH HAWK 



THE BIRD BOOK 





331. MARSH HAWK. Circus hudsonius. 

Range. Whole of North America, very 
abundant in all sections. 





Pale bluish white 

The adult of this species is very light colored, 
and young birds of the first two years have a 
(Adult and young) reddish brown coloration; in both plumages 

the species is easily identified by the white 

patch on the rump. They are, almost exclusively frequenters of fields and 
marshes, where they can most often be seen, towards dusk, swooping in broad 
curves near the ground, watching for field mice, which form the larger portion 
of their diet. Their nests are made in swampy ground, often in the middle of a 
large marsh, being placed on the ground in the centre of a hummock or clump 
of grass; it is generally well lined with grasses and often rushes. They lay 
from four to seven pale bluish white eggs, generally unmarked; size 1.80x1.40. 

332. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK. Accipiter velox. 

Range. Whole of North America, wintering in the United States and south- 
ward; breeds throughout its range, but most abundantly in northern United 
States and northward. This is one of the smallest of the hawks and in the 
adult plumage is a beautiful species, being bar- 
red below with light brown, and having a bluish 
slate back. It is a very spirited and daring 
bird and is one of the most destructive to small 
birds and young chickens. Its nest is a rude 
and sometimes very frail platform of twigs and 




Bluish white 

leaves placed against the trunk of the tree at 
any height, but averaging, perhaps, fifteen feet. 
The eggs are bluish white, beautifully blotched 
and spotted with shades of brown. 

204 




Sharp-shinned Hawk 



BIRDS OF PREY 



333. COOPER'S HAWK. Accipiter cooperi. 

Range. Whole of temperate North America, 
breeding throughout its range. 




Bluish white 




oopers Hawk 






Although larger (length 17 inches), the plum- 
age of this species is almost exactly the same 
as that of the preceding. Like the last, this is also a destructive species. 
They construct their nests in the crotches of trees, generally at quite a height 
from the ground; the nest is made of sticks and twigs, and often lined with 
pieces of bark; occasionally an old Hawk's or Crow's nest is used by the birds. 
Their eggs are bluish white, unmarked or faintly spotted with pale brown. 

334<. GOSHAWK. Astur atricapillus atricapillus. 

Range. Northern North America, south in winter to the northern parts of 
the United States. 

This species is one of the largest, strongest and most audacious of American 
Hawks, frequently carrying off Grouse and poultry, the latter often in the 
presence of the owner. It is a handsome species in the adult plumage, with 
bluish gray upper parts, and light under parts, finely vermicuiated with grayish 
and black shafts to the feathers. Length 23 inches. Their nests are placed 
well up in the tallest trees, usually in dense woods, the nests being of sticks 

lined with weeds and bark. The three or 

four eggs are bluish white, generally un- 

jum*). marked, but occasionally with faint spots of 

***M^ brown. Size 2.30x1.70. 





Bluish white 



American 




205 




Geo. L. Fordyce 
NEST AND EGGS OF COOPER'S HAWK 



BIRDS OF PREY 



334a. WESTERN GOSHAWK. 

Astur atricapillus striatulus. 

Range. Western North America from Al- 
aska to California, breeding chiefly north of 
the United States except in some of the higher 





Bluish white 



Harris's Hawk 



ranges of the Pacific coast. This sub-species is darker, both above and below, 
than the American Goshawk. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely the 
same. The eggs are quite variable in size. 

335. HARRIS'S HAWK. Parabuteo unicinc- 
tus harrisi. 

Range. Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the 
United States; very abundant in southern Texas. 

This is a peculiar blackish species, with white rump, and chestnut shoulders 
and thighs. It is commonly met with in company with Caracaras, Turkey Buz- 
zards and Black Vultures, feeding upon carrion. They also feed to an extent 
on small mammals and birds. Their nests are made of sticks, twigs and weeds, 
and placed in bushes or low trees. The three or four eggs ahe laid in April or 
May. They are dull white in color and generally unmarked, although often 
showing traces of pale brown spots. They are quite variable in size, averaging 
2.10x1.65. 



White 
207 




THE BIRD BOOK 




337. RED-TAILED HAWK. 

Buteo borealis borealis. 

This is one of the handsomest of the larger 
hawks, and is the best known in the east, 




Red-tailed Hawk 



Pale bluish white 




where it is commonly, but wrongly, designated as "hen hawk", a name, how- 
ever, which is indiscriminately applied to any bird that has talons and a hooked 
beak. The adult of this species is unmistakable because of its reddish brown 
tail; young birds are very frequently confounded with other species. Their 
food consists chiefly of small rodents, snakes and lizards, and only occasionally 
are poultry or birds taken. They nest in the tallest trees in large patches of 
woods, the nests being made of sticks, weeds, leaves and trash. The eggs 
number from two to four, and are white, sometimes heavily, and sometimes 
sparingly, blotched and spotted with various shades of brown. Size 2.35 x 1.80. 

337a. KRIDER'S HAWK. Buteo borealis krideri. 

Range. Plains of the United States, north to Manitoba. 

This sub-species is described as lighter on the underparts, which are almost 
immaculate. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the pre- 
ceding. 

337b. WESTERN RED-TAIL. Buteo borealis calurus. 

* Range. Western North America, 

chiefly west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

This sub-species varies from the 
plumage of the eastern Red-tail, to 
a nearly uniform sooty above and 
below, with the dark red tail cross- 
ed by several bands; it is a gener- 
ally darker variety than the Red- 
tail. Its nesting habits are the 
same and the eggs show the great 
variations in markings that are 
common to the eastern bird. 




White 



208 



BIRDS OF PREY 



337d. HARLAN'S HAWK. 

Butea borealis harlani. 

Range. Gulf States and southward, north to 
Kansas. 

This dark sub-species is generally nearly uni- 
form blackish, but sometimes is lighter or even 
white below. Its tail is rusty, mottled with 
blackish and white. Its nesting habits are the 
same and the eggs are not distinguishable 
from those of the other Red-tails. 



mm 

'//S/VJ^P 

I'M/ film 




33Q. RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. 
lineatus lineatus. 



Buteo 



Red-shouldered Hawk 



Range. North America, east of the Plains 

and from the southern parts of the British 

Provinces southward; abundant and breeding 

throughout its range. 
This species is smaller than the Red-tailed 

and is not as powerfully built; length 19 inches. 

The adults are handsomely barred beneath 

with reddish brown, giving the entire 
underparts a ruddy color. Like the 
last species, they rarely feed upon 
poultry, confining their diet chiefly to 
mice, rats, frogs, reptiles, etc. These 
Hawks nest in the larger growths of 
timber, usually building their nests 
high above the ground. The nest is 
of sticks, and lined with leaves, weeds 
and pieces of bark. They lay three 
or four eggs with a white ground 
color, variously blotched and spotted, 
either sparingly or heavily, with dif- 
ferent shades of brown. Size 2.15 x 
1.75. Data. Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
April 25, 1898. Nest about 40 feet up 
in an oak tree; made of sticks and 
twigs and lined with bark. Four eggs. 
White Collector, J. C. Holmes. 




339a. FLORIDA RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. Buteo lineatus alleni. 

Range. Florida and the Gulf coast; north to South Carolina. The nesting 
habits of this paler sub-species are precisely like those of the last species. 





209 



14 




Geo. L. Pordyce 
NEST AND EGGS OF RED-SHOULDERED HAWK 



BIRDS OF PREY 



339b. RED-BELLIED HAWK. Buteo Uneatus elegans. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia south to 
Lower California, chiefly west of the Rockies. 

This variety is similar to, but darker than Uneatus, and 
the underparts are a uniform reddish brown, without bar- 



\ 





339b 340 



White 

ring. Their nests are like those of the Red-shouldered 

variety, and almost always placed high up in the largest 

trees. The eggs are very similar, but average lighter in markings. Size 2.15 

x 1.70. Data. Diego, Cal., April 13, 1897. Nest in a sycamore 20 feet from 

ground, made of sticks, leaves and feathers. 



3-10. ZONE-TAILED HAWK. Buteo abbreviatus. 

Range. Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the 
United States. 

This species, which is 19 inches long, is wholly black with the exception of 
the tail, which is banded Their nests are built in heavy woods, and preferably 
in trees along the bank of a stream. The nest is of the usual Hawk construc- 
tion and the two to four eggs are white, faintly marked with pale chestnut. 
Data. Marathon, Texas. Nest of sticks, lined with weeds and rabbit fur; on a 
horizontal branch of a cotton-wood tree, 30 feet up. 




White 
211 




THE BIRD BOOK 




341. 



SENNETT'S WHITE-TAILED HAWK. 
Buteo albicaudatus sennetti. 



Range. Mexican border of the United States 
and southward. 

A large, handsome Hawk which may be iden- 
tified by its dark upper parts and white under- 
parts and tail, the flanks and tail being lightly 
barred with grayish; the shoulders are chest- 
nut. It is especially abundant in the southern 
parts of Texas, where it builds its nests of 
sticks and weeds, lined with grasses, leaves 
and moss. They nest in March and April, lay- 
ing two, or rarely three, eggs which are a diill 
white, and generally immaculate, but occasion- 
ally faintly or sparingly spotted with brown. 
Size of eggs 2.25 x 1.80. 

342. SWAINSON'S HAWK. Buteo srvainsoni. 
Range. Central and western North America, 
from the Mississippi Valley and Hudson Bay, 
to the Pacific coast, breeding throughout its 



Sennett's White-tailed Hawk j grea ter part of its range, this is 

the most abundant of the Hawk family. 

Its plumage is extremely variable, showing all the intergradations from a uni- 
form sooty blackish to the typical adult plumage of a grayish above, and a 
white below, with a large breast patch of rich chestnut. Their nesting habits 
are as variable as their plumage. In some localities, they nest exclusively in 
trees, in others indifferently upon the ground or rocky ledges. The nest is the 
usual Hawk structure of sticks; the eggs are white, variously splashed and 




White 




spotted with reddish brown and umber. Size 
2.20x1.70. Data. Stark Co., N. D., May 21, 
1897. Nest of sticks, lined with weeds in an 
ash tree. Collector, Roy Dodd. 



212 




Swainson's Hawk 



BIRDS OF PREY 



343. BROAD-WINGED HAWK. 
Buteo platypterus. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains, 
and from the British Provinces southward. 





Grayish white 

A medium sized species, about 16 inches in 

length, and with a short tail and broad rounded American Rough-legrged Hawk 
wings ; adults have the underparts handsomely barred with brown. Their nests 
are usually built in large trees, but generally placed against the trunk in the 
crotch of some of the lower branches. It is made of sticks and almost invari- 
ably lined with bark. The two to four eggs are of a grayish white color, mark- 
ed with chestnut, brown and stone gray; size 1.90x1.55. Data. Worcester, 
Mass., May 16, 1895. Nest about 20 feet up in a large chestnut tree. The birds 
continually circled overhead, their weird cries sounding like the creaking of 
branches. Collector, A. J. White. 

844. SHORT-TAILED HAWK. Buteo brachyurus. 

Range. A tropical species, which occurs north to the Mexican border and 
regularly to southern Florida, where it breeds in the large cypress swamps. Its 
eggs are pale greenish white, sparingly spotted with brown, chiefly at the large 
end. Size 2.15x1.60. 

345. MEXICAN BLACK HAWK. Urubitinga anthracina. 

Range. Mexican border of the United 
States and southward. 

A coal black species about 22 inches in 
length, distinguished by the white tip, 
and broad white band across the tail 
about midway. This is one of the least 
abundant of the Mexican species that 
cross the border. They are shy birds and 
build their nests in the tallest trees in 
remote woods. Their two or three eggs 
are grayish white, faintly spotted with 
pale brown; size 2.25x1.80. Data. Los 
Angeles County, Cal., April 6, 1889. 
Nest of sticks, lined with bark and 
leaves; 45 feet up in a sycamore tree. 
Collector, R. B. Chapman. Grayish white 

213 




THE BIRD BOOK 




346. MEXICAN GOSHAWK. Asturina plagiata 

Range. Mexico, north to the border of the 
United States. 

A beautiful, medium sized Hawk (17 inches 
long), slaty gray above, white below, numer- 







White 



Rough-legged Hawk 




ously barred with grayish; tail black, crossed 
by several white bars. These are graceful 
and active birds, feeding largely upon small rodents, and occasionally small 
birds. They nest in the top of tall trees, laying two or three greenish white, 
unmarked eggs; size 1.95x1.60. Data. Santa Cruz River, Arizona, June 3, 
1902. Nest in the fork of a mesquite tree about forty feet from the ground; 
made of large sticks, lined with smaller ones and leaves. Three eggs. Col- 
lector, O. W. Howard. 

347a. ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis. 

Range. Northern North America, breeding chiefly north of our borders and 
wintering south to the middle portions of the United States. 

The Rough-legs are large, heavily built birds of prey, specially characerized 
by the completely feathered legs. The present species is 22 inchse long, and in 
the normal plumage has a whitish head, neck, breast and tail, the former being 
streaked and the latter barred 
with blackish; the remainder of. 
the upper and underparts are black-; 
ish brown. Their nests are usually 
placed in trees, and less often on 
the ground than those of the next 
species. These Rough-legs are very 
irregularly distributed, and are no- 
where as common as the next. 7 * 
While the greater number nest. ; I 
north of the United States, it is N 
very probable that a great many | i 
nest on the higher ranges within ; , 
our borders. The species is often jj 
taken in summer, even in Massa-;!| 
chusetts. They lay three eggs of a !j 
bluish white color, boldly splashed ;ji 
with dark brown; size 2.25x1.75. ;|] Bluish white 

214 




34>8. FERRUGINOUS ROUGH-LEG. 
Archibuteo ferrugineus. 



BIRDS OF PREY 





White Rough-legged Hawk 

Range. North America, west of the Mississippi, breeding from the latitude 
of Colorado north to the Saskatchewan region. 

This species nests very abundantly along our northern states, particularly in 
Dakota. It is a larger bird than the preceding and can easily be told by its 
reddish coloration, particularly on the shoulders and tibia. While in some 
localities they nest only in trees, the greater number appear to build their nests 
on the ground or rocky ledges, making a large heap of sticks, weeds and grass. 
Their three or four eggs are white, beautifully spotted and blotched, in endless 
variety, with various shades of brown. Size 2.60x2.00. Data. Stark Co., N. 
D., April 29, 1900. Nest built of coarse sticks on a clay butte. 

349. GOLDEN EAGLE. Aquila chryscetos. 

Range. North America, west of the Missis- 
sippi; most abundant in the Rockies and along 
the Pacific coast ranges. 

This magnificent bird, which is even more 
powerful than the Bald Eagle, measures about 
34 inches long, and spreads about 7 feet. Its 
plumage is a rich brownish black, very old 
birds being golden brown on the nape. They 
can be distinguished in all plumages from the 
Bald Eagle by the completely feathered tarsus. 
They build their nests in the tops of the tallest 
trees in the wild, mountainous country of the 
west, and more rarely upon ledges of the cliffs. 
The nests are made of large sticks, lined with 
smaller ones and leaves and weeds. Their eggs 
are the most handsome of the Raptores, being 
white in color, and blotched, splashed, spotted 
and specked with light brown and clouded with 
gray or lilac, of course varying endlessly in 
pattern and intensity. Size 2.90x2.50. Data. 
Monterey Co., Cal., May 3, 1888. Three eggs. 
Nest of sticks, lined with pine needles, in a 
pine tree, 50 feet up, 
215 




Golden Eagle 




BALD EAGLE 



BIRDS OF PREY 
[351.] GRAY SEA EAGLE. Haliceetus albicilla. 

A common species on the sea coasts of Europe; straggling to southern Green- 
land, where it nests upon the rocky cliffs. 

352. BALD EAGLE. Haliceetus leucocephalus 
leucocephalus. 





White 



Bald Eagle 



Range. Whole of North America; most abundant on the Atlantic 
coast; breeds throughout its range. This large white-headed and white-tailed 
species is abundant in sufficiently wild localities along the Atlantic 
coast. It only attains the white head and tail when three years old, 
the first two years, being blackish. It is about 34 inches in length 
and expands about seven feet, never over eight feet, and only birds of the second 
year (when they are larger than the adults) ever approach this expanse. 
Their food consists of fish (which they sometimes capture themselves, but 
more often take from the Osprey), carrion, and Ducks, which they catch in 
flight. Their nests are massive structures of sticks, in the tops of tall trees. 
They very rarely lay more than two eggs, which are white. Size 2.75 x 2.10. 
Data. Mt. Pleasant, S. C., nest in top of a pine, 105 feet from the ground; 
made of large sticks and lined with Spanish moss. 

352a. NORTHERN BALD EAGLE. Haliceetus leucocephalus alascanus. 

Range. Alaska. This sub-species averages slightly larger than the Bald 
Eagle, but never exceeds the largest dimensions of that species. Its nesting 
habits and eggs are the same, except that it more often builds its nests on rocky 
cliffs than does the Bald Eagle. The eggs are laid in February and March. 




217 



THE BIRD BOOK 

FALCONS AND CARACARAS 
Family FALCONDIDAE 

tKBa^^M^H^^^^^Ma^^^n 353. WHITE GYRFALCON. Falco island us. 

Range. Arctic regions; south in winter cas- 
ually to northern United States, chiefly on the 
coast. 

Gyrfalcons are large, strong, active and fear- 





Gray Gyrfalcon 

White Gyrfalcon 



Buff 




less birds, about 23 inches in length. Their food consists chiefly of hares, 
Ducks and Waders which abound in the far north. The present species is 
snowy white, more or less barred with blackish brown on the back and wings 
and with a few marks on the breast. They nest upon the ledges of high cliffs, 
laying three or four eggs of a buffy color, blotched and finely specked with 
reddish brown, this color often concealing the ground color. Size of eggs, 2.30 x 
1.80. In America, they nest in Greenland and the Arctic regions. 

354. GRAY GYRFALCON. Falco rusticolus rusticolus. 

Range. Arctic regions; south in 
winter to northern United States. 

This species is of the size of the last 
but the plumage is largely gray, bar- 
red with dusky. They nest more 
abundantly in southern Greenland than 
do the preceding species. The nesting 
habits and eggs do not differ. 

854a. GYRFALCON. 

Falco rusticolus gyrfalco. 

Range. Arctic regions; south cas- 
ually to Long Island. 

This sub-species is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from the preceding; its 
nesting habits and eggs are identical, 
the nests being of sticks, lined with weeds and feathers and placed upon the 
most inaccessible ledges of cliffs. 

218 




Buff 



354tb. BLACK GYRFALCON. 

Falco rusticolus obsoletus. 

Range. Labrador; south casually, in winter, 
to Long Island. 

A slightly darker variety. Eggs indistin- 
guishable. Data. Ungava coast, Labrador, 
May 25, 1900. Nest a heap of seaweed and 
feathers on sea cliff, containing three eggs. 

355. PRAIRIE FALCON. Falcon mexicanus. 
Range. United States west of the Missis 
sippi, and from Dakota and Washington south- 
ward to Mexico. 



BIRDS OF PREY 





Falcon 

This species abounds in suitable lo- 
calities, generally placing its nests 
upon rocky ledges and cliffs, and some- 
times trees, generally upon the banks 
Reddish buff of some stream. The nests are masses 

of sticks, lined with weeds and grasses. The three or four eggs have a reddish 
buff ground color, and are thickly sprinkled and blotched with reddish buff 
brown and chestnut; size 2.05x1.60. 

356a. DUCK HAWK. Falco peregrinus anatum. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding locally, chiefly in mountainous re- 
gions, throughout its range. 

This beautiful species, characterized by its black moustache, is the most 
graceful, fearless, and swiftest of the Falcons, striking down birds of several 
times its own weight, such as some of the larger Ducks. It breeds quite 
abundantly on the Pacific coast and in certain localities in the Dakotas, laying 

its eggs on the rocky ledges. Their eggs are 
similar to those of the Prairie Falcon, but are 





Duck Hawk 



Buff or reddish buff 

darker and brighter, in fact they are the dark- 
est, brightest marked, and most beautiful of 
Falcon eggs ; size 2.05 x 1.55. 
219 




THE BIRD BOOK 

356b. PEALE'S FALCON. 




Falco peregrinus pealei. 

Range. Pacific coast from northern United 
States north to Alaska. 

A darker form of the preceding, such as oc- 
curs in this section with a great many other 
birds. The nesting habits and the eggs are 
precisely like those of the Duck Hawk. 

357. PIGEON HAWK. Falco columbarius 
columbarius. 




Pigeon Hawk 



Brownish buff 

Range. North America, breeding chiefly north 
of the United States except in some of the higher 
ranges along our northern border. A small Fal- 




con, about 11 inches long, often confused with the Sharp-shinned Hawk, but 
much darker and a more stoutly built bird. It is a daring species, often attack- 
ing birds larger than itself; it also feeds on mice, grasshoppers, squirrels, etc. 
They generally build a nest of sticks in trees, deep in the woods; less often in 
natural cavities of dead trees; and sometimes on rocky ledges. Their four or 
five eggs have a brownish buff ground color, heavily blotched with brown and 
chestnut. Size 1.50 x 1.22 

357a. BLACK PIGEON HAWK. Falco columbarius suckleyi. 

Range. Pacific coast from northern United States north to Alaska. 

Very similar in appearance to the preceding, uM^MKftaaKSgraag^^HBIBI 
but much darker, both above and below. Its j 
nesting habits and eggs will not differ in any i %- 

manner from those of the Pigeon Hawk. 

357b. RICHARDSON'S PIGEON HAWK. 
Falco columbarius richardsoni. 

Range. Interior of North America from the 
Mississippi to the Rockies and from Mexico to 
the Saskatchewan. 

This species is similar to the Pigeon Hawk, 
but is paler both above and below, and the tail 
bars are more numerous and white. Their 
nesting habits are the same as those of the 
preceding species, they either building in hol- 
low trees, or making a rude nest of sticks and 
twigs in the tops of trees. The eggs have a 
creamy ground and are sprinkled with dots 
and blotches of various shades of brown. Size 
1.60 x 1.23. The egg figured is one of a beau- 
tiful set of four in the collection of Mr. C. W. 
Crandall. 

220 




Richardson's Pigeon Hawk 



[358.1] MERLIN. Falco assalon. 

This common European species was once acci- 
dentally taken in southern Greenland. Their eggs 
are generally laid on the ground on cliffs or banks. 



BIRDS OF PREY 



359. APLOMAUO FALCON. 

Falco fusco-ccerulescens. 

Range. Tropical America north to Mexican 
boundary of the United States. 

This handsone and strikingly marked Falcon is 
found in limited numbers within the United States, 
but south is common and widely distributed. They 
nest at a low elevation, in bushes or small trees, 
making their rude nests of twigs, lined with a 
few grasses. They lay three, and sometimes four, 
eggs which have a creamy white ground color, 
finely dotted with cinnamon, and with heavy 
blotches of brown. Size 1.75 x 1.30. 





Aplomado Falcon 

Desert Sparrow Hawk 



Buff 



[359.1.] KESTREL. Falco tinnunculus. 

Range. Whole of Europe; accidental on the 
coast of Massachusetts. 

This species is very similar in size and colora- 
tion to the American Sparrow Hawk. They are 
much more abundant than the Sparrow Hawk is 
in this country and frequently nest about houses, 
in hollow trees, on rafters of barns, or on ledges 
and embankments. Their eggs are of a reddish 
buff color, speckled and blotched with reddish 
brown, they being much darker than those of the 
American Sparrow Hawk. 



360a. DESERT SPARROW HAWK. Falco sparverius phalcena. 

Range. Western United States from British Columbia south to Mexico. 
This variety is slightly larger and paler than the eastern form. There are no 
differences in the identification of the two varieties. 




221 



THE BIRD BOOK 





360. SPARROW HAWK. Falco sparverius. 

Range. North America, east of the Rocky 
Mountains and north to Hudson Bay; winters 
from the middle portions of the United States, 
southward. 

This beautiful lit- 
tle Falcon is the 
smallest of the Am- 
erican Hawks, being 
only 10 inches in 
length. They are 
very abundant in the 
east, nesting any- 
where in cavities in 
trees, either in 
woods or open fields. 
The eggs are gener- 
ally deposited upon 
the bottom of the 

cavity with no lining; they are creamy or yel- 
lowish buff in color, sprinkled, spotted or 
blotched in endless variety, with reddish brown. 
Size 1.35 x 1.10. These birds are very noisy, 
especially when the young are learning to fly, uttering a loud, tinkling, "killy, 
killy, killy." They have a very amiable disposition, and frequently nest har- 
moniously in the same tree with other birds, such as Flickers and Robins. 

360b. ST. LUCAS SPARROW HAWK. Falco sparverius peninsularis. 

Range. Lower California. 

This variety is smaller than the eastern, and even paler than the western 
form. Eggs identical with eastern specimens. 

[361.] CUBAN SPARROW HAWK. Falco sparveroides. 

A darker colored West Indian form, whose habits and nesting do not vary 
from those of the common Sparrow Hawk; casually taken in Florida. 



Buffy 



Sparrow Hawk 





Egg of Golden Eagle 
222 




SPARROW HAWK 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Hi 

~Audubon T s 



362. AUDUBON CARACARA. 
Polyborus cherirvay. 

Range. Southern border of the United States 
south to South America. 

Range. Southern border of the United 
States south to South America. 

A strikingly marked blackish and whitish 
species, much barred on the fore back and the 
breast, with the head and throat largely white, 
except for a black and somewhat crested 
crown. They are numerous in southern Texas 
and also in the interior of southern Florida, 
where they are resident. They build bulky, 
but shabby nests of sticks, weeds and grass, 
piled into a promiscuous heap, generally locat- 
ed in bushes or low trees. Their two or three 
eggs have a ground color varying from buff to 
bright cinnamon, and are dotted and blotched 
with all shades of brown and umber. On the 
whole, these eggs show a greater diversity of 
markings and ground color than those of any 
other species. Size 2.50 x 1.80. 





Cinnamon 

363. GUADALUPE CARACARA. Polyborus lutosus. 

Range. Gaudalupe Island and others off Lower California. 

This species is somewhat like the preceding, but the plumage is duller, and 
the coloration more uniform. Their nesting habits and eggs do not vary essen- 
tially from those of Audubon Caracara. Mr. John Lewis Childs has a set of two 
eggs taken June 8, 1896, on Santa Anita Island, by Coolidge and Miller. The 
nest was made of sticks and situated in a giant cactus. The eggs are slightly 
brighter and more clearly marked than any of eherlijcay that I have ever seen. 



224 



364. OSPREY. 



BIRDS OF PREY 

OSPREY. Family Pandionidae 

Pandion halicetus carolinensis. 




Range. Whole of temperate 
America from the Arctic circle 
south to the equator, most abun- 
dant along the sea coasts. 

Real old birds have the head 
whiter, and less white edging 
to the back feathers, than do 
the young. Feet very strong, 
and very hard and rough, per- 
fectly adapted to grasping slip- 
pery fish; outer toe can be used 
equally as well, either in front 
or behind, when perching or 
grasping their prey. 

Probably this great fisherman 
is as well known from one end 
of the country to the other as 
any of our wild birds. He is 
protected by law in a great many 
states and by custom in nearly 
all localities where they breed. 
It is one of the pleasantest 
sights along the coast to watch 
a number of these great birds 
as they soar at an elevation 
above the water, watching for 
fish to come near the surface, when, with folded wings, the bird speeds down- 
ward and plunges into the water, rarely missing his prey. In many localities 
they are very tame and nest in the vicinity of houses, sometimes even in the 
yard. Their nests are platforms of sticks, which, being used year after year 
and constantly added to, become of enormous proportions. They lay two or 
three eggs of a bright creamy color, handsomely blotched with bright chestnut 
brown. They show a great diversity of sise as well as markings, but average, 
2.40x1.80. 



American Osprey 





15 




OSPREY LEAVING NEST 



C. A. Reed 



BARN OWLS. 



BIRDS OF PREY 

Family Alucondidae 



365. BARN OWL. Aluco pratincola. 

Range. Chiefly in the southern parts of the 
United States ; north casually to Massachusetts, 
Minnesota and Washington. 





White 

This is one of the lightest colored of the 
Owls; it has a long, peculiarly hooded face, 

from which it gets the name of "Monkey-faced Barn Owl 

Owl." Its plumage is yellowish buff, specked and barred lightly with blackish. 

It nests usually in hollow cavities of trees, but appears to have no objections 
to barns, holes in banks, or anywhere it can find a concealed crevice in which 
to deposit its four to six pure white eggs; size 1.70 x 1.30. 

HORNED OWL. Family Strigidae 

366. LONG-EARED OWL. Asio rvilsonianus. 

Range. North America, breeding from the southern parts of British America, 
southward. ; 

This species is 15 inches in length; it can easily be separated from any other 

species by its long ear tufts, brownish face, 

and barred underparts. Their food consists 
almost entirely of small rodents, which they 
catch at night. Most of their nests are found 





"Lone- eared Owl 



White 

in trees, thay generally using old Crow's Oi 
Hawk's nests. They also, in some localities, 
nest in hollow trees, or in crevices among 
rocks. They lay from four to seven pure white 
eggs; size 1.55x1.35. 
227 





LONG-EARED OWL ON NEST 



367. SHORT-EARED OWL. Asio fiammeus. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 
from the middle portions of the United States 
northward, and wintering in the United States. 



BIRDS OF PREY 





Short-cared Owl 



White 

This species is of the size of. the last, but is 
paler, has very short ear tufts, and is streaked 
beneath. Its habits are the same except that it 
frequently hunts, over the marshes and mead- 
ows, on dark days and towards dusk. 

Their four to seven pure white eggs are laid upon the ground in marshy 
places, sometimes upon a lining of sticks and weeds, and are generally under a 
bush, or close to an old log. Size of eggs 1.55 x 1.25. 

368. BARRED OWL. Strix varia varia. . ,/* :r * 

Range. Eastern North America, from 
the British Provinces, southward; west to 
the Rockies. 

This species is the most common of 
the large owls, and can be distinguished 
by its mottled and barred gray and white 
plumage, and lack of ear tufts; length 20 
inches. It is the bird commonly meant 
by the term "hoot owl", and being strictly 



White 

nocturnal, is rarely seen flying in the day time, 
unless disturbed from its roosting place in the 
deep woods. Its food consists chiefly of rats, 
mice and frogs, and sometimes, but not often, 
poultry. It nests in the heart of large woods, 
generally in hollows of large trees, and less 
often in deserted Crow's nests. They lay from 
two to four pure white eggs, averaging con- 
siderably smaller than those of the Great Horn- 
ed Owl; size 1.95x1.65. 



368a. FLORIDA BARRED OWL. 
Strix varia alleni. 

Range. Florida and the Gulf States; north 
to South Carolina. 
229 





,. 



Barred Owl 




BARRED OWL 



Chas. W. Long 



BIRDS OF PREY 



368b. TEXAS BARRED OWL. 
Strix varia albogilva. 

Range. Southern Texas. 

A very similar but slightly paler variety than 
the Barred Owl, and with the toes bare, as in 
alien i. Eggs indistinguishable. 



369. SPOTTED OWL. 
dentalis. 



Stria,' occidentalis occi- 



Range. Western United States, from south- 
ern Oregon and Colorado, southward. 

Similar to the Barred Owl, but spotted, in- 
stead of barred, on the back of head and neck, 
and much more extensively barred on the under 
parts. The nesting habits do not appear to 
differ in any respect from those of the eastern 
Barred Owl, and their eggs, which are from two 
to four in number, can not be distinguished 
from those of the latter species; size 2.05 x 1.80. 




Great Gray Owl 



369a. NORTHERN SPOTTED OWL. Strix occidentalis caurina. 

Range. Northwestern United States and British Columbia. 
Similar to the preceding, but darker, both above and below; nesting the same, 
in hollow trees or in old Hawk's or Crow's nests. Eggs not distinguishable. 



370. GREAT GRAY OWL. 

Scotiaptex nebulosa. 

Range. Northern North America; 
wintering regularly south to the north- 
ern border of the United States and 
casually farther. 

This is the largest of American Owls, 
being about 26 inches in length; it 
does not weigh nearly as much, how- 
ever, as the Great Horned or Snowy 
Owls, its plumage being very light 
and fluffy, and dark gray in color, 
mottled with white. The facial disc is 
very large, and the eyes are small and 
yellow, while those of the Barred Owl 
are large and blue black. They nest in 
heavily wooded districts, building 
their nests of sticks, chiefly in pine 
trees. The two to four white eggs are laid during May and June; size 2.15 x 1.70. 




White 



*!; *:.^v^^^ 

_i* _ ,=^-r- / f ,1' LI *l,I> ' ^W&r) '" ' "ZZffZF?***'* ' 




THE BIRD BOOK 




[370a.J LAPP OWL. 

Scotiaptex nebulosa lapponica. 

A paler form of the Great Gray Owl, inhabit 
ing the Arctic regions of the Old World; acci- 
dental on the coast of Alaska. Their nesting 
habits and eggs do not differ from those of the 
American bird. 



371. 



RICHARDSON'S OWL. 
erea richardsoni. 



Cryptoglaux fun 




Richardson's Owl 

Saw-whet Owl 



White 



Range. Northern North America, breeding north of the United States ; win- 
ters south to our border and casually farther. 

This is a dark grayish and white bird, 10 inches in length, and without ear 
tufts. Breeds commonly in the extensively wooded districts of British America, 
chiefly in the northern parts. Their three or four white eggs are usually at 
the bottom of a cavity in a tree, but occasionally the birds build a rude nest of 
sticks and twigs, lined with leaves and placed in trees at a moderate height 
from the ground. Size of eggs, 1.25 x 1.05. 




372. SAW-WHET OWL; ACADIAN OWL. Cryptoglaux acadica acadica. 

Range. North America, breeding in the northern parts of the United States 
and in British America, and south in the Rockies to Mexico; winters south to 
the middle portions of the United States. 

This small species (length 8 inches) is marked very similarly to the preceding, 
but the plumage is brown instead of gray. They normally nest in hollow trees. 
generally in deserted Woodpecker holes, in extensively wooded sections, and 
usually in mountainous country, especially in the United States. They have 
also been known to nest in bird boxes near faa?m houses and in old Crow's nests. 
During April or May, they lay from three to six white eggs. Size 1.20x1.00. 
They are quiet and chiefly nocturnal birds, not often seen, and may be found 
nesting in any of the northern states. 

372a. NORTHWESTERN SAW-WHET OWL. Cryptoglaux acadica scoticea. 
Range. A dark variety found on the coast of British Columbia. 




232 



BIRDS OF PREY 



373. SCREECH OWL. Otus asio asio. 

Range. North America, east of the plains 
and from the southern British Provinces to 
Florida. 

This well known 
species, which is of- 
ten called "Little 
Horned Owl" be- 
cause of its ear tufts f j 
is found either in the I 
type form of some of 1|V 
its varieties in all 
parts of the United 
States. They have 
two color phases, the 
plumage being either Whitp 

a yellowish brown or 

gray, and black and white; these color phases 
are not dependent upon sex or locality, as often 
young or both phases are found in the same 
riest; the gray phase is the most abundant. 
They nest anywhere in hollow trees, being 
found very frequently in decayed stubs of apple trees. They also often nest in 
barns or other old buildings which are not frequented too freely. Their food 
consists chiefly of mice and meadow moles, with occasionally small birds. 
During April or May they lay their white eggs, the full complement of which 
is from five to eight. Size 1.35 x 1.20. The nesting habits of all the sub-species, 
as far as we can learn, are exactly like those of the eastern Screech Owl; the 
eggs cannot be distinguished, and in most cases, even the birds cannot be dis- 
tinguished. 




Screech Owl 



373a. FLORIDA SCREECH OWL. Otus asio ftoridanus. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 

Slightly smaller and darker than asin. The eggs average slightly smaller. 
Size 1.30x1.15. 

373b. TEXAS SCREECH OWL. Otus asio mccalli. 

Range. Texas, and southward into Mexico. Very similar to floridanus. 

373c. CALIFORNIA SCREECH OWL. Otus asio bendirei. 
Range. Coast of California and Oregon. Size of, but darker than asio. 

373d. KENNICOTT'S SCREECH OWL. Otus asio kennicotti. 

Range. Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. This is the darkest of the 
Screech Owls and averages a trifle larger than the eastern form. 



373e. ROCKY MOUNTAIN SCREECH OWL. Otus asio maxwellia. 

Range. Foothills of the Rockies, from Colorado to Montana. This is the 
palest form of the Screech Owl, Of the same size as the last. 

233 




THE BIRD BOOK 




374_375a 



373f. MEXICAN SCREECH OWL. Otus asio cineraceus. 
Range. Western Mexico and southwestern border of 
the United States. A gray form with little or no buff, and 
more numerously barred below. 

373g. AIKEN'S SCREECH OWL. Otus asio aikeni. 

Range. El Paso County, Colorado. A gray form, with 
the dark markings coarser and more numerous than in any 
other. 

373h. MACFARLANE'S SCREECH OWL. 

Otus asio macfarlanei. 

Range. Northern border of the United States from 
Washington to Montana. 

373.1. SPOTTED SCREECH OWL. Otus trichopsis. 

Range. Mountains of southern Arizona, south into 
Mexico. 

A grayish species, similar to asio, but paler and more 
finely barred beneath, and with whitish spots on the 
feathers of the foreback. The nesting habits and eggs are 
probably the same as those of the Screech Owl. 



373.2. XANTUS'S SCREECH OWL. Otus xantusi. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

A grayish species with the back and underparts finely vermiculated with red- 
dish brown, and with streaks of darker. It is not likely that the habits or eggs 
of this species will be found to differ from those of the Screech Owl. 

374. FLAMMULATED SCREECH OWL. Otus flammeolus flammeolus. 

Range. Mountain ranges of Mexico, north to Colorado and west to California. 

This species is smaller than a trio, has shorter ear tufts, the plumage is much 
streaked and edged with rusty, and the toes are unfeathered to their base. They 
nest in hollow trees, generally using deserted Woodpecker holes. Their three 
or four eggs are white. Size 1.15 x .95. This species is uncommon in all parts 
of its range. 



374a. DWARF SCREECH OWL. Otus flammeolus idahaensis. 

Range. Local in Idaho, eastern Washington and California. 

This rare variety is smaller than the preceding and is considerably paler, 
eggs have not been described, but should be a trifle smaller than the last. 



Its 





334 



BIRDS OF PREY 



37!>- GREAT HORNED OWL, 

Bubo virginianus virginianus. 
Range. North America, east of the Plains 
and north to Labrador. 





White 



Great Horned Owl 



This species and its varieties are the only large Owls having conspicuous ear 
tufts. They are about 22 inches in length, and have a mottled brown, black and 
white plumage, barred below. This is also one of the "Hoot Owls," but is not 
nearly as abundant as the Barred Owl. It is one of the strongest of the family, 
and captures rabbits, grouse and poultry, and is very often found to have been 
feeding upon, or to have been in the immediate vicinity of a skunk. They nest 
very early, January, February and March. Deserted Hawk's or Crow's nests 
are very frequently used by this bird, if they are located in dense woods. They 
also sometimes nest in hollow cavities in large trees. They lay from two to 
four pure white eggs. Size 2.25 x 1.85. 



WESTERN HORNED OWL. Bubo virginianus pallescens. 
Range. Western North America, except the Pacific coast. 

A smaller and lighter colored form of the preceding, having the same habits 
and the eggs being indistinguishable from those of the eastern bird. 



in 



ARCTIC HORNED OWL. Bubo virginianus subarcticus. 

Range. Interior of Arctic America from Hudson Bay to Alaska; south 
winter to the northwestern tier of states. 

A very pale colored Horned Owl with little or no buff or brownish in the 
plumage, some specimens (very rare) being pure white with only a few black 
bars on the back. Their nesting habits are the same and the eggs do not vary 
appreciably from those of the eastern Horned Owl. 

375C. DUSKY HORNED OWL. Bubo virginianus saturatus. 

Range. Pacific coast from California to Alaska. 

This is the darkest of the Horned Owls, the extreme case being nearly black 
on the back and very dark below. Nesting the same as the Great Horned Owl. 



375d. PACIFIC HORNED OWL. Bubo virginianus pacificus. 

Range. California, southward and east to Arizona. 

Smaller and darker than the eastern form but not as dark as the last, 
the same as those of the others. 



Eggs 




375e. DWARF HORNED OWL. 

Bubo virginianus elachistus. 

Range. Lower California. 

This is a similar but darker form of the 
Horned Owl and is very much smaller than 
virginianus. The nesting habits will be the 
same, but the eggs may average smaller. 



BIRDS OF PREY 




V 



White 




Snowy Owl 



376. SNOWY OWL. Nyctea nyctea. 

Range. Arctic regions, breeding within the Arctic Circle and wintering to 
the northern border of the United States and casually farther. 

This very beautiful species varies in plumage from pure white, unmarked, to 
specimens heavily and broadly barred with blackish brown. It is, next to the 
Great Gray Owl, the largest species found in America, being 2 feet in length. 
Like the Great Horned Owls, they are very strong, fearless, and rapacious birds, 
feeding upon hares, squirrels and smaller mammals, as well as Grouse, Ptar- 
migan, etc. They nest upon the ground, on banks or mossy hummocks on the 
dry portions of marshes, laying from two to eight eggs, white in color and with 
a, smoother shell than those of the Great Horned Owl. Size 2.25 x 1.75. Data. 
Point Barrow, Alaska, June 16, 1898. Three eggs laid in a hollow in the moss. 

[377-] EUROPEAN HAWK OWL. Surnia ulula ulula. 

Range. Northern portion of the Old World; accidental in Alaska. 
Similar to the American species, but lighter and more brownish. 





THE BIRD BOOK 




377a. HAWK OWL. Surnia ulula caparoch. 

Range. Northern North America, breeding 
from the central portions of British America 
northward; probably also breeds in the Rocky 
Mountains in the northern tier of states and 
casually farther. 







White 



1 

| . This handsome mottled and barred, gray and 

Am i TTawk Owl black Owl mi ht readily be mistaken for a 

Hawk, because of his Hawk-like appearance 

and long rounded tail. They are very active birds, especially in the day time, 
for they are more diurnal than nocturnal; their food is mostly of small rodents, 
and also small birds. They nest either in the tops of large fir trees, in hollows 
of stumps, or, in some cases, upon the ground. When in trees their nests are 
made of twigs, leaves and weeds, and sometimes lined with moss and feathers; 
they lay from three to eight white eggs, size 1.50 x 1.20. Data. Labrador, May 
3, 1899. Five eggs. Nest in the top of a dead tree, 15 feet from the ground. 



378. BURROWING OWL. Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea. 

Range. Western North America from the Mississippi 
Valley west to California; north to the southern parts 
of British America and south to Central America. 

These peculiar birds are wholly different in plumage, 
form and habits from any other American Owls. They 
can readily be recognized by their long, slender and 
scantily feathered legs. Their plumage is brownish, 
spotted with white above, and white, barred with brown 
below; length 10 inches. They nest, generally in large 
communities in burrows in the ground, usually deserted 
Prairie Dog holes. While generally but a single pair 
occupy one burrow, as many as twenty have been found nesting together. 
Sometimes the burrows are unlined, and again may have a carpet of grasses 
and feathers. Their white eggs generally number from six to ten; size 1.25 x 
1.00. Data. Sterling, Kans., May 7, 1899. Nest of bits of dry dung at the end of 
a deserted Prairie Dog burrow. 




White 





BIRDS OF PREY 



37 8a. FLORIDA BURROWING 
OWL. Speotyto cunicularia 
floridana. 

Range. Local in the interior 
of Florida. 

Like the last, but slightly 
smaller and paler, and with the 
tarsus less feathered. Their 
habits or eggs do not differ from 
the preceding. 

379- PYGMY OWL. Glaucidium 
gnoma gnoma. 

Range. Rocky Mountain re- 
gion and westward; from Brit- 
ish Columbia southward. These 
interesting little Owls, which are 
but seven inches in length, feed 
in the day time upon insects, 
mice and, occasionally, small 
birds. They frequent extensive- 
ly wooded districts, chiefly in 
the mountain ranges. They nest 
in tall trees, generally in desert- 
ed Woodpeckers' holes, laying 
three or four white eggs during 
May; size about 1.00 x .90. 




Burrowing Owl 



379a. CALIFORNIA PYGMY OWL. Glaucidium gnoma calif ornicum. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia, south through California. This 
sub-species is darker and more brownish than the last. It is not an uncommon 
bird in California. They nest in the tallest trees along the ranges, often being 
found 75 or more feet from the ground. The eggs do not differ from those of 
the Pygmy Owl, ranging in size from 1.00 x .85 to 1.20 x .95. 

379-1. HOSKIN'S PYGMY OWL. Glaucidium hoskinsi. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

This species is smaller and more gray than the preceding. It is not probable 
that its manners of nesting or eggs differ in any respect from those of the others 
of this genus. 




239 




THE BIRD BOOK 




380. FERRUGINOUS PYGMY OWL. 
Glaucidium phalcenoides. 

Range. Mexico and Central America; north to the Mex- 
ican border of the United States. 

This species is of the same size as the last, but is much 
tinged with rufous on the upper parts, and the tail is of a 
bright chestnut brown color, crossed by about eight bars 
of black. They nest in hollow cavities in trees, from ten 
to forty feet from the ground, laying three or four glossy 
white eggs; size 1.10 x .90. 



381. ELF, OWL. Micropallas whitneyi. 






Range. Mexico, north to the bordering states. 
This odd little bird is the smallest 
member of the family found in Amer- 
ica, attaining a length of only six in- 
ches. In plumage it may be described 
as similar to a very small, earless 
Screech Owl, only with the pattern of 
the markings a great deal finer. They 
are said to be quite abundant in the 
table lands of central Mexico and in 
southern Arizona, where they build 
their nests in deserted Woodpeckers' holes, perhaps most frequently in the 
giant cactus. It is said to be more nocturnal than the Pygmy Owls and to feed 
almost exclusively upon insects. They lay from three to five eggs having a 
slight gloss. Size 1.02 x .90. Data. Southern Arizona, May 22, 1902. Nest in a 
deserted Woodpecker hole. Two eggs. 




380 381 



White 





240 



PAROQUETS AND PARROTS. Order XIII. PSITTACI. 
Family PSITTACIDAE 



382. CAROLINA PAROQUET. 

Conuropsis carolinensis. 

Range. Now rare in Florida and along the 
Gulf coast to Indian Territory. As late as 1885, 
the Carolina Paroquets were abundant in the 
South Atlantic and Gulf States, but owing to 
their wanton destruction by man, they have 
been exterminated in the greater portion of 
their range, and now are rarely seen in any 
locality, and then only in the most unhabitable 
swamps and thickets. A reliable account of 
their nesting habits is lacking, as are also spe- 
cimens of their eggs 
taken from wild birds. 
They are said to build 
rude nests of sticks 
upon horizontal bran- 
ches of cypress trees, 
and to nest in colo- 
nies; it is also claim- 
ed that they nest in 
hollow trees, laying 
from three to five pure 
white eggs. The one 
figured is one of three 
laid in confinement at Washington, D. C., by a 
pair of birds owned by Mr. Robert Ridgeway. 




White 




Ca,rolina Paroquet 



It is 1.31x1.06 and was laid 



July 12, 1892. This set is in the collection of Mr. John Lewis Childs. 



382.1. THICK-BILLED PARROT. Rhynchopsitta 
pachyrhyncha. 

Range. Mexico, north casually to the Mexican border of the United States. 
This large Parrot (16 inches long) has a heavy black bill, and the plumage is 
entirely green except for the deep red forehead, strips over the eye, shoulder, 
and thighs, and the yellowish under wing coverts. Their eggs are white and 
are laid in natural cavities in large trees in forests. 



CUCKOOS, TROGANS, KINGFISHERS, ETC. Order XIV. 
CUCKOOS, ANIS, ETC. Family CUCULIDAE 

[383.] ANI. Crotophaga ani. 

Range. Northeastern South America and the West Indies; casual in Florida, 
and along the Gulf coast; accidental in Pennsylvania. 

This species is similar to the next, but the bill is smoother and without 
grooves.. Its nesting habits are the same as those of the more common Ameri- 
can species. 

241 




16 




ROADRUNNER 



CUCKOOS, ETC. 



384. GROOVE-BILLED ANI. 

Crotophaga sulcirostris. 

Range. Mexico and the border of the United 
States; common in southern Texas. This odd 
species has a Cuckoo-like form, but is wholly 
blue black in color, and has a high thin bill 
with three conspicuous longitudinal grooves on 
each side. They build 
large bulky nests of 
twigs, lined with 
leaves and grasses, 
and located in low 
trees and bushes. They 
build in small colo- 
nies but do not, as is 
claimed of the com- 
mon Ani, build a large 
nest for several to oc- 
cupy. They lay from 

three to five eggs of a greenish blue color, cov- 
ered with a chalky white deposit. Size 1.25 
x 1.00. They are laid in May or June. 




38+. 




385. 



Road Runner 
Groove-billed Ani 



385. ROAD-RUNNER. Geococcyx calif ornianus. 

Range. Western United States from Oregon, Colorado and Kansas, south- 
ward; most abundant on the Mexican border, and wintering in central Mexico. 

This curious species is known as the "Chaparral 
Cock," "Ground Cuckoo," "Snake-killer," etc. Its 
upper parts are a glossy greenish brown, each 
feather being edged or fringed with whitish; the 
tail is very long, broad and graduated, the feathers 
v A being broadly tipped with white. They are noted 
fo~ their swiftness on foot, paddling over the 
; y ground at an astonishing rate, aided by their out- 
^ |>' stretched wings and spread tail, which act as 
aeroplanes; their legs are long and have two toes 
front and two back. Their food consists of lizards 

QHJ and small snakes, they being particularly savage 

White in their attacks upon the latter. They build rude 

nests of sticks and twigs, in low trees or bushes, 

and during April or May, lay from four to ten eggs, depositing them at inter- 
vals of several days. They are pure white and measure 1.55 x 1.20. 




243 




THE BIRD BOOK 



386. 




Mangrove Cuckoo 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo 



386. MANGROVE CUCKOO. 

Coccyzus minor minor. 

Range. West Indies, Mexico and South 
America, north regularly to southern Florida. 

This species is very 
similar to our common 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 
but the whole under- 
parts are deep buff. It 
is a common species and 
nests abundantly in the 
West Indies, but occurs 
only in limited numbers 
in southern Florida. 
Their nests are shallow 
platforms of twigs and rootlets, placed in 
bushes and low trees, and upon which they lay 
three or four pale greenish blue eggs, similar 
to those of the Yellow-billed species but averag- 
ing smaller; size 1.15 x .85. 

[386a.] MAYNARD'S CUCKOO. 

Coccyzus minor maynardi. 




Light greenish blue 



Range. Bahamas; accidental on Florida Keys, 
and paler form than the preceding. 



This is a slightly smaller 




387. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. Coccyzus americanus americanus. 

Range. United States east of the Plains and from southern Canada south- 
ward. 

This species is generally abundant in all localities in its range, which afford 
suitable nesting places of tangled underbrush or vines. It may be distinguished 
from the Black-billed variety by its larger size (12 inches long), blackish tail 
with broad white tips, and yellowish lower mandible. They are often regarded 

by the superstitious as forecasters of rain, and as 
omens, probably because of their gutteral croaking 
notes. 

Their nests are made of twigs, lined with shreds 
of grape vine bark or catkins; the nests are gener- 
ally very shabbily made and so flat on the top that 
the eggs frequently roll off. They are located near 
the ground in bushes or low trees. The three or four 
eggs are deposited at intervals of several days, and 
frequently young birds and eggs are found in 
the nest at the same time. Like the Flicker, this 
bird will frequently continue laying if one egg is 
removed at a time, and as many as twelve have been taken from the same nest, 
by this means. The eggs are light greenish blue. Size 1.20 x .90. They are 
usually laid during May or June. 



244 




Pale greenish blue 




A. R. Spaid 
NEST ANP EGGS OF YELLO \V-BlLJvEp CUCKOO 



THE BIRD BOOK 




387a. CALIFORNIA CUCKOO. 

Coccyzus americanus occidentalis. 

Range. Western North America, from 
British Columbia, southward. 

Slightly larger and with a stouter bill than 
the last. Eggs not distinguishable. 

388. BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO. Coccyzus 
erythrophthalmus. 

Range. United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains; north to Labrador and Manitoba; 
south in winter to Central and South America. 

This species is rather 
more common in the 
northern part of the 
United States than the 
Yellow - billed variety. 
The bird is smaller, has 
a blackish bill, and the 
tail is the same color as 
the back and only slight- 










Greenish blue 



similar locations and of the same materials as used by the Yellow-bill; the three 
or four eggs are smaller and a darker shade of greenish blue. Size 1.15 x .85. 
All the Cuckoos are close sitters and will not leave the nest until nearly reached 
with the hand, when they will slowly nutter off through the underbrush, and 
continue to utter their mournful "Kuk-kuk-kuk," many times repeated. 

[388.1.] KAMCHATKA CUCKOO. Cuculus canorus telephonus. 

An Asiatic subspecies of the common European Cuckoo, accidentally occur- 
ring in Alaska. 



TROGONS. Family TROGONID^ 




389. COPPERY-TAILED TROGON. 
Trogon ambiguus. 

Range. Southern Mexico, north to 
Grande in Texas and in southern Arizona, 
localities they probably breed. 

This is the only member of this 
family of beautiful birds which 
reaches our borders. This species 
is 12 inches in length, and is a 
metallic green color on the upper 
parts and breast, and with coppery 
reflections of the middle tail feath- 
ers, the outer ones being white, 
very finely vermiculated with black, 
as are the wing coverts. The under- 
parts, except for a white band 
across the breast, are rosy red. This 
cavities in large trees, generally in large 
pecker holes. They are also said to have 
ing in holes in banks. Their eggs are 
number and are a dull white in color. 

246 



the Lower Rio 
in both of which 




species nest in 
, deserted Wood- 
been found nest- 
three or four in 
Size 1,10 x .85. 



387a 389 



KINGFISHERS 



KINGFISHERS. Family ALCEDINID^E 



390. BELTED KINGFISHER. Ceryle alcyon. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 
from southern United States, northward and 
wintering from the southern parts of its breed- 
ing range, southward. 

This well known bird is abundant in all lo- 
calities near water, where its rattling notes are 
among the most familiar of sounds. Their food 
is almost entirely of small fish, which they 
catch by plunging upon from their perch on an 
old dead limb over- 
hanging the water, 
or by hovering in 
the air like an Os- / 
prey. Their nests / 
are located at the [ : 
end of burrows in > 1 
sand banks or the 
banks of creeks and 
rivers. These tun- 
nels, which are dug 
by the birds, gener- 
ally commence two or three feet from the top 
of the bank and extend back from six to eight 
feet, either in a straight line or curved; the end is enlarged to form a suitable 
nesting place, in which from five to eight eggs are laid. They are glossy and 
pure white in color. Size 1.35 x 1.05. Data. Lake Quinsigamond, Massa- 
chusetts, June 6, 1900. 7 eggs at the end of a 6 foot tunnel in a sand bank. Bird 
removed by hand from the nest. Collector, C. E. Howe. 




White 



Belted Kingfisher 



[390.1.] RINGED KINGFISHER. Ceryle torquata. 



Range. Mexico, north casually to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

This handsome species is much larger than the Belted Kingfisher and the 
underparts are nearly all bright chestnut, except the white throat. They nest in 
river banks the same as the common American species, and the eggs are white, 
but larger. Size 1.45 x 1.10. 





247 



WOODPECKERS 



391. TEXAS KINGFISHER. 

Ceryle americana septentrionalis 

Range. Southern Texas, south through Mex- 
cio. 

This variety is much smaller than the Belted, 
length 8 inches, and is a lustrous greenish 
above, variously speckled with white, and is 
white below, spotted with greenish. It is a 
common and resident species in southern 
Texas, where it lays its eggs in holes in the 
banks along streams. The eggs are white and 
glossy, and measure .95 x .70. 



WOODPECKERS. Order XV. PICI. 
Family PICIDAE 

Woodpeckers are well known birds having 
sharp chisel-like bills, sharply pointed and 
stiffened tail feathers, and strongly clawed feet 
with two toes forward and two back, except in 
one genus. Their food is insects and grubs, 

which they get by boring in trees, and from under the bark, clinging to the 
sides of trunks or the under side of branches with their strong curved nails, 
aided by the tail, for a prop. They are largely resident where found. 




Texas King-fisher 



392. IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. 
Campephilus principalis. 



Range. Locally distributed, and rare, in 
Florida, along the Gulf coast and north casual- 
ly to South Carolina and Arkansas. 

This is the largest of the Woodpeckers found 
within our borders, being 20 inches in length. 
But one other American species exceeds it in 
size, the Imperial Woodpecker of Mexico, which 
reaches a length of nearly two feet; as this 
species is found within a few miles of our 
Mexican border, it may yet be classed as a 
North American bird. The present species has 
a large, heavy, ivory-white bill. They can 
readily be identified, at a great distance, from 
the Pileated Woodpecker by the large amount 
of white on the secondaries. They used to be 
not uncommonly seen in many sections of the 
southeast but are now found very locally and 
only in the largest and remote woods. They 
nest in holes in large trees in the most impen- 
etrable swamps; laying three, and probably as 
six pure white glossy eggs measuring 1.45 x 1.00. 

249 




Woodpecker 





Hairy Woodpecker 



THE BIRD BOOK 

3Q3. HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

Dryobates villosus villosus. 
Range. United States east of the Plains and 
from North Carolina to Canada. 

The Hairy Woodpecker or its sub-species is 
found in all parts of North America. The nest- 
ing habits and eggs of all the sub-species are 
not in any way different from those of the 
eastern bird, consequently what is said in re- 
Sard to the eastern form will apply equally to 
all its varieties. 

Except during the win- 
ter months, this species 
is not as commonly seen 
about houses or orchards 
as the Downy Wodpecker. 
During the summer they 
retire to the larger woods 
to nest, laying their eggs 
in holes in the trunks or White 

limbs of trees at any height from the ground, 
and generally using the same hole year after 
year, and often twice or three times during 
one season, if the first sets are taken. They 
lay from three to six glossy white eggs ; size .95 x .70. This species can be dis- 
tinguished from the Downy Woodpeckers by their larger size (9 inches long), 
and the white outer tail feathers, which are unspotted. 

393a. NORTHERN HAIRY WOODPECKER. Dryobates villosus leucomelas. 
Range. North America, north of the United States. 
Slightly larger than the preceding. 

3931). SOUTHERN HAIRY WOODPECKER. Dryobates villosus auduboni. 
Range. Southern United States; north to South Carolina. 
Similar to the Hairy Woodpecker, but smaller. 

393c. HARRIS'S WOODPECKER. Dryobates villosus harrisi. 

Range. Pacific coast from California to British Columbia. 

Similar to the Hairy but with fewer or no white spots 
on the wing coverts, and grayish on the underparts. 

393d. CABANIS WOODPECKER. 

Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 

Range. Southern California, east to Arizona and south 
into Mexico. Like the preceding but whiter below. 

393e ROCKY MOUNTAIN HAIRY WOODPECKER. Dryo- 
bates villosus monticola. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south 
to New Mexico. 

Similar to liarrisi but slightly larger and pure white be- 
low. 

393f. QUEEN CHARLOTTE WOODPECKER. Dryobates 
villosus picoideus. 

Range. Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 
Like Harris Woodpecker, but with the flanks streaked 
and the middle pf the back spotted with blackish. 393c 394a 

50 




WOODPECKERS 



394. SOUTHERN DOWNY WOODPECKER. 
Dryobates pubescens pubescens. 

Range. Gulf and South Atlantic States; 
north to South Carolina. 

This species, which is the smallest of the 
North American Woodpecker (length 6 inches), 
is similar in plumage to the Hairy Woodpecker, 
but has the ends of the white, outer tail feath- 
ers spotted with black. Like the last species, 
it is represented by sub-spe- 
cies in all parts of North X 
America, the nesting habits \ 
of all the varieties being the 
same and the eggs not dis- 
tinguishable from one an- 
other. They nest in holes in 
trees, very often in orchards 
or trees in the neighborhood of houses. They are 
not nearly as shy as the Hairy Woodpeckers, and 
also associate with other birds very freely. The 
three to six eggs are laid upon the bottom of 
the cavity, with no lining. The height of the 
nesting season is during May or June. The 
white glossy eggs are .75 x .60. 



white, glossy 




Southern Downy 



394a. GAIRDNER'S WOODPECKER. Dryobates. 
pubescens gairdneri. 

Range. Pacific coast from northern California to British Columbia. 

This sub-species is like the last, but is without spots on the wing coverts and 
is a dingy white below, differing the same as Harris Woodpecker from the Hairy. 

394b. BATCHELDER'S WOODPECKER. Dryobates pubescens homorus. 
Range. Rocky Mountain region of the United States. 
Like the last but whiter below. 

394c. DOWNY WOODPECKER. Dryobates pubescens medianus. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains and north of South Carolina. 
Similar to the southern variety but slightly larger and whiter. 

394d. NELSON'S DOWNY WOODPECKER. Dryobates 'pubescens nelsoni. 
Range. Alaska. 
Similar to the northern variety but still larger. 

394e. WILLOW WOODPECKER. Dryobates pubescens turati. 

Range. California except the northern parts and the ranges of the south. 
Similar to Gairdner Woodpecker, but smaller and whiter. 

395. RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER. Dryobates borealis. 

Range. Southeastern United States, from South Carolina and Arkansas, 
southward. 

This black and white species may be known from any other because of 
the uniform black crown and nape, the male having a small dot of red on 
either side of the crown, back of the eye. They are quite abundant in ttie 
Gulf States and Florida, where they nest during April and May, and in some 
localities in March. They build in hollow trees or stumps at an elevation 
from the ground, laying from three to six glgssy white eggs; size .95 x .70. 

251 



THE BIRD BOOK 




396, 



Red-cockaded Woodpecker 

Texas Woodpecker 



3Q6. TEXAS WOODPECKER. 

Dryobates scalaris bairdi. 

Range. Southwestern United States from 
southern Colorado south to northern Mexico. 
This species is brownish white below, has the 
back barred with black and white, and the male 
has the whole crown red, shading into mixed 
black and whitish on the forehead. Its habits 
and nesting are just the same as those of the 
Downy, but the three or four white eggs, that 
they lay in April, are larger; size .80 x .65. 

396a. SAN LUCAS WOODPECKER. Dryo- 
bates scalaris lucasanus. 

Range. Lower California, north to the Colo- 
rado Desert, California. 

Very similar to the last; less barring on the 
outer tail feathers. Eggs the same. 



397. NUTTALI/S WOODPECKER. Dryobates nuttalli. 
Range. Pacific coast from Oregon south to Lower Cal- 
ifornia. 

Similar to the Texan Woodpecker but whiter below, 
with whitish nasal tufts, and the fore part of the crown 
black and white striped, the red being confined to the 
nape region. They nest in holes in trees, either in dead 
stumps or in growing trees, and at any height above 
ground. During April or May they deposit their white 
glossy eggs upon the bottom of the cavity. The eggs 
measure .85 x .65. 

398. ARIZONA WOODPECKER. Dryobates arizonce. 
Range. Mexican border of the United States, chiefly in 

Arizona and New Mexico. 

This species is entirely different from any others of 
our Woodpeckers, being uniform brownish above, and soiled 
whitish below, spotted with black. The male bird has a 
red crescent on the nape. They are said to be fairly abund- 
ant in some sections of southern Arizona. Their nesting 
habits do not vary from those of the other Woodpeckers 
found in the same regions, and they show no especial pre- 
ference for any particular kind of a tree in which to lay 
their eggs. The nesting season appears to be at its 
height in April. The pure white eggs average in size 
about .85x.60. 




252 



WOODPECKERS 



399- WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER. 
Xenopicus albolarvatus. 

Range. Western United States from south- 
ern California to southern British Columbia. 

This odd species is wholly a dull black color, 
except for the white head and neck, and basal 
half of the primaries. They 
are quite abundant in some 
localities, particularly in 
California on mountain 
ranges. They nest at any 
height, but the greater 
number have been found 
under twenty feet from the 
ground and in old pine 
White stubs. They lay from four 

to six glossy white eggs, 

measuring .95 x .70. They are said to be more 
silent than others of the Woodpecker family, 
and rarely make the familiar tapping and never 
drum. It is claimed that they get at their 
food by scaling bark off the trees, instead of 
by boring. 



400. 



40!. 




Three-toed Woodpecker 
Arctic Three-toe^ Woodpecker 



ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. Picoides arcticus. 

As implied by their name, members of this genus have 
but three toes, two in front and one behind. The plumage 
of this species is entirely black above, and whitish below, 
with the flanks barred with blackish. The male has a 
yellow patch on the crown. They breed abundantly in 
coniferous forests in mountainous regions throughout their 
range, laying their eggs in cavities in decayed stumps and 
trees, apparently at any height, from five feet up. The 
eggs are laid in May or June. Size .95 x .70. 



White 



401. THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. Picoides americanus americanus. 

Range. Northern parts of the United States north to the Arctic regions. 

Range. From northern United States northward. , 

The chief difference between this species and the last is in the white on the 
back, either as a patch or in the form of broken bars. The nesting habits are 
just the same and the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the preceding. 
Both forms are found breeding in the same localities in the Adirondacks and in 
nearly all other portions of their range. 




253 




THE BIRD BOOK 



401a. ALASKA THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. 
Picoides americanus fasciatus. 

Range. Alaska, south to British Columbia 
and Washington. 

Like the last, but with more white on the 
back. Eggs like the arcticus. 

401b. ALPINE THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. 
Picoides americanus dorsalis. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from British Co- 
lumbia south to New Mexico. 

Slightly larger than the preceding and with 
more white on the back, almost entirely losing 
the barred effect of the American Three-toed 
variety. They nest chiefly in dead pines, lay- 
ing four or five white eggs that cannot be dis- 
tinguished from those of many other species. 
Size .95 x .70. 



Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 402. YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER. Sphyra 

picus varius varius. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains; breeding from Massachusetts 
northward, and wintering from the Carolinas and Illinois southward. 

This species is one of the most handsomely marked of the family; they can 
easily be recognized by the red crown and throat (white on the female), each 
bordered by black, and the yellowish underparts. The mem- 
bers of this genus have been found to be the only ones thai 
are really injurious, and these only to a slight extent, to cui- /-"^ 
tivated trees. This species and the two following are the only / ' ; 
real "sapsuckers," a crime that is often attributed to the most fffc 
useful of the family. Their nesting season is during May and 
June, they then resorting to the interior of the woods, where 
they deposit their four to seven glossy eggs on the bottom 
of holes in trees, generally at quite an elevation from the 
ground. Size of eggs .85 x .60. White 





402a. RED-NAPED SAPSUCKER. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region of the United States and southern Canada 
south to Mexico and west to California. 

This variety differs from the last, chiefly in addition of a band of scarlet 
on the nape in place of the white on the Yellow-bellied species. Coming as 
it does, midway between the ranges of the preceding species and the following, 
this variety, with its extension of red on the head and throat, may be regarded 
somewhat as a connecting link between the two species, but it is perfectly dis- 
tinct and does not intergrade with either. There appears to be no difference in 
the nesting habits of the two varieties, except that the present one, according to 
Bendire, shows a preference to nesting in live aspens. The eggs measure 
.90 x .65. 

254 



WOODPECKERS 



403. RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER. 
Sphyrapicus ruber ruber. 

Range. Pacific Coast from Lower Califor- 
nia to Oregon. 

Except for a whitish line from the eye to 
the bill, the entire head, neck and breast of 
this species is red, of varying shades in differ- 
ent individuals, from carmine to nearly a scar- 
let; the remainder of their plumage is very 
similar to that of the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 
This is an abundant species and in most parts 
of the range they are not timid. Like many of 
the Woodpeckers, they spend a great deal of 
their time in drumming on some dead limb. 
They nest commonly in aspens, preferably liv- 
ing ones, and are said to build a new nesting 
hole each year rather than use the old. The 
eggs are laid during May or June, being glossy 
white, five to seven in number, and measuring 
.90 x .70. 




Pileated Woodpecker 



403a. NORTHERN RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKE. 
Sphyrapicus ruber notkensis. 

Range. Pacific coast from California to Alaska. 

404. WILLIAMSON'S SAPSUCKER. Sphyrapicus thyroideus. 

This is a deeper and brighter variety, and is more yellowish on the belly. Its 
nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the southern form. 

Range. Mountain ranges from the Rockies to the Pacific; north to British 
Columbia. 

This oddly marked species shows a surprising number of variations in plum- 
age; the normal adult male is largely black on the upper parts and breast, 
with only a narrow patch of red on the throat, and with the belly, bright yellow. 
The female is entirely different in plumage and for a long time was supposed to 
be a distinct species; she is brownish in place of the black in the male, has no 
red in the plumage, and is barred with black and white on the back and wings. 
They nest at high altitudes in mountain ranges, either in coniferous forests or 
in aspens. There is no peculiarity in their nesting habits; they lay from four 
to seven eggs, glossy white. Size .97 x .67. 

405. PILEATED WOODPECKER. Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus. 

Range. Southern and South Atlantic States. 

This heavily built Woodpecker is nearly as large as the Ivory-bill, being 17 
inches in length. They are not nearly as beautiful as the Ivory-bills, their 
plumage being a sooty black instead of glossy, and the white on the wing, 
being confined to a very small patch at the base of the primaries; the whole 
crown and crest are vermillion, as is also a moustache mark in the male. They 
breed in the most heavily timbered districts, and generally at a high elevation; 
excavating a cavity sometimes 25 inches in depth and eight inches in diameter. 
In most localities they are very shy and difficult to approach. During April or 
May they lay from three to six white eggs. Size 1.30 x 1.00. 



255 



THE BIRD BOOK 

mmm 








Williamson Sapsucker 
Northern Pileated Woodpecker 



405a. NORTHERN PILEATED WOODPECKER. 
Phlceotomus pileatus abieticola. 

Range. Local throughout North America, 
from the northern parts of the United States 
northward. 

This variety is only very slightly larger 
than the preceding, it otherwise being the 
same. It is still abundant in many localities, 
but its range is rapidly being reduced, on ac- 
count of cutting away the forests. Its nesting 
habits and eggs are the same as those of the 
southern variety. 

406. RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 
Melanerpes ery throe ephalus. 

Range. United States, east of the Rockies, 
except New England; north to northern Can- 
ada; winters in southern United States. 

This beautiful species 
has a bright red head, 
neck and breast, glossy 
blue black back, wings 
and tail, and white under- 
parts, rump and second- 
aries. It is the most abund- 
ant of the family in the 
greater portion of its 
range, where it nests in 
any kind of trees or in telegraph poles at any 
height from the ground; they also sometimes 
nest in holes under the eaves of buildings. They 
are the most pugnacious of the Woodpeckers, 
and are often seen chasing one another or driv- 
ing away some other bird. They are also known 




White 



to destroy the nests and eggs of many species, 
and also to kill and devour the young, they 
being the only Woodpecker, so far as known, 
to have acquired this disreputable habit; they 
also feed upon, besides ants and larvae, many 
kinds of fruit and berries. Their nesting sea- 
son is during May and June, when they lay 
from four to eight white eggs, with less gloss 
than those of the Flicker. Size 1.00 x .75. 

407. ANT-EATING WOODPECKER. 

Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus. 

Range. Mexican border of the United States, 
southward. 

This species may be identified by the black 
region around the base of the bill, the white 
forehead, red crown and nape, yellowish throat, 
and blackish upper parts, extending in a band 
across the breast, this variety having the band 
streaked with white posteriorly. The habits of 
this variety are the same as the next which is 
most abundant in the United States. 

256 




Red-headed Woodpecker 



WOODPECKERS 



407a. CALIFORNIA WOODPECKER. 

Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. 

Range. California and Oregon. 

This bird differs from the last in having few- 
er white stripes in the black breast band. In 
suitable localities, this is the most abundant of 
Woodpeckers on the Pacific coast. They have 
none of the bad habits of the Red-heads, appear 
to be sociable among their kind, and are not 
afraid of mankind. It nests indifferently in all 
kinds of trees at any height from the ground, 
laying from three to seven eggs. Size 1.00 x 
.75. This species has the habit of storing food 
for future use developed to a greater extent 
than any other of the family. They sometimes 
completely honeycomb the exterior surface of 
decayed trees, with holes designed to hold 
acorns. 



407b. NARROW-FRONTED WOODPECKER. 

Melanerpes formicivorus angustifrons 




Red-bellied Woodpecker 



Range. Southern Lower California. 

This variety differs from the others in being slightly smaller and in having 
the white band on the forehead narrower. Its nesting habits are the same, but 
the eggs average smaller. Size .95 x .75. 



408. LEWIS'S WOODPECKER. Asyndesmus lewisi. 

Range. Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast; from 
British Columbia south to Mexico. 

A very oddly colored species, 11 inches in length hav- 
ing a dark red face, streaked red and white under 
parts, a gray breast band, and glossy greenish black 
upperparts. They are not uncommon in the greater 
part of their range, can not be called shy birds, and 
nest in all kinds of trees at heights varying from six to 
one hundred feet from the ground, the five to nine white 
eggs measuring 1.05 x .80, and being laid during May 
or June. White 




109. RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. Centurus carolinus. 

Range. United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf States north 
in nearly all parts of their range, frequenting the more heavily timbered regions, 
where they nest in any place that attracts their fancy; in some localities they 
also commonly nest in telegraph poles. They are quite tame, and during the 
winter months come about yards and houses, the same as, and often in company 
with Downy Woodpeckers. Their eggs, which are laid during May, are glossy 
white, average in size 1.00 x .75 and number from four to six. 






17 



THE BIRD BOOK 






White 



410. GOLDEN-FRONTED WOODPECKER. 
Centurus aurifrons. 

Range. Mexico and southern Texas, resident. 

This is also one of the "zebra" or "ladder- 
backed" Woodpeckers, having the back and 
wings closely barred with black and white, the 
same as the preceding; the forehead, nasal 
tufts and nape are gol- 
den yellow, and the 
male has a patch of red 
on the crown. This is 
a very common resident 
species in the Lower 
Rio Grande Valley in 
Texas, where it nests in 
trees or telegraph poles, 
sometimes so numer- 
ously in the latter situations as to become a 
nuisance. Their nesting habits are not in any 
manner peculiar, and the eggs cannot be dis- 
tinguished from those of the preceding. Size 
1.00 x .75. Laid during April and May. 



411. GILA WOODPECKER. 

Centurus uropygialis. 

Range. Mexican border of the United States, 
in southern Arizona and New Mexico. 

Like the preceding but without any yellow 
on the head, the male having a red patch in 
the center of the crown. They are locally dis- 
tributed in New Mexico, but appear to be abund- 
ant in all parts of southern Arizona, where they 
nest principally in giant cacti, but also in many other trees such as cottonwoods, 
mesquite, sycamores, etc. Besides their decided preference for giant cacti, 
there is nothing unusual in their nesting habits, and the eggs are not different 
from those of others of the genus. They lay from three to six eggs in April or 
May. Size 1.00 x .75. 



408 411 




412. FLICKER. Colaptes auratus auratus. 

Range. Southeastern United States. 

Flickers are well known, large Woodpeckers (13 
inches long), with a brownish tone to the plumage, bar- 
red on the back and spotted on the breast with black. 
The present species has a golden yellow lining to the 
wings and tail, and the shafts of the feathers are yellow; 
it has a red crescent on the nape, and the male has black 
moustache marks. This species and its sub-variety are 
the most widely known Woodpeckers in eastern North 
America, where they are known in different localities, 
by something like a hundred local names, of which 

258 




White 



WOODPECKERS 



Pigeon Woodpecker and Yellow-hammer seem 
to be the most universal. They have the undu- 
lating flight common to all Woodpeckers and 
show the white rump patch conspicuously when 
flying. They are often found on the ground in 
pastures or on side hills, feeding upon ants; 
they are more terrestrial than any others of 
the family. They nest anywhere, where they 
can find or make a suitable cavity for the re- 
ception of their eggs; in trees in woods or sol- 
itary trees in large pastures, in apple trees in 
orchards, in fence posts, in holes under the 
roofs of buildings, etc. They ordinarily lay 
from five to ten very glossy eggs, but it has 
been found that they will continue laying, if 
one egg is removed from the nest at a time, 
until in one case seventy-one eggs were secur- 
ed. Fresh eggs may be found at any time from 
May until August, as they frequently raise two 
broods a season. Size of eggs, 1.10 x .90 with 
considerable variations. 




412a. NORTHERN P'LICKER. 
tus luteus. 



Colaptes aura- 



Northern Flicker 



Range. Whole of North America, east of the Rockies, except the southeast- 
ern portion. 

Averaging larger than the preceding, but individual specimens of the north- 
ern variety are frequently found to be even smaller than the southern, and vice 
versa, making the distinction one of the study rather than Nature. 

413. RED-SHAFTED FLICKER. 
Colaptes cafer collaris. 

Range. United States west of the Rockies. 

This species is marked similarly to the pre- 
ceding, but the top of the head is brownish in- 
stead of gray, and the underparts of the wings 
and tail, and their quills are reddish. Neither 
sex has the red crescent 
on the back of the head, 
except in the case of hy- 
brids between the 'two 
species, but the male has I 
red moustache marks. \* j 

There are no differences 
in the nidification be- 
tween this species and 
the preceding, but the White 

eggs of this average a trifle larger (1.15x.90). 

41 3a. NORTHWESTERN FLICKER. Colaptes 
cafer saturatior. 

Range. Pacific coast, breeding from Oregon to Alaska. 

This is a much darker variety of the Red-shafted Flicker, but its nesting habits 
or eggs do not differ in any way. 

259 




Red-shafted Flicker 




NORTHERN FLICKER 




G. E. Moulthrope 
NEST AND EGGS OF NORTHERN FLICKER 



f.THE BIRD BOOK 

414. GILDED FLICKER. Colaptes chrysoides. 

Range. Arizona and southward through Mexico to southern Lower California. 

This pale species has the yellowish lining to the wings and tail as in the 
Flicker, but has a pale cinnamon brown crown, no crescent on back of head, and 
the male has red moustache marks. It is a common species in all localities 
where the giant cactus abounds, and shows a preference to nesting in these 
strange growths, to any other trees. Their habits are, in all respects, the same 
as those of the other Flickers and their eggs cannot be distinguished. Size 
1.10 x .90. 

414a. SAN FERNANDO FLICKER. Colaptes chrysoides brunnescens. 

Range. Northern Lower California. 

This is a slightly smaller and darker variety of the Gilded Flicker. 

415. GUADALUPE FLICKER. Colaptes rufipileus. 

Range. Guadalupe Island. 

Similar to the Red-shafted Flicker, but with the crown darker and the rump a 
solid pinkish white. They are common in a large cypress grove in the middle 
of the island, but rarely found on any other portions. The eggs have been des- 
cribed by Mr. Walter E. Bryant, who found them breeding on the island, to be 
indistinguishable from those of the others of the genus. 





GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, AND HUMMINGBIRDS. 

Order XVI. MACROCHIRES. 
GOATSUCKERS, Family CAPRIMULGIDAE. 



Goatsuckers are long winged birds, with small bills, but with an extraordin- 
arily large mouth, the opening of which extends beneath and beyond the eyes. 
They are chiefly dusk or night fliers, their food consisting of insects which 
they catch on the wing. Their plumage is mottled black, brownish and white, 
resembling the ground upon which they lay their eggs. 

262 



416. 



GOATSUCKERS AND SWIFTS 
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW. 

Antrostomus carolinensis. 
Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, 
breeding north to Virginia and Indiana, and 
west to Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

These birds are abundant summer residents 
in the southern portions of their range, but as 





Chuck -will's- widow 



Grayish white 

they are silent and hiding in the woods during 
the day time, they are not as popularly known 
as are most birds. They rarely fly during the 
day time unless disturbed from their roosting 
place which is on the ground under underbrush 
or in hollow logs. Their notes, which are a rapid and repeatedly uttered whis- 
tling repetition of their name, are heard until late in the night. They nest dur- 
ing April, May or June, laying two eggs on the ground amid the leaves in woods 
or scrubby underbrush. The eggs are grayish to creamy white in color, hand- 
somely marked with shades of lilac, gray and brownish; size 1.40 x 1.00. 

417. WHIP-POOR-WILL. Antrostomus vociferus vociferus. 

Range. North America east of the Plains ; north to the southern parts of the 
British possessions; winters along the Gulf coast and southward. 

This species is well known, by sound, in nearly all parts of its range, but 
comparatively few ever observed the bird, and probably the greater number 
mistake the Nighthawk for this species. The two species can readily be dis- 
tinguished at a distance by the absence of any pronounced white marking in 

ths wings, and by the white tips to the outer 
tail feathers in the present species, while the 
Night Hawk has a prominent white band across 
the tail, but the top is black, and the tail slight- 
ly forked. The Whip-poor-will, rarely leaves 
its place of concealment before dark, and is 
never, seen flying about cities, as are the Night- 
hawks. In their pursuit 
of insects, they glide 
like a shadow over 
fields and woods, their 
soft plumage giving 
forth no sound as their 
wings cleave the air. 
Until late at night, their 
whistling cry "whip- 
poor-will," repeated at 

intervals, rings out in all wooded hilly dis- 
tricts. Their two eggs are deposited on the 
ground among dead leaves, generally in dense 
woods. They are grayish white or cream color 
marbled with pale brown and gray, with faint 
er markings of lilac. Size 1.50 x .85. 
263 





Creamy white 



Whip-poor-will 




THE BIRD BOOK 



41 7a. STEPHEN'S WHIP-POOR-WILL. 
Antrostomus vociferus macromystax. 

Range. Arizona and New Mexico, south 
through the tableland of Mexico. 

This sub-species is slightly larger and has 
longer mouth bristles than the eastern bird. 
Their nesting habits are the same and the eggs 
differ only in averaging lighter in color, with 
fainter markings, some specimens being almost 
immaculate. 



418. POOR-WILL. Phalcenoptilus nuttalli 
nuttalli. 

Range. United States west of the Missis- 
sippi, breeding from Kansas and northern Cal- 
ifornia northward to Montana and British Co- 
lumbia. 

This handsome species ^,- ^ 

is the smallest of the fam- 
ily, being under 8 inches 

in length. Its plumage is mottled black, white and frosty 
gray, harmoniously blended together. They can easily be 
distinguished from all other Goatsuckers by their size and 
silvery appearance. They nest on the ground, either plac- 
ing their two eggs upon a bed of leaves or upon a flat rock. White 
The breeding season is from the latter part of May through July. The eggs are 
pure white and glossy; size 1.00 x .75. 




Poor-will 



Merrill's Paraque 




418a. FROSTED POOR-WILL. Phalcenoptilus nuttalli nitidus. 

Range. Texas and Arizona, north to western Kansas. 
This variety is like the last but paler, both above and below, 
tinguishable from those of others of the genus. 



Eggs indis- 




41Sb. DUSKY POOR- WILL. Phalcenoptilus nuttalli calif ornicus. 

Range. A darker race found on the coast of California, having the same nest- 
ing habits as the others. 

The egg figured is of this species. Data. Los Angeles, Cal., June 24, 1900. 
2 eggs on the ground at the foot of an oak tree on the side of a hill. Collector, 
F. M. Palmer. 




. . 



264 



GOATSUCKERS AND SWIFTS 



419- MERRILL'S PARATJQUE. Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli. 

Range. Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas. 

This species is the same length as the Chuck-will's-widow, but is not as stoutly 
built, and has a slightly longer tail. It can be dis- 
tinguished from any other of the family by its tail, 
the outer feather on each side being black (or brown- 
ish barred with black in the female), and the next 
two having white ends for nearly half their length. 
Their eggs are laid on the ground in open localities, 
and generally under the protection of an overhang- 
ing bush. They are two in number and differ greatly 
from those of any other American member of this 
family, being a buff or rich salmon buff in color, spot- 
ted and splashed with gray, lavender, and reddish brown; size 1.25 x .90. 
Data. Brownsville, Texas, April 16, 1900. Eggs laid on the ground in a dense 
thicket. Collector, Frank B. Armstrong. 




Salmon buff 




Geo. S. Fiske 



NEST AND EGGS OF WHIP-POOR-WILL 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Nighthawk 



420. NIGHTHAWK. Chord- 
eiles virginianus vir- 
ginianus. 

Range. North America, 
east of the Plains and from 
Labrador to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico; winters through Mexico 
to northern South America. 

The Nighthawk or some of 
its sub-species is found in 
nearly all parts of North 
America, its habits being the 
same in all localities. It is 




Grayish white 

of the same size as the Whip- 
poor-will, from which species 
it can readily be distinguish- 
ed by its lack of mouth bris- 
tles, forked tail with a white 
band near the end, and the 
white band across the primar- 
ies, the latter mark showing 
very plainly during flight. Be- 
sides in the country, they are 

very common in cities, where they will be seen any summer day towards dusk 
flying, skimming, sailing, and swooping over the tops of the buildings, upon 
the gravel roofs on which they often lay their eggs. They nest generally on 
rocky hillsides or in open woods, laying their two eggs upon the top of a flat 
rock. The eggs are a grayish white color, marbled, blotched and spotted with 
darker shades of gray. Size 1.20 x .85. 




420a. WESTERN NIGHTHAWK. Chordeiles vir- 
ginianus henryi. 

Range. United States west of the Plains. 

A similar bird to the preceding, but with plumage 
somewhat more rusty. It frequents the more open 
portions of the country in its range, its habits and 
nesting habits being the same as others of the former 
species; the eggs average a trifle lighter in color. 




Grayish white 



420b. FLORIDA NIGHTHAWK. Chordeiles virginianus chapmani. 

Range. A smaller and paler form found in Florida and along the Gulf coast. 
No difference can be observed in the nesting habits of this as compared with the 
northern form and the eggs are indistinguishable. 




J. E. Seebold 



NEST AND EGGS OF NIGHTHAWK- 



THE BIRD BOOK 




420 421 



420c. SENNETT'S NIGHTHAWK. 

Cordeiles virginianus sennetti. 
Range. A very pale species with little or 
no tawny; found in the Great Plains from 
Texas north to the Saskatchewan; winters 
south of the United States. 

421. TEXAS NIGHTHAWK. 

Chordeiles acutipennu texensis. 

Range. Mexico and Central America, breed 
ing north to southern Utah and California. 

The pattern of the 
marking of this species 
is finer and more mot- 
tled with rusty than 

the Nighthawk. Its ^m$t%<*t ,Y 
habits do not differ to 
any extent from those 
of the preceding spe- 
cies; they lay their two Gravish whil 
mottled gray eggs up- 
on the bare ground, often on the dry sand and 
in arid regions 
where they are 
exposed, with 
no protection, 
to the scorch- 
ing rays of the 
sun. The eggs 
vary endlessly 
in extent of 
markings,some 
being very pale 
and others 
very dark gray, 
mottled with 
various shades 




of gray, brown and lilac. Size 1.10 x .75. 



SWIFTS. Family MICROPODID^E 



422. 




BLACK SWIFT. 
borealis. 



Cypseloides niger 



Range. Mountain ranges from Central Amer- 
ica north to British Columbia, locally distribut- 
ed throughout its range. 

The plumage of this Swift is entirely sooty 
black, darkest above; the tail is slightly forked 
and is without spines; length of bird, 7 inches. 
Although the general habits of this species are 
well known, little is known of their nesting; 
they are seen during the breeding season about 
the higher ranges throughout their United 
States habitat, and are supposed to nest in 
crevices on the face of cliffs at a high altitude. 

268 




422424 



GOATSUCKERS AND SWIFTS 



423. CHIMNEY SWIFT. Chcetura pelagica. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding from central Canada, south to the Gulf 
coast, and wintering south of our borders. 

This well known species is sooty brownish 
black, 5.5 inches long, and has the tail feathers 
terminating in sharp spines. They are very 
abundant in all portions of their range, and 
may be seen on the wing at all hours of the 
day, but especially abundant in the early morn- 
ing and toward dusk. They formerly dwelt 
and bred only in hollow trees, and a great many 
still continue to do so, as large hollow stumps 
are known where hundreds nest every year. 
The majority of the eastern Chimney Swifts 
now nest in old chimneys that are unused, at 
least during the summer; some small chimneys 
contain but a single pair while other large ones 
may have from fifty to a hundred or more nests 
glued to the sides. The birds are on the wing 
during the greater part of the day, generally 
not frequenting the vicinity of their nesting 
site, but returning toward dusk, when they may 




Chimney Swift 




E. R. Forrest 
NEST AND EGGS OF CHIMNEY SWIFT 



269 



THE BIRD BOOK 




be seen to, one at a time, dive headforemost into 
the tops of chimneys. The nest 
is made of small twigs firmly 
glued to the sides of the chim- 
ney, or tree, and to each other, 
with the glutinous saliva of the v- 
bird, making a narrow semi-circle 
platform for the reception of White 

their three to five white eggs which are deposited 
in May or June; size .75 x .50. 



424. VAUX'S SWIFT. Chcetura vauxi. 

Range. Western United States, chiefly west of 
the Rockies; breeding north to British Columbia, 
and wintering south of the United States. 

Similar to the last but smaller 
(length 4.5 inches), and paler in 
color, fading to white on the 
throat. The habits of this spe- 
cies are like those of the east- 
ern Chimney Swift, except that 
the majority of these species still 
continue to use hollow trees as 
nesting places. The eggs are just like those of 
the last bird. 



WHITE-THROATED SWIFT. 
Mronautes melanolcucus. 



Range. Western United States south of Can- 
9 _ 9 ada, and chiefly in the Rocky Mountains, and in 

California ranges, north to Lat. 38. 

A handsome species, 6.5 inches in length, with blackish upper parts and sides, 
and white throat, breast and central line of under parts, flank 
patches and ends of secondaries ; tail feathers not spined or 
stiffened. These birds are fairly common in some localities 
within their range, but appear to be found only on high ranges 
or in their immediate vicinity. They nest in crevices and 
caves in the face of cliffs, making a nest similar in construe 
tion to that of the Chimney Swift but of weed stalks instead White 

of twigs, and lined with feathers. They lay four or five dull white eggs, during 
June or July; size .85 x .50. 




White 




270 



HUMMINGBIRDS 



HUMMINGBIRDS. Family TROCHILIDAE 



Hummingbirds have been truly called "Winged Gems." They are the small- 
est of birds, the usual plumage being a metallic green with throat or crown 
patches of the brightest of iridescent shining red, orange, blue or violet. Their 
nests are marvels of architecture being compactly and intricately made of plant 
fibres and downy feathers ornamented in some cases with lichens. Their flight 
is accompanied by a peculiar buzzing sound produced by their rapidly vibrating 
stiffened wing feathers. Their food is small 
insects and honey both of which they get chief- 
ly from flowers. 

426. RIVOLI'S HUMMINGBIRD. 
Eugenes fulgens. 

Range. Mexico, north in summer to south- 
ern Arizona where they breed at high eleva- 
tions in the Huachuca Mountains. 

This is one of the most gorgeous of the Hum- 
mers having the crown a violet purple color, 
and the throat brilliant green. This species 
saddles its nest upon branches often at heights 
of 20 or 30 feet from the ground. They are 
made of plant down and generally decorated 
with lichens on the outside, similar to nests of 
the Ruby-throat. The two white eggs measure 
.65 x .40. 

427- BLUE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD. 
Cyanolcemus clemencies. 

Range. Mexico, north in summer to the 
border of Arizona and western New Mexico. 

This species is the largest of North Ameri- 
can Hummers being 5.25 inches long, this be- 
ing slightly larger than the preceding. As the 
name implies, it has a patch of blue on the 
throat, the upper parts being a uniform green- 
ish; the outer tail feathers are broadly tipped 
with white. Their nests, which are placed up- 
on the limbs of trees, are made of mosses and 
plant fibres covered with cobwebs. The two 
eggs are laid during July and August, and 
measure .65 x .40. 4 <>7_429 





271 




428. RUBY-THROATED 
HUMMINGBIRD. 
Archilochus colubris. 

Range North America east 
of the Plains and north to 
Labrador. 

This is the only represen- 
tative of the family found 
east of the Mississippi. It is 
a small species, 3.5 inches 
long, with greenish upper 
parts and a bright ruby throat. 
Its nest is as beautiful, if not 
more so, than that of any 
other species. They build 
their nests on horizontal 
limbs of trees at any height 
from the ground, but usually 
more than six feet. Branches 
an inch or more in diameter 
are usually selected, they not 
being particular as to the 
kind of tree, but oaks, pines 
and maples perhaps being 
used the most often. The 
nests are made of plant fibres 
and down, and the exterior is 
completely covered with green 
lichens so that it appears like 
a small bunch of moss on the 
limb. The two white eggs are 
laid in May or June; size .50 
x.35. 



HUMMINGBIRDS 




Ruby-throated Hummingbird 



429- BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD. Archilochus alexandri. 

Range. North America west of the Rocky Mountains; north to British Colum 

bia; winters south of the United States. 

Similar in size and appearance to the Ruby-throat, but with the chin and 

upper throat black, the 
rest of the throat gorget 
being violet or amethyst. 
It is an abundant species 
in summer in many locali- 
ties, especially in the south- 
'ern half of its range. They 
build their nests a! low ele- 
wtions, rarely above ten 
feet, on small branches or 
the .fork at the end of a 
limit* T^he nests are made 
of yellowislr plant fibres 
and 'are 'not covered with 
lichens, so that they have 
a peculiar spongy appear- 
ance. Eggs indistinguish- 
able from those of the 
Ruby-throat. Laid during 
April, May or June. 





18 




RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD 



HUMMINGBIRDS 



430. COSTA'S HUMMINGBIRD. 

Calypte costce. 

Range. Southwestern United States; north 
to southern Utah; winters south of our border. 

Smaller than the last and with both the 
crown and the throat gorget, violet or ame- 
thyst, the feathers on the sides of the latter be- 
ing lengthened. Their nests are situated in 
the forks of branches generally near the ground, 
and seldom above six feet from it. They are 
made of plant down with shreds of weeds, bark 
and lichens worked into the outside portions, 
and are often lined with soft feathers. The 
two eggs average .48 x .32. Data. Arroyo Seco, 
California, June 10, 1900. Nest in an alder bush. 
Collector, Charles E. Groesbeck. 

431. ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD. Calypte anna 

Range. Pacific coast of the United States 
from northern California, southward, winter- 
ing in Mexico and southern California. 

This handsome species has both the crown 
and the broadened and lengthened throat gor- 
gets, a purplish pink; it is slightly larger than 
the Ruby-throat. They are very abundant In 
their restricted range, and nest in February 
and March and again in April or May, raising 
two broods a season. Their nests are made of 
plant down and covered on the outside with 
cobwebs and a few lichens, and are generally 
located at a low elevation. The white eggs 
average .50 x .30. Data. Santa Monica, Cali- 
fornia, March 4, 1897. Nest in a bunch of seed 
pods in a gum tree, ten feet from the ground. 
Collector, Tom Bundy. 




430431 




275 




THE BIRD BOOK 




432 433 434 



432. BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD. 
Selasphorus platycercus. 

Range. Rocky Mountain regions, north to 
Wyoming; winters south of the United States 

This species is similar to the Ruby-throat, 
but larger and with the back more golden 
green color, and the throat shining lilac. They 
are very abundant in Colorado and Arizona, 
nesting as do the Ruby-throats in the east, and 
their nests being similar in construction and 
appearance to those of that species. The 
eggs cannot be distinguished from those of 
other species. 



433. RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD. 
Selasphorus rufus. 

Range. Western North America, breeding 
from the Mexican border north to Alaska and 
fairly abundant in most of its range. 

A handsome little species with the back and 
tail reddish brown, and with a throat gorget of 
orange red, the feathers being slightly length- 
ened into a ruff on the side of the gorget. They 
nest in a great variety of locations and at a 
low elevation, such as vines, bushes and the 
low hanging branches of trees. The nest is 
made of vegetable fibres covered with cob- 
webs and often with lichens. The eggs do not 
differ from those of the other Hummers. 




276 



HUMMINGBIRDS 



434. ALLEN'S HUMMINGBIRD. Selasphorus alleni. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia southward; most abundant in 
California. Winters in Mexico. 

This species is like the last, 
but the back is greenish, only 
the tail being reddish brown. 
These birds generally locate 
their nests at low elevations 
near the end of overhanging 
branches, on vines, weed 
stalks, or bushes, but have 
been found as high as 90 feet 
above ground. The nests of 
this species are made of plant 
fibres and cobwebs, generally 
decorated with lichens. The 
two white eggs measure .50 x 
.32. Data. Santa Monica, 
Cal., May 29, 1896. Nest two 
feet from the ground in a 
sage bush. Collector, W. Lee 
Chambers. 





E. L. Bickford 
ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD 



277 



THE BIRD BOOK 




436 437 438 



435. MORCOM'S HUMMINGBIRD. 

Atthis morcomi. 

Range. This species is known only from a 
single specimen, taken in the Huachuca Moun- 
tains, Arizona, in 1896. 

436. CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD. 

Stellula calliope. 

Range. Western United States from British 
Columbia southward, and from the Rocky 
Mountains west to eastern Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. 

This is the smallest of North American Hum- 
mers, being but 3 inches in length. It is greenish 
above and has a violet gorget showing the 
white bases of the feathers. They build their 
nests in all manner of locations from high up 
in tall pines to within a foot of the ground in 
slender bushes. The nests are made interiorly 
with plant down, but the outside is generally 
grayish colored shreds and lichens. The eggs 
average but a trifle smaller than those of colu- 
ftris, .45x.30. 

437- LUCIFER'S HUMMINGBIRD. 
Calothorax lucifer. 

Range. Mexico, north to southwestern Texas 
and Arizona. 

This species, which is common in parts of 
Central Mexico, occurs only casually north to 
our borders and has not yet been found nesting 
there. They build small compact nests of plant 
down attached to the stalks or leaves of plants 
or weeds. 



438. *REIFFER'S HUMMINGBIRD. Amizilis tzacatl. 

Range. Abundant in southern Mexico; casual in southern Texas. 

This species is greenish above, with a bronzy lustre ; the tail is reddish brown, 
and the throat and breast are metallic green. They breed abundantly about 
houses and nest apparently at all seasons of the year in Central America, where 
they are the most common species of Hummers. 





278 



HUMMINGBIRDS 



439. BUFF-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD. 

Amizilis cerviniventris chalconota. 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas 
and southward through Mexico. 

These birds are like the last but have the 
underparts a pale brownish buff color. They 
are quite common in ^heir summer range in the 
United States, nesting at- a low elevation in 
bushes and low trees. The two eggs are white, 
.50x.35. Data. Brownsville, Texas, May 5, 
1892. Nest of fine bark-like fibre on the out- 
side, lined with lint from thistle plant; located 
on limb of small hackberry. Collector, Frank 
G. Armstrong. 

440. XANTUS'S HUMMINGBIRD. 
"Basilinna xantusi. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

A handsome species, greenish above, with a 
coppery tinge and shading into reddish brown 
on the tail; under parts buffy, throat metallic 
green, and a broad white streak behind the eye. 
They breed on the ranges making a similar 
nest to those of other Hummers, placed on 
weeds or bushes near the ground. The eggs 
cannot be distinguished from those of the ma- 
jority of other species. 

440.1. WHITE-EARED HUMMINGBIRD. 
Basilinna leucotis. 

Range. A Central American and Mexican 
species, casually found on the ranges in South- 
ern Arizona. 

The plumage of this species is greenish above and below, being metallic green 
on the breast; the forehead, sides of head, and throat are iridescent blue 
and a white line extends back from the eye. 




439440.1441 



441. BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD. Cynanthus 'latirostris. 

Range. Mountains of central Mexico north to southern Arizona and New 
Mexico. 

The throat of this species is a rich metallic blue; otherwise the plumage is 
greenish above and below, being brighter and more irisdescent on the breast. 
They are not uncommon on the ranges of southern Arizona, where they have 
been found nesting in July and August, their nest not being unlike those of the 
Rufous Hummer, but with the exterior largely composed of shreds of grayish 
bark and lichens. Their eggs are like many others of the Hummers. 




279 



THE BIRD BOOK 



PERCHING BIRDS. Order XVII. PASSERES 



COTINGAS. Family COTINGIDAE 






.1-.] XANTUS BE CARD. Platypsaris aglaice albiventris. 




Range. i Mexico; north casually to the southern border of Arizona. 

This peculiar species is grayish above and lighter gray below, has dark slaty 
crown* and a patch of rose color on the lower throat. This 
is the only representative of this tropical family that has 
been found as yet over the Mexican border, but its near 
ally, the Rose-throated Becard has been found within a 
very few miles and will doubtless be added to our fauna 
as an accidental visitor ere long. Their nests are large 
masses of grasses, weeds, strips of bark, etc., partially 
suspended from the forks of branches. Their eggs number Buffy gray 

four or five and are a pale buffy gray color, dotted and scratched with a pale 
reddish brown and dark gray. Size .95 x .70. The one figured is from a set 
in the collection of Mr. Crandall, taken June 1, 1897 at Presidio Sinaloa, Mexico. 

' ..A* 

FLYCATCHERS. Family TYRANNIDyE 

Flycatchers, which are found only in America and chiefly in the tropics, are 
insect-eating birds, generally having a grayish colored plumage, sometimes 
adorned with a slight crest or a coronal mark of orange, red, or yellow. Only 
two of the species found in North America are gaudy in plumage, the Vermil- 
ion, and the Derby Flycatchers. They all have the habit of sitting erect on a 
dead twig, and watching for passing insects, which they catch on the wing. 




[442.] FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER. Muscivora tryannus. 

Range. A Central and South American species accidentally having occurred 
in the United States on several occasions. 

This is a handsome black, white and gray species of the size and form of the 
next. 




280 



PERCHING BIRDS 

443. SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER. MuSClVOTa forficdtd. 



Creamy white 




Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 



Range. Mexico, north through Texas to 
southern Kansas; accidental in other parts of 
the country. 

The Scissor-tail or "Texan Bird of Paradise" 
is the most beautiful member of this interest- 
ing family. Including its long tail, often 10 
inches in length and forked for about 6 inches, 

this Flycatcher reaches a 

length of about 15 inches. 

It is pale grayish above, 

fading into whitish below, 

and has scarlet linings to 

the wings, and a scarlet 

crown patch. They are 

one of the most abundant 

of the breeding birds in 

Texas, placing their iara;e 

roughly built nests in all kinds of trees and at 
any elevation, but averaging between ten and 
fifteen feet above ground. The nests are built 
of rootlets, grasses, weeds and trash of all 
kinds, such as paper, rags, string, etc. The 
interior is generally lined with plant fibres, 
hair or wool. They lay from three to five, and rarely six eggs with a creamy 
white ground color, more or less spotted and blotched with reddish brown, lilac 
and gray, the markings generally being most numerous about the larger end. 
They average in size about .90 x .67. Data. Corpus Christi, Texas, May 18, 
1899. 6 eggs. Nest of moss, vines, etc., on small trees in open woods near town. 
Collector, Frank B. Armstrong. 

444. KINGBIRD. Tyrannus tyrannus. 

Range. Temperate North America, breeding 
from the Gulf of Mexico north to New Bruns- 
wick, Manitoba and British Columbia; rare off 
the Pacific coast. 

This common Tyrant Flycatcher is very 
abundant in the eastern parts of its range. 
They are one of the most pugnacious and cour- 
ageous of birds attacking and driving away any 
feathered creature to which they take a dis- 
like, regardless of size. 
Before and during the 
nesting season, their 
sharp, nerve-racking clat- 
ter is kept up all day long, 
and with redoubled vigor 
when anyone approaches 
their nesting site. They 
nest in any kind of a tree, 

in fields or open woods, and at any height 
from the ground, being found on fence rails 
within two feet of the ground or in the tops of 
pines 70 or 80 feet above the earth. Nearly 
every orchard will be found to contain one or 

281 





Cream t>olor 



Kingbird 




THE BIRD BOOK 



more pairs of these great insect destroyers ; if more than one pair, there will be 
continual warfare as often as one encroaches on the domains of the other. Their 
nests are made of strips of vegetable fibre, weeds, etc., and lined with horsehair 
or catkins. They are sometimes quite bulky and generally very substantially 
made. The three to five eggs are laid the latter part of May, and are of a 
creamy ground color splashed with reddish brown and lilac. Size .95 x .70. 
Data. Worcester County, Massachusetts, June 3, 1895. 4 eggs. Nest 10 feet 
from the ground in an apple tree; made of fibres, string, rootlets and weeds, 
lined with horse hair. Collector, F. C. Clark. 




G. E. Mpulthrope 
NEST AND EGGS OF KINGBIRD 



282 



PERCHING BIRDS 



445. GRAY KINGBIRD. 



Tyrannus dominie ensis. 



Range. West Indies; north in April to Flor- 
ida and the South Atlantic States to South 
Carolina and casually farther. 

This species is slightly larger than our King- 
bird, (9 inches long), grayish instead of dark 
drab above, white below, and without any 
white tip to tail. Like 
the common Kingbird, it 
has a concealed orange 
patch on the crown. Their 
habits and nesting habits 
are the same as those of 
our common bird, but the 
nest is not generally as 
well built, and nearly al- 
ways is made largely of 

twigs. The three or four eggs have a creamy 
or a creamy pink ground color, spotted and 
blotched with dark brown and lilac, most num- 
erously about the large end. Size 1.00 x .73. 
Tarpon Springs, Florida, May 28, 1802. Nest of twigs and weeds in a low bush. 
Collector, J. A. Southley. 



Creamy 




Gray Kingbird 



446. COUCH'S KINGBIRD. Tyrannus melanclwlicus couchi. 

Range. Mexico, north in summer to southern Texas. 

This species is very similar to the next but the throat 
and breast are white, and the underparts a brighter yel- 
low. Like the other members of this genus, these build 
their nests in any location in trees or bushes, making them 
of twigs, weeds and moss. Their three or four eggs have 
a creamy ground with a pinkish cast and are spotted 
with brown and lilac. Size .97 x .12. 



447. ARKANSAS KINGBIRD. 
Tyrannus verticalis. 




Buff 




Arkansas Kingbird 



Range. Western United States and southern 
British Provinces from Kansas and Minnesota 
west to the Pacific. ' 

This species has grayish upper parts, shad- 
ing into darker on the wings and tail, and 
lighter on the throat and upper breast; the 
underparts are yellow, and there is a concealed 
patch of orange on the crown. They are very 
abundant throughout the west, where they 
have the same familiar habits of the eastern 
species, nesting in all sorts of locations such as 
would be used by the latter. Their nests are 
made of plant fibres, weeds, string, paper or 
any trash that may be handy, being sometimes 
quite bulky. Their eggs do not differ in any 
particular from those of the eastern bird, ex- 
cept that they may average a Uttle smaller. 
Size .95x.65. 




THE BIRD BOOK 




448. CASSIN'S KINGBIRD. 

Tyrannus vocifcrans. 

Range. Western United 
States from the Rocky Moun- 
tain region to California, and 
from Wyoming southward. 

This species is like the last 
except that the throat and 
breast are darker. Their 




Derby Flycatcher 



Buff 

habits, nesting habits and 
eggs are indistinguishable 
from those of the other Ty- 
rant Flycatchers, and they 
are fully as courageous in the 
defense of their homes 
against either man or bird, 
their notes resembling those 
of the common Kingbird of 
the east. 




. DERBY FLYCATCHER. Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus. 

Range. Mexico and Central America, breeding north to southern Texas. 
This handsome bird is the largest of the Flycatcher family found in the 

United States, being 11 inches in length. It has a black crown enclosing a 
yellow crown patch; a broad black stripe from the 

,-./ " bill, through the eye and around the back of the 

head, is separated from the crown by a white fore- 
head and line over the eye; the throat is white 
shading into yellow on the underparts. They are 
abundant in the interior of Mexico, but can hardly 
be classed as common over our border, where they 
nest in limited numbers. Their nests are unlike 
those of any of our other Flycatchers being large 
masses of moss, weeds and grass, arched over on 

top and with the entrance on the side. The three or four eggs are creamy white, 

sprinkled chiefly about the large end with small reddish brown or umber spots ; 

size 1.15x.85. 




Creamy white 




284 



451. SULPHUR-BELLIED 
FLYCATCHER. Myiody- 
nastes luteiventris . 

Range. Mexico and Cen- 
tral America, breeding north 
to the Mexican border of Ari- 
zona. 

This peculiar Flycatcher, 
which is unlike any other 
American species, can only 
be regarded as a rare breed- 
ing bird in the Huachuca Mts. 
It is 8 inches in length, has 
a grayish back streaked with 



PERCHING BIRDS 





Crested Flycatcher 



Creamy buff 

black, the tail largely rusty 
brown and the underparts sul- 
phur yellow, streaked on the 
breast and sides with dusky; 
a yellow crown patch is bord- 
ered on either side by a stripe 
of mottled dusky, and is sep- 
arated from the blackish 
patch through the eye, by 
white superciliary lines. Their 
habits are similar to those of the genus Myiarchus, and, like them, they nest in 
cavities in trees, and lay from three to five eggs of a creamy buff color thickly 
spotted and blotched with brown and purplish, the markings not assuming the 
scratchy appearance of the Crested Flycatchers, but looking more like those of 
a Cardinal; size of egg 1.05 x .75. Data. Huachuca Mts., Arizona, June 29, 1901. 
4 eggs. Nest in the natural cavity of a live sycamore tree about fifty feet from 
the ground; composed of twigs. Collector, O. W. Howard. 

4-52. CRESTED FLYCATCHER. Myiarchns crinitus. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains, and from New Brunswick and 
Manitoba southward; winters from the Gulf States southward. 

This trim and graceful, but quarrelsome, species is gray- 
ish on the head, neck, and breast, shading to greenish on 
the back and quite abruptly into bright yellow on the 
underparts; the head is slightly crested and the inner webs 
of all the lateral tail feathers are reddish brown. They 
are abundant in most of their range but are generally shy 
so they are not as often seen as many other more rare 
birds. They nest in cavities of any kind of trees and at 
any elevation from the ground, the nest being made of Huff 

twigs, weeds and trash, and generally having incorporated 

into its make-up a piece of cast off snake skin. They lay from four to six 
eggs of a buffy color, blotched and lined with dark brown and lavender. 
Size .85 x .65. 

285 





THE BIRD BOOK 

453. 




ARIZONA CRESTED FLYCATCHER. 
Myiarchus magister magister. 



Range. Southern Arizona and New Mexico, south 
through Mexico. 

This bird is very similar to, but averages slightly larg- 
er than the Mexican Flycatcher. Its nesting habits are 
the same and the eggs cannot be distinguished from 
those of the latter, the nest being most frequently found 
in giant cacti. 

453a. MEXICAN CRESTED FLYCATCHER. Myiarchus 
magister nelsoni. 

Range. Mexico, north to southern Texas. 

This species is similar to the last 
but is considerably paler. They are 
common in some localities, nesting 
in holes in trees or stumps, often 
those deserted by Woodpeckers. 
Their eggs are like those of the last 
but average paler. Data. Corpus 
Christi, Texas, May 10, 1899. Nest 
in hole in telegraph pole; made of 
red cow hair, feathers and leaves. 4 eggs. Collector, Prank B. Armstrong, 




Pale buff 



454. ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER. Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens. 



Range. North America, 
west of the Plains and 
south of Canada. 

Similar to the others of 
the genus but grayish 
brown above and with the 
underparts much paler, the 
throat and breast being 
nearly white. Like the 
others they nest in cavi- 
ties in trees, either natur- 
al or ones made by Wood- 
peckers. Their four to 
five eggs are lighter in 
color than those of crin- 
itus but cannot be dis- 
tinguished from those of 
the Mexican Crested Fly- 
catcher. 





Buff 



286 




PERCHING BIRDS 



454b. LOWER CALIFORNIA 
FLYCATCHER. Myiarchus 
cinerascens pertinax. 

Range. Lower California. 

This sub-species is similar 
to Nutting Flycatcher but pal- 
er below and grayish above. 

455a. OLIVACEOUS FLY 
CATCHER. Myiarchus 
lawrencei olivascens. 

Range. Western Mexico, 
north to southern Arizona. 

This is the smallest of the 
genus found in the United 
States, being but 7 inches in 
length. Except for size it is 




. ' 




Buffy 

similar to crinitus but with 

very little, if any, rusty brown 

on tail, except for a slight 

edging on the outer web. 

Their nesting sites are the 

same as those chosen by the other Crested Flycatcher, but their eggs appear 

to have but little of the scratchy appearance of the other members. They are 

pale buffy, speckled and spotted with brown and lilac; size .80 x .60. Data. - 

Toluca, Mexico, May 20, 1895. Nest of brown hair and feathers, in hole in tree 

in woods. Collector, Fred T. Francis. 



Phoebe 



4-56. PHCEBE. Sayornis phoebe. 

Range. North America, east of the Rockies and north to Nova Scotia. 

These very common, grayish colored birds are very often known as "Bridge 
Birds" because of the frequency with which they construct their nests under 
bridges and arches; they also build in crevices in ledges or 
among the hanging roots near the tops of embankments, and on 
the rafters or beams of old buildings. The nests are made of 
mud, moss and grass, lined with feathers. The four or five eggs 
measure .75 x .55. Occasionally, eggs will be found that have 
a few minute spots of reddish brown. Freak situations in which 
to locate their nests are often chosen by these birds, such as white 
the brake beam of a freight car, in the crevices of old wells, hen 
houses, etc. The birds are one of the most useful that we have; being very 
active and continually on the alert for insects and beetles that constitute their 
whole bill of fare. 




287 




G. E. Moulthrope 



PHOEBE ON NEST 



PERCHING BIRDS 



457. SAY'S PH<EBE. Sayornis sayus. 

Range. Western United States, breeding 
from southern United States, north to the Arc- 
tic regions, and from Kansas and Wisconsin 
westward. Winters in Mexico. 

This bird is slightly larger than the last 
(7.5 inches long), and is rusty brown color on 
the belly and lower breast. Like the eastern 
Phoebes they are one of the earliest birds to re- 
turn in the spring and are abundant in the 
greater parts of their range. 
Like the latter, they often 
raise two broods a season, 
one in April and another in 
V , July. Their nests are gener- 

ally placed on narrow shelves 
White and crevices of ledges, but 

they also nest as commonly about houses and 
farms as does the eastern bird. The nests are 
made of weeds, mosses, fibres and wool, and 
are quite flat. They lay four or five white eggs. 
Size .78 x .58. 

458. BLACK PHCEBE. Sayornis nigricans. 

Range. Mexico and north in summer into 
the bordering States. 

This species is of the size of the last but 
is blackish (darkest on the head and breast), 

with a white belly and under 

tail coverts, the latter streak- 
ed with dusky. Their habits 

and nesting habits are the 

same as those of the eastern 

Phoebe, they building their 

nests of mud, moss, weeds 

and feathers on ledges or 
about buildings, and generally close to or in the vicinity of water. They breed 
during April or May, laying four or five white eggs which cannot be distinguish- 
ed from those of the common Phoebe. Size .75 x .55. 



White 




4J8a. WESTERN BLACK PHCEBE. Sayornis nigricans semiatra. 

Range. Pacific Coast of Mexico and the United States, breeding north to 
Oregon. 

This variety differs from the last in having the under tail coverts pure white. 
Its nesting habits are precisely the same and the eggs indistinguishable. 




289 




111 



THE BIRD BOOK 

459. OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER. 

Nuttallornis borealis. 

Range. Whole of North America, breeding 
from the Middle States and California north- 
ward, and in the Rockies, south to Mexico; 
winters south of the United States. 

These Flycatchers are nowhere abundant, 
and in some parts of the country, especially 
in the middle portion, they are 
very rare. They breed very 1^^ 

locally and generally not /#jiT 
more than one pair in any lo- 
cality. In New England, L 
have always found them nest- 
ing in company with Parula 
Warblers, in dead conifer- 
ous swamps in which the 
branches are covered with long pendant moss, 
Their nests are placed high up in the trees, 
^ generally above fifty feet from the ground, and 

r "C^SL ^ on small horizontal limbs; they are made of 

small twigs and rootlets, lined with finer root- 
lets and moss, and are very flat and shallow; 
as they are generally made to match the sur- 
rounding, they are one of the most difficult nests to find. They lay three or 
four cream colored eggs which are spotted with reddish brown and lilac, chiefly 
about the large end. Size .85 x .65. Data. Lake Quinsigamond, Massachusetts, 
June 12, 1897. Nest of twigs and moss, about 60 feet above the ground, in a 
dead pine tree in center of a large wet swamp. Nest could not be seen from 
the ground, and was found by watching the birds. 





Creamy white 



Olive-sided Flycatcher 





PERCHING BIRDS 




4*60. COUES'S FLYCATCHER. Myiochanes pertinax pallidiventris. 

Range. Western Mexico, breeding north to central Arizona. 

This Flycatcher builds one of the most artistic nests created by feathered 
creatures. It bears some resemblance on the exterior to that of the next species, 
but it is much more firmly made, and the walls are usually 
higher, making a very deeply cupped interior. The outside 
of the nest is made of fibres, cobwebs, catkins, etc., firmly 
felted together and ornamented with green lichens to match 
the limb upon which it is saddled. The interior is heavily 
lined with dried, yellowish grasses, making a very strong con- 
trast to the exterior. They are fairly abundant birds in the 
ranges of southern Arizona, where they nest generally during 
June. They lay three eggs of a rich creamy color, spotted and blotched, chiefly 
about the larger end, with reddish brown and lilac gray. Size .95 x .61. Data. 
Huachuca Mts., Arizona, July 8, 1897. 3 eggs. Nest in a yellow pine about 60 
feet up and near the extremity of a long slender limb. Elevation 7000 feet. 
Collector, O. W. Howard. 

461. WOOD PEWEE. Myiochanes virens. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains 

and north to Ihe southern parts of the British 

Provinces. Winters south of the United States. 

This is one of the best 

known and one of the most 

common frequenters of open 

woods, where all summer 

long its pleasing notes may 

be heard, resembling "Pee-a- 

wee" or sometimes only two 

syllables "pee-wee." They 
nest on horizontal limbs at elevations of six 
feet or over, making handsome nests of plant 
fibres and fine grasses, covered on the exterior 
with lichens; they are quite shallow and very 
much resembles a small knot on the limb of 
the tree. They lay three or four eggs of a 
ceram color spotted in a wreath about the 
large end, with reddish brown and lavender; 
size .80 x .55. Data. Torrington, Conn., June 
16, 1890. Nest of fibres covered with lichens, 
saddled on the branch of an oak tree near 
roadside. Collector, John Gath. Wood Pewee 




Cream color 





Chickadee Family 
291 





Guy H. Briggs 
NEST AND EGGS OF WOOD PEWEE 



PERCHING BIRDS 



462. WESTERN WOOD PEWEE. 

Myiochanes richardsoni richardsom. 

Range. Western United States from the 
Plains to the Pacific, and from Manitoba south- 
ward, wintering south of the United States. 

The nesting habits of this bird are the same 
as those of the eastern Pewee, but their nests 
are more strongly built and generally deeper, 
and without the outside ornamentation of 
lichens. They are saddled upon horizontal 
branches, like those of the preceding, as a 
rule, but are also said to have been found in 
upright crotches like those of the Least Fly- 
catcher. Their three or four eggs cannot be 
distinguished from those of the eastern Wood 
Pewee. 

462a. LARGE-BILLED WOOD PEWEE. Mi/io- 
chanes richardsoni peninsulas. 

Range. This species which differs from the 
last only slightly, as is indicated by the name, 
inhabits the peninsula of Lower California; its 
nesting habits and eggs will not differ from those of the other Pewees. 




Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 

Acadian Flycatcher 



463. YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER. Empidonax flaviventris. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains and north to Labrador; winters 

south of the United States. 

This species is slightly larger than the Least Flycatcher and is 
more yellowish above and below, the breast being quite bright. , 
While common in some districts it is quite shy and frequents * 

thickly wooded regions, where it is not very often seen. They '<* 

nest near or on the ground among rocks or roots of fallen trees. \< * ;" 

chiefly in swampy places; the nests are made in bunches of * v 

moss, hollowed out and lined with very fine grasses. Their four 

eggs are creamy or buffy white, spotted and speckled about the larger end with 

reddish brown and gray; size .68 x .51. 



464. WESTERN FLYCATCHER. Empidonax diffictyis difficilis. 

Range. Western North America, from the Rocky Mountain region to the 
Pacific, and north to Alaska; winters chiefly south of the United States. 

This Flycatcher, which is similar to the last, nests in similar 
>' r - locations as well as in many others, such as crevices and fissures 

in rocks, holes in banks, cavities in trees, rafters in buildings, 
etc. The nests are variously made, but consist chiefly of fine 
grasses, weeds and fibres. The eggs are as a rule similar to 
Cream v white those of the last species and cannot be distinguished. 





THE BIRD BOOK 




x 




464a. SAN LUCAS FLYCATCHER. 

Empidonax difficilis cineritius. 

Range. Lower California. 

This species is similar to, but duller in plum- 
age than the Western Flycatcher. Their nest- 
ing habits do not probably vary from those of 
the latter. 

465. ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. Empidonax 
virescens. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding 
from the Gulf to southern New England, and 
in the Mississippi Valley to Manitoba. 

This species is very pale below and greenish 
yellow on the back. They are among the latest 
of the migrants to reach our 
borders and arrive in the 
Middle States about the lat- 
ter part of May, when they 
are quite common. They 
build semi-pensile nests in 
the forks of bushes or over- 
hanging branches at heights 
of from four to twenty feet, the nests being 
made of rootlets, fibres, fine grasses, etc., and 
partially suspended from the branch; they are 
quite shallow and loosely constructed and often 
appear more like a bunch of debris deposited in 
the fork by the wind than like the creation of 
a bird. Their three or four eggs are buffy, spot- 
ted or specked with brown; size .75 x .55. 

466. TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER. Empidonax trailli trailli. 

Range. Western North America, from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific; 
winters south of the United States. 

This species is very similar to the next, but the back is said 
to be more brownish. They are common and nest abundantly 
in thickets and low scrubby woods, usually placing the nest 
at a low elevation, preferably in a clump of willows ; the nests 
are made of fine strips of bark, plant fibres, and very fine root- 
lets being woven about and firmly fastened in upright 
Creamy white crotches. Their eggs, which are laid in June, are buffy white, 
specked and spotted, chiefly at the large end, with brownish ; sixe .70 x .54. 




Buffy 



464 '. 






Least Flycatcher 




White 



PERCHING BIRDS 

466a. ALDER FLYCATCHER. 

Empidonax trailli alnorum. 

Range. United States, east of the Mississippi 
and north to New Brunswick. 

The only difference between this and the pre- 
ceding variety is in the more greenish upper 
parts. They are quite abundant in the breed- 
ing season from New England and northern 
New York northward, frequenting, to a great 
extent, alder thickets bordering streams. Their 
nests and eggs do not differ appreciably from 
those of the western variety of Traill Fly- 
catcher. 

467- LEAST FLYCATCHER. 
Empidonax minimus. 

Range. North America, east of the Rockies 

and north to the interior of Canada, wintering 

south of the United States. 

These little birds (5.5 inches 
long) are common about houses 

and orchards on the outskirts of cities, and on the edges of for- 
ests or open woods. They are very frequently known by the 
name of Chebec from their continually uttered note. In nearly 
all instances, the nests are placed in upright forks at elevations 
varying from four to twenty-four feet from the ground. The 

nests are made chiefly of plant fibres, fine grasses, string, cobwebs, etc., and 

the three to five eggs are pale creamy white; size .65 x .50. 

468. HAMMOND'S FLYCATCHER. Empidonax hammondi. 

Range. North America, west of the Rockies and from British Columbia south- 
ward, wintering south of the United States. 

This western representative of the Least 
Flycatcher is less abundant and more shy, 
but has the same nesting habits as the east- 
ern birds, placing its nests either in upright 
crotches or, more rarely, upon horizontal 
branches at a low elevation. The eggs can- 
not be distinguished from those of the last 
species. 

469. WRIGHT'S FLYCATCHER. Empidona.r wrighti. 

Range/ Western United States, breeding from the Mex- 
ican border to Oregon and wintering south of the United 
States. 

A very similar bird to the last but whiter 
^"~ below. It is a much more abundant species 

/ than the last and is found breeding In open 

woods and thickets on all the ranges. The 
nests are built like those of the Least Fly- 
catcher and nearly always are found in 
the crotch of trees or bushes at a low ele- 
ation; their nests, like those of the two 
preceding species, bear a strong resemblance to those of 
the Yellow Warblers which are found in the same locali- 
ties and locations. The eggs are pale creamy white, four 
in number and measure .68 x .52, 




White 



White 



469 4694 



295 




THE BIRD BOOK 



469-1- GRAY FLYCATCHER. Emptdonax 
griseus. 

Range. Lower California, north to southern 
California. 

This is a slightly larger species than the pre- 
ceding and is grayish above and paler below, 
with little or no tinge of brownish or yellow. 
As far as I can learn its eggs have not yet been 
taken. 

470a. BUFF-BREASTED FLYCATCHER. Empi- 
donax fulvifrons pygmceus. 

Range. Western Mexico, north to southern 
New Mexico and Arizona. 

This small bird, which is but 4.75 inches in 
length, is brownish gray above and brownish 
buff below. It is not a common species any- 
where, but is known to nest during June or 
July, on high mountain ranges, saddling its 
nest of fibres, covered with lichens, on horizon- 
tal boughs at quite an elevation from the 
ground. The eggs are pale buffy white, unspotted, and measure .60 x .50. 




Vermillion Flycatcher 



471- VERMILLION FLYCATCHER. Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus. 

Range. Mexico, north regularly to southern Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. 

This is one of the most gaudy attired of all North American birds, being 
brownish gray on the back, wings and tail, and having a bright vermillion crown, 
crest and underparts. They are quite common in southern Texas, but far more 
abundant in the southern parts of Arizona. Their habits do not 
differ from those of other Flycatchers, they living almost exclu- 
sively upon insects. The majority of their nests can not be dis- 
tinguished from those of the Wood Pewee, being covered with 
lichens and saddled upon limbs in a similar manner, but some 
lack the mossy ornamentation. Their three or four eggs are Buff 

buffy, boldly blotched with dark brown and lavender, chiefly in a wreath about 
the middle of the egg; size .70 x .50. Data. San Pedro River, Arizona, June 10, 
1899. Nest in the fork of a willow about 20 feet above the stream. Collector, 
O. W. Howard. 





472. BEARDLESS FLYCATCHER. Camptostoma imberbe. 

Range. Central America; north casually to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas. 

This strange little Flycatcher, several specimens of which have been taken in 
the vicinity of Lomita, Texas, is but 4.5 inches in length, grayish in color and 
has a short bill, the upper mandible of which is curved. It has all the habits 
peculiar to Flycatchers. Their eggs have not as yet been found as far as I can 
learn. 




PERCHING BIRDS 



LARKS. Family ALAUDID^E 




Grayish 



[473.] SKYLARK. Alauda arvensis. 

Range. Old World, straggling casually to 
Greenland and Bermuda. 

This noted foreigner has been imported and 
liberated a number of times in this country, but 

apparently is not able to 

thrive here, a fact which will 

not cause much regret when 

we remember the experiment 

with the English Sparrow. 

They are abundant in Europe 

and Great Britain where they 

nest on the ground in culti- 
vated fields or meadows, laying from three to 
five grayish eggs, marked with brown, drab and 
lavender. 

474. HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris alpestris. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in 
Labrador and about Hudson Bay; winters in 
eastern United States south to Carolina. 

This variety of this much sub-divided species is 7.5 inches in length, ha? 
brownish gray upper parts and is white below with black patches on the breast 
and below the eye, yellowish throat and small black ear tufts. The various sub- 
species are all marked alike, their distinction being based upon slight differen- 
ces in size, variations in the shade of the back, or the greater or less intensity 
of the yellowish throat and superciliary stripe. The nesting habits of all the 
varieties are the same and the eggs differ only in the shade of the ground color, 
this variation among the eggs of the same variety being so great that an egg 
cannot be identified without knowing the locality in which it was taken. The 
present variety build their nests on the ground generally under tufts of grass 
or in hollows in the moss which is found in their breeding range, making them 
of dried grasses and generally lining them with feathers. The eggs are grayish 
with a slight greenish tinge, and are specked and spotted over the whole sur- 
face with drab, brownish and dark lavender. The eggs of this and the next 
variety average considerably larger than those of the more southerly distributed 
varieties; size .92 x .65. 




Horned Lark 



474a. PALLID HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris arcticola. 

Range. Breeds in Alaska and winters south to Oregon and Montana. 

This is the largest of the Horned Larks and has the throat white, with no 
trace of yellow. Its nest is built in similar locations and the eggs are like 
those of the preceding species. 





297 



THE BIRD BOOK 




.474c 474e 47 



474b. PRAIRIE HORNED LARK. 

Otocoris alpestris praticola. 

Range. Breeds in the Mississippi Valley from Illinois 
north to Manitoba and east to the Middle States; winters 
south to Carolina and Texas. 

This sub-species is considerably smaller than the Horn 
ed Lark, and the throat is paler yellow, while the line over 
the eye and the forehead is white. They 
are the most abundant and have the 
most extended range of any of the better 
known species. In the Mississippi Val- 
ley, where they are of the most common 
of the nesting birds, they build on the 
ground in meadows or cultivated fields, 
and very often in cornfields; the nests 
are made of grasses and lined with horse hairs or feathers, 
and placed in slight hollows generally under a tuft of grass 
or sods. They raise two broods a season and sometimes 
three, laying the first set of eggs in March and another in 
June or July. The three or four eggs have an olive buff 
ground and are thickly sprinkled with drab and lavender; 
size .83 x .60. 




474c. DESERT HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris leu- 
colcema. 

Range. Plains of western United States, east of the Rockies and west of 
Kansas and Dakota; breeds north to Alberta, and winters south to Mexico, 
Texas and southern California. 

This species is like praticola, but paler on the back; nest and eggs the same. 

474d. TEXAS HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris giraudi. 

Range. Coast of southeastern Texas. 

A pale variety like leucnlwma, but smaller; throat bright yellow, and breast 
tinged with yellow. Nest and eggs like those of the others. 

474e. CALIFORNIA HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris actia. 

Range. Lower California and southern California. 

This bird is similar to the last but the yellow areas are brighter, and the 
nape and back are ruddy. 




474f. RUDDY HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris rubea 

Range/ Sacramento Valley, California. 

This variety has the yellow areas brighter than in any other 
and the back and nape are more ruddy. The eggs cannot be 
distinguished from those of the others. 




Olive buff 






PERCHING BIRDS 

474g. STREAKED HORNED LARK. Ostocoris alpestris strigata. 

Range. Northwestern United States (Washington, Oregon and northern Cali- 
fornia). 

Similar to the last, but with the back broadly streaked with black, the ruddy 
less intense and the underparts tinged with yellowish. 

474h. SCORCHED HORNED LARK. Otacoris alpestris adusta. 

Range. Western Mexico, north in summer to southern Arizona. 

This variety has the back and nape nearly a uniform pinkish ruddy with but 
little streaking. 

4741. DUSKY HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris merrilli. 

Range. Northwestern United States and southern British Columbia, winter- 
ing south to central California. 

Similar to praticola but slightly darker above. 

474j. SONORA HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris pallida. 
Range. Gulf coast of northern Lower California. 
The upperparts of this variety are very pale pinkish brown. 

474k. HOYT'S HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris hoyti. 

Range. Interior of British America, west of Hudson Bay and east of Alaska, 
south in winter in the interior of the United States to Kansas. 

Much larger than the last; equal in size and similar to articola but with the 
throat yellowish and the upperparts darker and brighter. 

4741. MONTEZUMA HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris occidentalis. 

Range. Western New Mexico and eastern Arizona, south in winter to north- 
ern Mexico. 

This variety has the upperparts pale brownish and not streaked; throat and 
forehead yellowish. 



474m. ISLAND HORNED LARK. Otocoris alpestris insularis. 

Range. Santa Barbara Islands, California. 

Similar to strigata but darker. With the exception of the three large varie- 
ties of Horned Larks found north of our borders, neither the eggs nor, in most 
cases, the birds can be identified without the precise location where they were 
taken. 





299 



THE BIRD BOOK 

CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES, ETC. Family CORVID^E. 

475. MAGPIE. Pica pica hudsonia. 

Range. Western North America from the 
Great Plains to the Pacific and from Alaska 
to Arizona and New Mexico. 

These large handsome birds have the entire 
head, neck and breast velvety black, abruptly 
defined against the 
white underparts. 
The back, wings and 
tail are greenish or 
bluish black, and the 
scapulars, white ; 
length of bird 20 
inches. They are well 
known throughout 
the west, where their Grayish white 
bold and thievish habits always excite com- 
ment. They nest in bushes and trees at low 
elevations from the ground, making a very 
large nest of sticks, with an opening on the 
side, and the interior is made of weeds and 
mud, lined with fine grasses; these nests often 
reach a diameter of three feet and are made of 

large sticks. During April or May, they lay from four to eight grayish 
eggs, plentifully spotted with brown and drab. Size 1.25 x .90. 





Mag-pie 



quite 
white 



4<76. YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE. Pica nuttalli. 

Range. Middle parts of California, west of the 
Sierra Nevadas. 

This species is slightly smaller than the last and 
has a yellowish bill and lores, otherwise being pre- 
cisely like the more common species. Their habits 
do not differ from those of the other, the nests are 
the same and the eggs are indistinguishable. Size 
1.25 x. 88. 




Grayish white 



A / 




300 




R. B. Rockwell 



NEST OF AMERICAN MAGPIE 



PERCHING BIRD: 



477. 



BLUE JAY. 
cristata. 



Cyanocitta cristata 




Greenish buff 




P.] UP Jay 



Range. North America, east of the Plains 
and north to Hudson Bay; resident and very 
abundant in its United States range. 

These beautiful and 
bold maurauders are too 
well known to need de- 
scription, suffice it to 
say that they are the 
most beautiful of North 
American Jays; but be- 
neath their handsome 
plumage beats a heart 
as cruel and cunning as 

that in any bird of prey. In the fall, winter 
and spring, their food consists largely of 
acorns, chestnuts, berries, seeds, grain, insects, 
lizards, etc., but during the summer months 
they destroy and devour a great many eggs and 
young of the smaller birds, their taste for 
which, being so great that they are known to 
watch a nest until the full complement of eggs 
is laid before making their theft. They nest 

in open woods or clumps of trees, indifferently, in pines or young trees, build- 
ing most often below twenty feet from the ground; the nests are made of twigs 
and rootlets, lined with fine rootlets. During May they lay from four to six 
eggs of a greenish buff color spotted with olive brown. Size 1.10 x .80 

477a. FLORIDA BLUE JAY. Cyanocitta cristata florincola. 

Range. Florida and the Gulf coast. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this smaller sub-species are the same as those 
of the northern Blue Jay. Like our birds, they frequently nest near habitations. 

478. STELLER'S JAY. Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri. 

Range. Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska; resident and breed- 
ing throughout its range. 

All the members of this sub-species are similar in 

plumage, having a sooty black head, crest and neck, 
shading insensibly into dark bluish on the back and 
underparts, and brighter blue on the wings and tail. 
They usually have a few streaks or spots of pale blue on 
the forehead. They are just as noisy, bold and thievish 
as the eastern Jay and are also excellent mimmics like 
the latter. They nest in fir 'trees at any height from the 
ground and in April or May deposit their three to six 
greenish blue eggs which are spotted with various 
shades of brown. Size 1.25 x .90. Their nests are more 
bulky than those of the eastern Jay and are usually made of larger sticks and 
held together with some mud. 

478a. BLUE-FRONTED JAY. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. 

Range. Coast ranges of California and Oregon. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this variety are indistinguishable from those 
of the preceding. The bird has more blue on the forehead. 

478b. LONG-CRESTED JAY. Cyanocitta stelleri diademata. 

Range. Southern Rocky Mountains from Arizona to Wyoming. 

No general difference can be found between the eggs of this species and the 
Steller Jay, and the nests of each are constructed similarly and in like situa- 
tions. 303 







Greenish blue 




YOUNG BLUE JAYS 



Dr. J. B. Pardoe 




BLUE JAY 



20 



THE BIRD BOOK 





fcf 



478c. BLACK-HEADED JAY. Cyanocitta 
stelleri annectens. 

Range. Northern Rocky Mountains from 
northern Colorado to British Columbia. 

The eggs of this sub-species cannot be iden- 
tified from those of the other varieties. Like 
the others, their nests are made of sticks plast- 
ered together with mud and lined with weeds 
and rootlets. 

178d. QUEEN CHARLOTTE JAY. Cyanocitta 
stelleri carlottce. 



Range. Queen Charlotte Islands, British 
Columbia. 

-.., : 

479. FLORIDA JAY. Aphelocoma cyanea. 

Range. Locally distributed in Florida. 

All the birds of this genus have no crests or 
londa jay decided markings, are white or grayish below, 

and more or less intense blue above, with the back grayish mmm 

or brownish blue. This species is 11.5 inches long, has a 
pale blue crown and a nearly white forehead. It has a very 
limited distribution, being confined chiefly to the coast dis- 
tricts of middle Florida, and very abundant in some locali- 
ties and rare in adjoining ones. They build shallow struc- 
tures of small sticks and weeds lined with fine rootlets and 
placed at low elevations in bushes or scrubby trees. The 
three or four eggs, which are laid in April or May are dull 
greenish blue, marked with olive brown. Size 1.00 x .80. 




Greenish blue 
Data. Titusville, 



, 
Fla., April 17, 1899. Nest of sticks in a scrub oak, five feet fromj:he ground. 

480. WOODHOUSE'S JAY. Aphelocoma woodhousei. 

Range. United States west of the Rockies and from 
Oregon and Wyoming to Mexico. 

This species has the crown and forehead bluish, and 
the underparts gray, streaked with bluish gray on the 
breast. It is also larger than the last, being 12 inches 
long. They are very abundant in 
the Great Basin between the Rock- 
^: "**- ies and the Sierra Nevadas, breed- 

ing during April or May in scrub 
by trees or bushes at low elevations 
and generally near streams. They 
lay from three to five eggs of a 
dull bluish green color, spotted 
with umber and lilac gray. Size 
1.08 x .80. Data. Iron County, Utah, 
Nest of sticks and weeds in a small 




Bluish green 



May 3, 1897. 
pinq tree. 



4 eggs. 




}S7 



306 



PERCHING BIRDS 



480.1. BLUE-EARED JAY. Aphelocoma cyanotis. 

Range. Interior of Mexico north to the southern bound- 
ary of Texas. 

The nesting habits of this species are the same as those 
of the others of the genus and the eggs are similar but 
the markings are generally more prominent and larger. 
Size 1.10 x .80. 

480.2. TEXAS JAY. Aphelocoma texana. 

Range. Southeastern Texas. 

It is not likely that the eggs of this species differ es- 
sentially from those of many of the others. 



Aphelocoma californica 





482 4S4a 485 



481. CALIFORNIA JAY. 

californica. 

Range. Pacific coast of California and Washington. 

This is a very abundant species 
both about habitations and in low 
woodlands. They are very bold 
and familiar, stealing everything 
they may take a fancy to, and fre- 
quently robbing smaller birds of 

their eggs and young. They are said to be more tame 
and familiar than the eastern Blue Jay, thereby bring- 
ing their bad habits much more frequently to the atten- 
Bright bluish green tion of the masses . They nest most often in bushes or 
low trees, but not as a rule, far above the ground. Their eggs are a bright 
bluish green color, speckled and spotted with brownish and lavender. Size 
1.10 x. 80. 

48 la. XANTUS'S JAY. Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca. 

Range. Lower California. 

The habits and nests and eggs of this lighter colored variety do not differ 
from those of the California Jay. 

481b. BELDING'S JAY. Aphelocoma calif omit a cbscura. 

Range. San Pedro Martir Mts. Lower California. 

A darker variety of the California Jay, whose nesting habits will not differ in 
any essential particular. 

481.1. SANTA CRUZ JAY. Aphelocoma insularis. 

Range. Santa Cruz Island, California. 

This species is the largest and darkest colored bird 
of the genus ApJielwoma. It is said to be a very abund- 
ant species on the island from which it takes its name, 
and to have the habits and traits common to all the 
members of the Jay family. The nesting habits are 
the same as those of the others, but the eggs are slightly 
larger, averaging 1.15 x .85. 

set of three in the collection of John Lewis Childs, taken 
by R. H. Beck on May 10, 1897. 

482. ARIZONA JAY. Aphelocoma sieberi arizonas. 

Range. Arizona and southwestern New Mexico south into Mexico. 

307 




Greenish blue 







Green Jay 



Grayish buff 




THE BIRD BOOK 

482a. COUCH'S JAY. Aphelocoma sieberi 
couchi. 

Range. Eastern Mexico, north to western 
Texas. 

483. GREEN JAY. Xanthoura luxuosa 
glaucescens. 

Range. Northeastern Mexico and the Lower 
Rio Grande Valley in Texas. - 

This handsome species has a bright blue 
crown and patches under 
the eyes, the rest of the ^ ;-.?**' r"\ 
upper parts being green- 
ish; throat and sides of 
head black, underparts 
greenish white. This gaudy 
and noisy bird has all the 
habits common to other 
Jays including that of rob- 
bing birds' nests. They 
build generally in tangled 
thickets or low bushes, placing their nests at a low elevation and making them 
of twigs, weeds, moss, etc., lined with fine rootlets. Their four or five eggs, 
which are laid during April or May, are grayish buff in color, spotted with 
various shades of brown and lavender gray. Size 1.20 x .85. 

484. CANADA JAY. Perisoreus canadensis canadensis. 

Range. Southeastern British Provinces and the adjacent portions of the 
United States ; west to the Rockies. 

This is the bird that is well known to hunters of "big game" by various 
names such as "Whiskey Jack," "Moose Bird," "Camp Robber," etc. Dur- 
ing the winter months, owing to the scarcity of food, their thieving 
propensities are greatly enhanced and they 
remove everything from the camps, which looks 
as though it might be edible. Birds of this 

genus are smoky gray 

on the back and lighter 

below, shading to white 

on the throat; the fore- 
head and part of the 

crown is white and the 

nape blackish. Their 

nests are placed at low 

elevations in bushes or 

fir trees, and are usual- 
ly very different from any of the preceding Jays' 
nests. They are nearly as high as wide, and 
are made of small twigs, moss, catkins, weeds 
and feathers making a soft spongy mass which 
is placed in an upright crotch. The eggs are 
a yellowish gray color spotted and blotched with 
brown and grayish. Size 1.15 x .80. Data. In- 
nisfail, Alberta, March 12, 1903. Nest a beauti- 
ful structure of twigs, moss and feathers in a 
willow bush, 6 feet from the ground. The ther- 
mometer registered 32 below zero the day the 
eggs were taken. Collector, W. Blackwood. 

308 




Grayish 




Canada Jay 



PERCHING BIRDS 

484a. ROCKY MOUNTAIN JAY. Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from Montana to Arizona. 

This variety has the whole crown white and only a small amount of blackish 
on the nape. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely like those of the last. 

_ . . - 




NEST AND 



S OK CANADA JAY SHOWING CONSTRUCTION 



484b. ALASKA JAY. Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons. 

Range. Alaska. 

A very similar bird to the Canada Jay but with the forehead yellowish or 
duller; the nests and eggs are like those of the others of the genus. 

484c. LABRADOR JAY. Perisoreus canadensis nigricapillus. 

Range. Labrador. 

This is a darker variety of the Canada Jay. Its eggs cannot be distinguished 
from those of any of the others of the genus. 



485. OREGON JAY. Perisoreus obscurus obscurus. 

Range. Mountain ranges from northern California to British Columbia. 

These birds are very similar to wtnntlrnxix but have the whole underparts 
white. Like the Canada Jays they appear to be wholly fearless and pay little 
or no attention to the presence of mankind. Their nesting habits and eggs 
are the same as the preceding except that they have generally been found nest- 
ing near the tops of tall fir trees. Size of eggs, 1.05 x .80. 

309 



PERCHING BIRDS 



-18 5a. GRAY JAY. Perisoreus obscurus griseus. 



Range. British Columbia to northern California, east of the coast ranges. 
This bird is said to be larger and grayer than the preceding. 



486. RAVEN. Corvus corax sinuatus. 

Range. North America west of the Rockies and from British Columbia 
southward. 

The Raven is like a very large Crow, 
length 24 inches, but has the feathers 
on the neck lengthened and stiffened. 
Their habits are similar to those of the 
Crow, but more dignified, and they 
remain mated for life. Besides grass- 
hoppers and worms, they feed largely 
upon animal matter such as lizards, 
shell fish, frogs, eggs and young of 
birds, and carrion. They nest on 
ledges of high inaccessible cliffs or 
the tops of tall trees, making largo 
nests of sticks lined with smaller ones 
and hair or wool; the eggs are laid in 
April or May, number from four to 
seven, and are light greenish in color, 




Pale greenish white 



blotched with umber and drab. Size 1.95 x 1.25. 



486a. NORTHERN RAVEN. Corvus corax principalis. 

Range. Eastern North America chiefly north of the United States and north- 
west to Alaska; south on some of the higher ranges to Georgia. 

This variety is like the last but is larger. They are not nearly as abundant 
as the western form and are very rare within the United States. A few pairs 
still breed on some of the rocky islands off the coast of Maine; more off New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland, and they are quite common on the cliffs of 
Labrador and Alaska. Their nesting habits and eggs are like those of the last. 



487. WHITE-NECKED RAVEN. Corvus cryptoleucus. 

Range. Mexico and the border of the United States; north to eastern Kansas. 

This small Raven is of about the size of 
the Crow, and has the bases of the neck 
feathers white. They are very abundant in 
some localities, especially in southern Ari- 
zona. Their food consists chiefly of animal 
matter, the same as the large Ravens, and 
they are not nearly as shy, frequently feed- 
ing in camps upon refuse which is thrown 
out to them. They build at low elevations 
in any tree, but preferably in mesquites, 
making their nests of sticks and lining them 
with hair, leaves, bark, wool or anything 
soft. During June they lay from four to six 
pale bluish green eggs, generally sparingly spotted or scratched with dark 
brown and drab. Size 1.75 x 1.20. 

311 




Pale bluish green 



\ 



THE BIRD BOOK 




488. CROW. Corvus 

brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos. 

Range. Whole of North ATnerica south of 
the Arctic Circle; most abundant in eastern 
United States; rare in many localities in the 
west. 




American Crow 

American Raven 



Greenish white 

These birds, against which the hand of every 
farmer is uplifted, are very shy and cunning; 
as is well known, they nearly always post a 
sentinel in some tree top to keep watch while 
the rest of the flock is feeding in the field be- 
low. In the fall and winter, large numbers of them flock, and at night all roost 
in one piece of woods; some of the "crow roosts" are of vast extent and 

contain thousands of individuals. Crows nest 
near the tops of large trees, preferably pines, 
either in woods or single trees in fields. Their 
nests are made of sticks and lined with rootlets, 
and the eggs, which are laid in April or May, 
range from four to seven in number, are a bluish 
or greenish white, sparingly or very densely 
speckled, spotted and blotched with various shades 
of brown and lilac. Size 1.60 x 1.15. 




Bluish white 




4<88a. FLORIDA CROW. Corvus 

brachyrhynchos pascuus. 
Range. Florida. 
This variety has a slightly shorter tail and wings than the last. 

490. FISH CROW. Corvus ossifragus. 

Range. Northwest coast from Oregon to Alaska. 

This small Crow which is but 16 inches in length, is found only on the coast, 
where they feed upon shell fish and offal. They nest, as do the Ravens, either 
on ledges or in tree tops. The eggs resemble those of the common Crow, but 
are smaller. Size 1.55 x 1.05. 
489- NORTHWESTERN CROW. Corvus caurinus. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north 
in summer to Connecticut. 

From Virginia southward, this small Crow 
(length 16 inches) is more abundant on the coast 
than the common Crow which is often in company 
with this species. Their food consists of grain, 
berries, and animal matter. Their nesting habits 
are like those of the common Crow and the eggs 
are similar and have as great variations, but are 
smaller. Size 1.45 x 1.05. 

312 




Bluish white 



PERCHING BIRDS 



491. CLARKE'S NUTCRACKER. Nucifraga 
columbiana. 

Range. Mountains of western North Amer- 
ica from Mexico to Alaska. 

The Clarke Crow, as this bird is often known, 
is a common resident in most of its range. The 
adults are grayish with black wings and cen- 
tral tail feathers, the tips of the primaries and 
outer tail feathers being 
-~i c. white. Their tail is short 

,-'-> ;- ' * \V. and their flight slow and 

^;'" ; . ~ -. ;.* V ; somewhat undulating like 
'''.. . : .' - . , ' ' that of some of the Wood- 
\7l-. * - . ^ * . ;'.^ >: peckers. Their food con- 
sists of anything edible 
from seeds and larvae in 
the winter to insects, ber- 
ries, eggs and young birds 

at other seasons. In the spring they retire to 
the tops of ranges, nearly to the limit of trees, 
where they build their large, nests of sticks, 
twigs, weeds, strips of bark, and fibres matted 
together so as to form a soft round ball with a 
deeply cupped interior; the nest is located at 
from ten to forty feet from the ground in pine trees and the eggs are laid early 
before the snow begins to leave. They are three in number, grayish in color 
with a greenish tinge and finely spotted over the whole surface with dark 
brown and lavender. Size 1.30 x .90. Data. Salt Lake Co., Utah, April 25, 
1900. Nest placed in pine 40 feet up on a horizontal branch, and not visible 
from below. The tree was at the upper edge of a pine forest at an altitude of 
about 3000 feet above Salt Lake City. The nest was discovered by seeing the 
parent fly into the tree; the next day a nest was found with three young nearly 
ready to fly. Collector, W. H. Parker. This set of three eggs is in the oological 
collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. 



Grayish blue 




Clarke's Nutcracker 



492. PINON JAY. Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. 




Bluish white 



Range. Western United States between the Rockies 
and Sierra Nevadas, and from southern British Colum- 
bia to Arizona. 

This Crow-like Jay has a nearly uniform bluish plum- 
age, and is found abundantly in the pine belts of its 
range. Their habits are similar to those of the Clarke 
Crow and the nests are similarly built at lower eleva- 
tions in pines or junipers. During April or May they lay 
from three to five eggs of a bluish white color specked 
and spotted with brown. Size 1.20 x .85. 





313 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Starling 



STARLINGS. Family STURNID^ 

[493.] STARLING. Sturnus vulgaris. 

Range. A European species which has cas- 
ually been taken in Greenland. It was liber- 
ated a number of years ago in Central Park, 
New York City, and has 
now become abundant 
there and is spreading 
slowly in all directions. 

They build their nests 
in all sorts of locations 
such as are used by the 
English Sparrow, wher- 
ever they can find a 
sufficiently large crev- 
ice or opening; less often they build their nests 
in trees, making them of straw, twigs and 
trash. They lay from four to six pale bluish 
green eggs; size 1.15 x .85. Two broods are 
reared in a season. 




BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. Family ICTERID^E 





494. BOBOLINK. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from New Jersey north to Nova 
Scotia and Manitoba, and west to Utah and Nevada; winters in South America. 
This black and white bird is well known in the east, where his sweet, wild 
music, often uttered on the wing, is much ad- 
mired. He sings all day long during May and 
June to his Sparrow-like mate, who is sitting 
on her nest concealed in the 
meadow grass. They are 
quite sociable birds and sev- 
eral pairs often nest in the 
same field, generally a damp 
meadow; the nests are hoi- 
Grayish white lows in the ground, lined with 
grass and frequently with the top slightly arch- 
ed to conceal the eggs, which are grayish white, 
clouded, spotted and blotched with brownish, 
gray and lilac; size .84 x .62. They number from 
four to six and are laid in June. 

495. COWBIRD. Molothrus ater ater. 

Range. North America from the Atlantic 
to eastern California, and from New Brunswick 
and Manitoba southward; winters from the 
southern half of the United States southward. 

These uncivilized members of the bird world 
build no nests for themselves, but slyly deposit Bobolink 

3X4 




PERCHING BIRDS 



their egg in the nest of some other bird from 

the size of a Robin down, probably the greater 
number being in Warblers 
.*#?'""**"?"' an( l Sparrows nests; the 

/&+.' ^ - eggs are hatched and the 

young cared for by the un- 
fortunate birds upon which 
they are thrust. The eggs 
are white, spotted and 
speckled all over, more or 

less strongly with brown and yellowish brown; 

size .85 x .64. 




White 



495a. DWARF COWBIRD. 
obscurus. 



Molothrus atcr 



and 




Cowbird 




Light blue-green 



Range. Southwestern United States 
Mexico, wintering south of our borders. 

This variety is like the last, but slightly 
smaller. The nesting habits of the two are 
identical and the eggs are indistinguishable, 
It is believed that Cowbirds do more damage to 
the smaller birds than all other dangers com- 
bined, as their young being larger and stronger 
either crowd or smother the other young or else starve them by getting most 
of the food brought to the nest. 

1-96. RED-EYED COWBIRD. Tangariux ceneus involucratus. 

Range. Mexico; north in summer to the Lower Rio 
Grande in Texas. 

This parasite is larger than the Cowbird, being 9 inches 
long, and is glossy black with brassy reflections on the 
upper and under parts. They are abundant in southern 
Texas where they deposit their eggs in the nests of other 
birds, apparently preferring those of Orioles; their eggs 
are pale bluish green, unmarked; size .90 x .70. 

HI 497. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. 
Range. North America west of the Missis- 
sippi to eastern California, breeding from the 
southern parts of the United States north to 
British Columbia and Hudson Bay and winter- 
ing from southern United States downward. 

This large handsome 
Blackbird with bright yel- 
low head and breast is 
very abundant in some 
parts of the west, where 
they nest, in large colonies 
in sloughs and marshes, 
being especially abundant 
in the Dakotas and Mani- 
toba. The nests are made of strips of rushes, 
skillfully woven together and attached to up- 
right cane near the surface of the water. They 
lay from four to six eggs having a grayish 
white ground color, finely specked and spotted 
with shades of brown and gray; sixe 1.00 x .70, 
315 





Yellow-beaded Blackbird 




THE BIRD BOOK 




498. RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD. Agelaius 
phceniceus phceniceus. 




jtiiuish white 



Red-winged Blackbird 




-**|>*^^^"\ / Range. North America east of the Rockies 

* . ' i. an( j from the southern British Provinces south- 

ward to the Gulf; winter in southern United 
States. 

These birds are familiar .. 

to every frequenter of the 
country, in their range; 
too familiar to many, for 
the enormous flocks do 
considerable damage to 
grain fields in the fall. 
They also do a great 
amount of good at other 

seasons in the destruction of injurious insects 
and weed seed. They breed from April in the 
southern parts of their range to May and June 
in the northern, making their nests of grasses, 
woven and twisted together and placing them 
in bushes in swamps or over water, and some- 
times on the ground in clumps of grass. Their 
eggs are from three to five in number, bluish 
white boldy spotted, clouded or lined with blackish brown and purplish. Size 
1.00 x .70. The nests and eggs of the numerous sub-species are all precisely the 
same as those of this bird, so we will but enumerate the varieties and their 
range. To identify these varieties other than by their ranges will require 
micrometer calipers and the services of the men who separated them. 

498a. SONORA RED-WING. Agelaius phceniceus sonoriensis. 
Range. A slightly larger variety found in southern United States. 

498b. BAHAMA RED-WING. Agelaius phceniceus bryanti. 

Range.-- Bahamas and southern Florida. 
This species has a slightly longer bill. 

498c. FLORIDA RED-WING. Agelaius phceniceus floridanus. 

Range. Florida and Gulf coast. 
A smaller species with a longer bill. 

498d. THICK-BILLED RED-WING. Agelaius phceniceus fortis. 

Range. Breeds in the interior of British America; in winter south through 
the Plains to southwestern United States. 

498e. SAN DIEGO RED-WING. Agelaius Phceniceus neutralis. 

Range. Great Basin between the Rockies and Sierra Nevadas, from British 
Columbia to Mexico, wintering in the southern parts of its range. 

498f. NORTHWESTERN RED-WING. Agelaius phceniceus caurinus. 
Range. Pacific coast from California to British Columbia. 

316 



PERCHING BIRDS 



499- BICOLORED RED-WING. Agelaius 
gubernator calif ornlcus. 

Range. Pacific coast, west of the Sierra 
Nevadas, from Washington south to Lower 
California. 

The males of this spe- 
cies are distinguished from 
those of the Red-wings by 
the absence of light mar- 
gins to the orange red 
shoulders. They are fairly 
abundant in their restrict- 
ed localities, building their 

Dull bluish white nest / in swamps about 
ponds and streams. The 

nests are like those of the Red-wings, and the 
eggs are similar and with the same great varia- 
tions in markings, but average a trifle smaller; 
size .05 x .67. 





Meadowlark 



500. TRICOLORED RED-WING. Agelaius tricolor. 

Range. Pacific coast of California and Oregon ; rare east 
of the Sierra Nevadas. 

This species differs from the Red-wing in having the 
shoulders a much darker red and the median coverts white 
instead of buffy. Like the last species they have a limited 
range and are nowhere as common as are the Red-wings in 
the east. Their nests are like those of the Red-wings and 
the eggs are not distinguishable in their many variations, 
but they appear to be more often lined than those of the 
former. 




Dull bluish white 




501. MEADOWLARK. Sturnella magna magna. 

Range. North America east of the Plains and north to 
Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters from New England 
southward. 

This handsome dweller among our fields and meadows is 
frequently heard giving his high, pleasing, fiute-like whistle 
with its variations; his beautiful 
yellow breast with its black 
crescent is not so frequently 
seen in life, for they are usually 
quite shy birds. They artfully 
conceal their nests on the ground 
among the tall grass of meadows, 
arching them over with dead 
grass. During May or June they 
lay from four to six white eggs. 




White 



speckled over the whole surface with reddish brown and 
purplish; size 1.10 x .80. 

501 a. Rio GRANDE MEADOWLARK. Sturnella magna 

hoopesi. 

Range. A brighter and slightly smaller variety found 
along the Mexican border. 
317 



PERCHING BIRDS 



501.1. WESTERN MEADOWLARK. 
neglecta. 



Sturnella 



Range. North America west of the Missis- 
sippi and from Manitoba and British Columbia 
southward, its range overlapping that of the 
eastern Meadowlark in the Mississippi Valley, 
but the two varieties appear not to intermingle. 
This variety is paler than the eastern, but the 
greatest point of difference is in the songs, 
they being wholly unlike, and that of the west- 
ern bird much louder, sweeter and more varied 
than the simple whistle of the eastern form. 
The nesting habits of both varieties are the 
same and the eggs indistinguishable. 



501c. SOUTHERN MEADOWLARK. 
magna argutula. 



Sturnella 



Range. Florida and the Gulf coast. 

A very similar bird to the northern form 
but slightly smaller and darker. There is no 
difference between the eggs of the two varieties, 




Audubon Oriole 



503. AUDUBON'S ORIOLE. Icterus melanocephalus auduboni. 

Range. Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

This large Oriole has a wholly black head, neck, fore breast, tail and wings; 
it is 9.5 inches in length. They are quite abundant and 
resident in southern Texas where they build at low eleva- 
tions in trees, preferably mesquites, making the nests of 
woven grasses and hanging them from the small twigs of 
the trees; the nests are more like those of the Orchard 
Oriole and not long and pensile like those of the Baltimore. 
The three to five eggs are grayish white, blotched, clouded, 
spotted or streaked with brownish and purple. Size 1.00 
x .70. Data. Brownsville, Texas, April 6, 1897. 5 eggs. 

Nest of threads from palmetto leaves, hanging from limb of mesquite, 10 feet 
above ground in the open woods. Collector, Frank B. Armstrong. 




White 




319 



THE BIRD BOOK 





Hooded Oriole 



504. SCOTT'S ORIOLE. Icterus parisorum. 

Range. Western Mexico north to the adjoin- 
ing states; north to Nevada. 

This handsome black 
and yellow species does 
not appear to be abundant 
in any part of its range. 
Their nests are swung 
from the under side of 
leaves of the yucca palm 
or from small branches of 
low trees, and are made of grass and fibres. 
The eggs are bluish white, specked and blotch- 
ed chiefly about the large end with blackish 
brown and lilac gray. Size .95 x .65. Data. 
Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, June 5, 1900. Nest 
placed on the under side of a yucca palm leaf, 
being hung from the spines, about 4 feet from 
the ground. Altitude 7000 feet. Collector, O. 
W. Howard. 



Bluish white 



505. SENNETT'S ORIOLE. Icterus cucullatus sennetti. 

Range. Mexico, north in summer to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

This species is orange yellow except for the face, throat, 
fore back, wings and tail, which are black; the wings are 
crossed by two white bars. These handsome birds are the 
most abundant of the Orioles on the Lower Rio Grange, 
where their pure mellow whistle is heard at frequent inter- 
vals throughout the day. They generally build their nests 
in hanging moss from mesquite trees, turning up at the 
ends and lining the pocket with moss, or else make a 
shallow hanging nest of fibres and suspend it from yuccas. 
During May or June they lay from three to five eggs of a white color, spotted 
(rarely lined) with purplish brown and gray. Size .85 x .60. 




White 




505a. ARIZONA HOODED ORIOLE. Icterus cucullatus nelsoni. 

Range. Western Mexico; in summer north to southern Arizona, New Mexico 
and California. 

This variety is like the last but more yellowish. Their nests are made of a 
wiry grass compactly woven together and partially suspended to mistletoe twigs 
growing from cottonwood trees; nests of this type are perfectly distinct from 
those of the preceding, but when they are made of fibre and attached to yuccas, 
they cannot be distinguished from nests of the former variety. Their eggs are 
similar to those of the Hooded Oriole, but generally more strongly marked and 
usually with some zigzag lines. Size .85 x .60. 




PERCHING BIRDS 



506. ORCHARD ORIOLE. Icterus spurius. 

Range. United States, east of the Plains, 
breeding from the Gulf to southern New Eng- 
land, and Canada in the interior. Winters be- 
yond our borders. 

The adult male of this spe- 
cies is a rich chocolate brown 
and black, it requiring three 
years to attain this plumage. 
They nest commonly about 
habitations in their range, 
usually preferring orchard 
trees for sites. Their nests 
are skillfully woven baskets 
of fresh grasses, about as high as wide; they 
are generally placed in upright forks and well 
concealed by drooping leaves. They lay from 
four to six bluish white eggs, spotted and 
blotched with brown and lavender. Size .80 x 
.55. Data. Avery's Island, La., May 10, 1896. 
Nest of grass, lined with thistledown; semi- 
pensile in drooping twigs of a willow. Collec- 
tor, F. A. Mcllhenny. 




Bluish white 




Arizona Hooded Oriole 

Orchard Oriole 



507. BALTIMORE ORIOLE. Icterus galbula. 



Range.- -North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from southern United 

States north to New Brunswick and Saskatche- 
wan. 

\ This beautiful and well known eastern Oriole 

can readily be identified by its orange., flame 
color and entirely black head. Even better 
known than the birds, are the pensile nests 
which retain their positions on the swaying 
drooping branches all 
through the winter. Al- 
though they build in 
many other trees, elms 
seem to be their favor- 
ites. Their nests are 
made of plant fibres and 
frequently string, and 
often reach a length of 
about 10 inches and 

about half that in diameter; they are usually 
attached to drooping branches by the rim so 
that they rock to and fro, but are sometimes 
held more firmly in position by having their 
side bound to a branch. Their eggs, which are 
laid in May and June, are white, streaked and 
lined with blackish brown and grayish. Size 
.90 x .60. 

321 





White 



Baltimore Oriole 




21 



THE BIRD BOOK 




Rasty Blackbird 

Brewster'; 



Blackbird 



508. BULLOCK'S ORIOLE. Icterus bullocki. 

Range. North America, west of the Plains 
and from British Columbia southward, winter- 
ing in Mexico. 

This handsome species 
is as abundant in the west 
^fT as the Baltimore Oriole is 

^ga in the east, and breeds 

) throughout its United 
1^?' States range. Their nests 
are similarly made and in 
similar locations, and the 
Bluish white eggs are hardly distin- 

guishable from those of the preceding, but the 
ground color is generally of a pale bluish white 
tint and the markings are usually finer, the 
lines running around the eggs and often mak- 
ing a very handsome wreath about the large 
end. Size of eggs, .94 x .62. 



509. RUSTY BLACKBIRD. Euphagus carolinus. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from northern New Eng- 
land and the Adirondacks northward; winters in southern United States. 

But few of these birds breed within our borders, the ma- 
jority of them passing on to the interior of Canada. They 
generally nest in pairs, or at the most three or four pairs 
in a locality, building their large substantial nests of moss, 
twigs and grass, lined with fine green grass; this structure 
is situated in bushes or low trees in swampy places and at 
from 3 to 20 feet from the ground. The eggs are laid in 
May or June; they vary from three to five in number, of a 
pale bluish green color, spotted, blotched and clouded with 
shades of brown and gray. Size .96 x .71. 

Range. North America west of the Plains, and from British Columbia and 
Saskatchewan southward. 




Bluish green 



510. BREWER'S BLACKBIRD. Euphagus cyanocephalus. 





Dull white 



This western representative of the preceding is of about 
the same size (10 inches Ipng), but differs in having a 
purplish head and greenish black body. They nest abund 
antly throughout their range either in bushes or trees at 
low elevations or upon the ground; the nests are made of 
sticks, rootlets and grasses, lined with finer grass and 
moss, and the eggs, which are very variable, are dull 
whitish, clouded and blotched with brownish and streak- 
ed with blackish. Size 1.00 x .75. 



322 



511. 



Quiscalus quiscula 



PERCHING BIRDS 




PURPLE GRACKLE. 
quiscula. 

Range. Eastern United States from the Gulf 
to Massachusetts; winters along the Gulf. 

This species, which is 
I i commonly known as Crow 

Blackbird, nests in trees 

or bushes anywhere in its 

range, and on the coast 

frequently constructs its 

nests among the large 

sticks of Ospery nests. 

Large pines appear to be 

favorite sites for them to 
locate their large nests of twigs, weeds, grass 
and trash. They are placed at any elevation 
from nearly on the ground to 50 feet above it. 
The eggs range from three to five and are 
greenish white, splashed, spotted and scrawl- 
ed with various shades of brown and gray, and 
with streaks of black. Size 1.10 x .80. The 
nesting habits and eggs of the sub-species of 
this Grackle do not differ in any particular. Like those of this variety the eggs 
show an endless number of patterns of markings. 



Dull greenish 
White 




Purple Grackle 

Bronzed Grackle 



51 la. FLORIDA GRACKLE. Quiscalus quiscula aglceus. 



Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States. 
A smaller variety of the preceding; length about 
inches. Eggs indistinguishable. 



1 1 



Quiscalus quiscula 




51 Ib. BRONZED GRACKLE. 
ceneus. 

Range. North America east of the Rockies, breeding 
from the Gulf to Hudson Bay and Labrador. Winters 

in the southern parts of the United States. This is the most common and 
widely distributed of the Crow Blackbirds and is distinguished by the brassy 
color of the upper parts. 



513. BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE. Megaquiscalus major major. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States ; north to Virginia. 

This handsome bird measures about 16 inches in 
length, is irridescent with purplish and greenish, and 
has a very long, graduated and hollowed tail. These 
Grackles are very abundant residents along the Gulf, 
breeding in large colonies in swamps, placing their 
nests of weeds, moss, grasses, etc., in bushes, trees, 
cans or rushes, but a few inches above the water, while 
those in trees are sometimes 50 feet above the ground. 
The eggs are laid in March, April or May, are from 
three to five in number, and are a dull bluish or grayish 
white, streaked, lined, clouded and blotched with brown, black and gray; size 
1.25 x. 95. 

323 




Grayish ^vhite 




THE BIRD BOOK 




513a. GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE. 

Megaquiscalus major macrourus. 

Range. Mexico to southern and eastern 
Texas. 

This variety is larger than the last (length 
18 inches) and the tail is very broad and flat. 




Evening Grosbeak 



Grayish white 

Like the former, they nest in bushes, rushes or 
trees at any elevation from the ground. The 
nests are built of the same materials and the 
eggs are similar to those of the Boat-tailed 
Grackle, but larger; size 1.28 x .88. 




Greenish white 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Family FRINGILLD^E 

514 EVENING GROSBEAK. Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina. 

Range. Western United States in the Rocky Mountain region; north to Sas- 
katchewan; south in winter to Mississippi Valley and cas- 
ually east to New England and the intermediate states. 

These are dull and yellowish birds, shading to brownish 
on the head; with a bright yellow forehead and suspercil- 
iary line, black wings and tail, and white inner secondaries 
and greater coverts. They breed in the mountainous por- 
tions of their range, placing their flat nests of sticks and 
rootlets in low trees or 

bushes. The eggs are laid in May or June and 

are greenish white spotted and blotched with 

brown; size .90 x .65. 

514a. WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK. 
Hesperiphona vespertina montana. 

Range. Western United States, breeding in 
the mountains from New Mexico to British 
Columbia. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this variety 
are the same as those of the preceding, and the 
birds can rarely be separated. 




515. PINE GROSBEAK. 
leucura. 



Pinicola enucleator 



Range/ Eastern North America, breeding 
from northern New England northward, and 
wintering to southern New England and Ohio 
and casually farther. They build in conifers 

324 




Pine Grosbeak 




making their nests of small twigs and rootlets, 
lined with fine grasses and lichens. During the 
latter part of May or June they lay three or 
four eggs, which have a 
ground color of light 
greenish blue, spotted and 
splashed with dark brown, 
and with fainter markings 
of lilac. Size 1.00 x .70. 
Pine Grosbeaks have been 
separated into the follow- 
ing sub-species, the chief 
distinction between them being in their 
ranges. The nesting habits and eggs of all 
are alike. 

515a. ROCKY MOUNTAIN PINE GROSBEAK. 
Pinicola enucleator montana. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region from New 
Mexico to Montana. 



PERCHING BIRDS 



Greenish blue 



51 5b. CALIFORNIA PINE GROSBEAK. 
cola enucleator calif ornica. 



Pini 




Purple Finch 
Range. Higher parts of the Sierra Nevadas in California. 

515c. ALASKA PINE GROSBEAK. Pinicola enucleator alascensis. 

Range. Interior of Northwest America from Alaska south to British Col- 
umbia. 

515d. KADIAK PINE GROSBEAK. Pinicola enucleator flammula. 
Range. Kadiak Island and the southern coast of Alaska. 

[516.] CASSIN'S BULLFINCH. Pyrrhula cassini. 
Range. Northern Asia; accidental in Alaska. 

517- PURPLE FINCH. Carpodacus purpureus purpureus. 

Range. North America east of the plains, breeding 
from the Middle States onrth to Labrador and Hudson Bay ; 
winters in the United States. 

These sweet songsters are quite abund- 
ant in New England in the summer, but 
more so north of our borders. While 
they breed sometimes in trees, in orch- 
ards, I have nearly always found their 
nests in evergreens, usually about three- 
fourths of the way up. The nests are 
made of fine weeds and grasses and lined Greenish blue 
with horse hair. The eggs, which are usually laid in June, 
are greenish blue, spotted with dark brownish; size 
.85 x .65. 

517a. CALIFORNIA PURPLE 

FINCH. Carpodacus purpureus californicus. 

Range. Pacific coast, breeding from central California 
to British Columbia and wintering throughout California. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this darker colored 
variety are just like those of the last, 

325 





515b 517a 




THE BIRD BOOK 




518. CASSIN'S PURPLE FINCH. Carpodacus cassini. 

Range. North America west of the Rockies, breeding 
from British Columbia south to New Mexico; 

This species is similar to the last but 
the back, wings and tail are darker and 
the purplish color of the preceding spe- 
cies is replaced by a more pinkish shade. 
The nesting habits and eggs are the 
same as those of the eastern Purple 
Finch; size of eggs .85 x .60. Data. Greenish blue 
Willis, New Mexico, June 23, 1901. Nest made of twigs 
and rootlets and lined with horse hair. Collector, F. J. 
Birtwell. 

519- HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. 

Range. United States west of the Plains and from 
Oregon and Wyoming to Mexico. 

This is one of the best known of western 
birds, and nests commonly in all situations ,/' 
from trees and bushes to vines growing on j-' j 
porches. Their nests are made of rootlets iL_ 
and grasses and are lined with horse hair. IBi 
Their nesting season includes all the sum- 
mer months, they raising two and sometimes Gre 
three broods a season. The three to five eggs are pale greenish blue with a few 
sharp blackish brown specks about the large end. Size .80 x .55. 




51S 519 



olQb. SAN LUCAS HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus. 

Range. Southern Lower California. A slightly smaller variety of the pre- 
ceding. 

51Qc. SAN CLEMENTE HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mexicanus clematis. 

Range. San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands. Somewhat darker than 
the last. 

520. GUADALUPE FINCH. Carpodacus amplus. 

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

Similar to the House Finch, but deeper red and slightly larger. Their nest- 
ing habits and eggs are precisely like those of the House Finch but the eggs 
average larger; size .85 x .60. 




520.1. MCGREGOR'S HOUSE FINCH. Carpodacus mcgregori. 

Range. San Benito Island, Lower California. 
A newly made species, hardly to be distinguished from the last, 
bably the same. 



326 



Eggs pro- 



521. CROSSBILL. Loxia curvirostra minor. 

Range. Northern North America, breeding 
in the Alleghanies and from northern New 
England northward; winters south to the mid 
die portions of the United States and casually 
farther. 

The birds are very cur 
- *. ious both in appearance and 

fflT'i * actions, being very "flighty" 

o and restless, and apt to re- 
main to breed on any of the 
mountains. They build dur 
ing March or April, making 
Greenish white their nestg Qf twigg> roo tlets, 

moss, feathers, etc., and placing them in forks 
or on branches of trees (usually conifers) at 
any height from the ground. The eggs are 
greenish white, spotted with brown and with 
lavender shell markings; size .75 x .55. 



PERCHING BIRDS 



52 la. MEXICAN CROSSBILL. 
tra stricklandi. 



ILoxi 



'ia curviros- 




Crossbill 




Range. Mountain ranges from central Mexico north to Wyoming. 
A larger variety of the preceding. The eggs will not differ except perhaps 
a trifle in size. 

522. WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. Loxia leucoptera. 

Range. Northern North America, breeding in the Alle- 
ghanies and from northern Maine northward; winters to 
middle portions of the United States. 

This species is rosy red with two white wing bars. Like 
the last, they are of a roving disposition and are apt to 
be found in any unexpected locality. Their nesting habits 
are the same as those of the American Crossbill, but the 

eggs average larger and the Greenish while 

markings are more blotchy; size .80 x .55. 

.97 x .67. 

523. ALEUTIAN ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte 

griseonucha. 
Range. Aleutian and Pribilof Islands; south 

to Kadiak. 
This is the largest of the genus, and can 

be distinguished from the others by its very 

dark chestnut coloration and the gray hindneck 

and cheeks. Like the other 

Leucostictes, they are 

found in flocks and fre- 
quent rocky or mountain 

ous country, where they 

are nearly always found 

on the ground. They build 

in crevices among the 

rocks or under ledges or 

embankments, making the 

nest of weeds and grasses. 

pure white eggs are laid during June. Size 

.97 x .67. Data. St. George Islands of the 
327 




White 
Their four or five 



White-winged Crosbill 




THE BIRD BOOK 




524. . GRAY-CROWNED ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte 
tephrocotis tephrocotis. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Saskatchewan 
south to northern United States and also 
breeding in the Sierra Nevadas; winters 
on the lowlands of northwestern United 
States and east to Manitoba. 

The habits and breeding habits of this 
species are like those of the last. The 
bird is paler colored and the gray is re- 
stricted to the hind part of the head. 
They nest on the ground in June, laying 
four or five white eggs. 




White 



523524 




524<a. HEPBURN ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte tephrocotis 
littoralis. 

Range. Higher ranges from Washington and British 
Columbia to Alaska. 

This variety is like the Aleutian Leucosticte but the 
brown is a great deal paler. The nesting habits and eggs 
are, in all probability, like those of the last. 

525. BLACK ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte atrata. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region of northern United States; known to breed 
in Idaho. 

This species is black in place of the brown of the others ; the gray is restrict- 
ed to the hind part of the head and the rosy is rather more extensive on the 
wings. Their eggs probably cannot be distinguished from those of the Gray- 
crowned variety. 

526. BROWN-CAPPED ROSY FINCH. Leucosticte australis 

Range. Breeds at high altitudes in the Rockies in Colo- 
rado; south to New Mexico in winter. 

A similar bird to the Gray-crowned Leucosticte but with 
no gray on the head. They nest on the ground above 
timber line on the higher ranges of the Rockies. 

527- GREENLAND REDPOLL. Acanihis hornemanni 
hornemanni. 

Range. Greenland and northern Europe; south in winter 
to Labrador. 

This large Redpoll nests at low elevations in trees and 
bushes, its habits and eggs being similar to the more com- 
mon American species. 

527a. HOARY REDPOLL. Acanihis hornemanni exilipes. 

Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions and winters south 
to the northern parts of the United States. 

This variety is smaller than the last and is considerably 
darker but still retains the white rump of the Greenland 
Redpoll. Its nesting habits are the same as those of the 
next. 




525526 



PERCHING BIRDS 



528. REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria Unarm. 

Range. Breeds within the Arctic Circle; 
winters south to New York, Kansas and north- 
ern California and casually farther. 

This species is similar to the last but mucn 
darker, and the rump is also streaked with 
blackish. These handsome birds are often met 
with in winter, feeding on seeds 
of the weed stems that project 
above the snow. Their flight 
and song is similar to that of the 
Goldfinch or Pine Siskin. They 
nest at low elevations, either in 
Bluish green trees or bushes. The eggs num- 
ber from three to six and are pale bluish, spar- 
ingly specked with reddish brown. Size .65 x 
.50. Data. Mouth of Great Whale River, Hud- 
son Bay, May 16, 1899. Nest in a willow 4 feet 
from the ground ; made of fine rootlets and 
grass, lined with feathers. Collector, A. P. 
Lowe. 






*> 



\ 



Redpoll 



528a. HOLBOLL'S REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria holbcelli. 

Range. Arctic regions; south casually to the border of the United States. 

A slightly larger variety of the common Redpoll. Eggs probably not dis- 
tinguished. 

528b. GREATER REDPOLL. Acanthis linaria rostrata. 

Range. Breeds in southern Greenland; in winter south through Labrador to 
the northern border of the United States. 

This variety is larger and darker than the common Redpoll. It has been 
found breeding abundantly in southern Greenland, where its nesting habits are 

^ the same as those of the Redpoll and the eggs 

~" ~n similar but averaging a trifle larger. 



52Q. GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis tristis 

Range. North America east of the Rockies, 
and from Labrador and Manitoba southward. 

These beautiful birds are 
among our sweetest song- 
sters from May until Sep- 
tember. They are resident 
throughout their United States 
range, where they breed in 
August or early in Septem- Bluish white 
ber, being one of the latest nesting birds that 
we have. Their nests are located in bushes, at 
a height of generally below fifteen feet above 
the ground, being placed in upright forks, and 
made of plant fibres and thistle down, firmly 
woven together. They lay from three to six 
plain bluish white eggs. Size .65 x .50. The ma- 
jority of nests that I have found have been in 
alders over small streams. 

329 






Gojdflnch 




B ' H 




AMERICAN GOLDFINCH 



PERCHING BIRDS 



529a. PALE GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis pallidus. 

Range/ Rocky Mountains from Mexico to British Colum 
bia. 

This variety is slightly larger and (in winter) paler than 
the last. 

529b. WILLOW GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus tristis 
salicamans. 

Range. Pacific coast from Washington to Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

Similar to the eastern Goldfinch but back said to be 
slightly greenish yellow. 

530. ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus psaltria 
psaltria. 

Range. United States, west of the Plains and from Ore- 
gon to Mexico. 

This species has greenish upper parts and 
yellow below; the crown, wings and tail are 
black, the bases of the lateral tail feathers 
llBfe^ and primaries being whitish. They are com- 
mon in portions of their range, nesting in similar locations to 
Bluish white those chosen by the common Goldfinch and laying from three to 
five eggs which are similar but slightly smaller. Size .60 x .45. Data. River- 
side, California, May 20, 1891. 5 eggs. Nest made of fine grasses lined with 
cotton ; 5 feet from the ground in a small tree. 




529a 529b 530 



530a. GREEN-BACKED GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus hesperophilus. 

Range. Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas. 
A similar bird to the last but with the entire upper parts and cheeks, black. 
The habits, nests and eggs are identical with those of the Arkansas Goldfinch. 

531. LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. Astragalinus lawrencei. 

Range. Pacific coast of California, wintering along the Mexican border. 

This grayish colored Goldfinch has a black face and yellow breast, rump, 
wing coverts and edges of the primaries. They are quite common in their 
restricted range, nesting either in upright crotches or in the forks of horizontal 
limbs. The four or five eggs which they lay are pure white; size .60 x .45. 
;Data. Santa Conica Canyon, Cal., April 26, 1903. Nest in a cypress tree 12 
'feet up; composed of grasses, feathers, etc. Collector, W. Lee Chambers. 

[532.] BLACK-HEADED GOLDFINCH. Spinus notatus. 

Range. Mountainous regions of Central America and southern Mexico; 
accidental in the United States. 

331 






THE BIRD BOOK 



533. PINE SISKIN. Spinus pinus. 

Range. Breeds from northern United States 
northward, in the Alleghanies and in the Rock- 
ies south to New Mexico. Winters throughout 
the United States. 

Siskins are of the size of the Goldfinch (5 
inches long), and their calls, songs and habits 
are similar to those of this bird. Their plum- 
age is grayish brown, streaked with dusky and 
the bases of the wings and tail feathers are 
yellow. Like the Crossbills, 
they frequently feed along our /^ r ' . 
northern borders, but very spor- 
adically. Their nests are built 
on horizontal branches of pines 
or cedars at any elevation from 
the ground, being made o f Greenish white 
grasses and rootlets lined with hair or pine 
needles, and of rather frail and flat construc- 
tion. Their eggs are laid during May or June 
and are greenish white, specked with reddish 
brown; size .68 x .48. Data. Hamilton Inlet, 

Labrador, June 17, 1898. Nest on branch of a spruce, 10 feet from the ground; 

made of grass, lined with moss and feathers. Collector, L. Dicks. 




Pine Siskin 



534. SNOW BUNTING. Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis. 




Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions, and winters irregularly in large flocks 
through the United States to Oregon, Kansas 
and Georgia. 

These birds are only seen in the United 
States in large roving flocks, 
- x , during the winter when they 

*V* ** ' . feed on weed seeds on side 
hills. Their nests are built 
on tne ground, being sunk 
into the s P a S num nioss, and 
made of grasses lined with 
feathers. Their four or five 
eggs are a light greenish white, spotted and 
splashed with yellowish brown and lilac. Size 
.90x.65. 



.- 



Greenish white 



534a. PRIBILOF SNOW BUNTING. 
phenax nivalis towns endi. 



Plectro- 



Range. Pribilof and Aleutian Islands, Alaska. 

A slightly larger variety which is resident 
on the islands in its range. Eggs like those 
of the preceding; laid from May to July. 




Snowflake 



PERCHING BIRDS 

535. McKay's SNOW BUNTING. Pletrophenax hyperboreus. 

Range. Western Alaska; known to breed on Hall's Island. 

This beautiful species is, in summer, entirely white except for the tips of the 
primaries and a black spot on end of central tail feathers, thus being very dis- 
tinct from the preceding, which has the back and the wings to a greater extent 
black, at this season. Their eggs probably very closely resemble those of the 
last species. 



536. LAPLAND LONGSPUR. Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus. 

Range. Breeds in northern North America ; winters south 
casually to New York, Ohio and Oregon and occasionally farther. 

These sparrow-like birds are 6.5 inches long and have a black 
crown, cheeks and throat, and chestnut band on nape. Like the 
Snowflakes they nest on the ground in moss, but the four to six 
eggs that they lay are grayish, heavily mottled and blotched witii 
chocolate brown; size .80 x .60. 




Grayish 



536a. ALASKA LONGSPUR. Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. 

Range. Northwest North America, breeding in Alaska; winter south to Ore- 
gon. This sub-species is like the last but slightly paler. Eggs indistinguish- 
able. 




Norman W. Swayns 
NEST AND EGGS OF GOLDFLNCH 

333 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Smith's Longspur 



537- SMITH'S LONGSPUR. Calcarius pictus. 

Range. Breeds in Hudson Bay and Mac- 
kenzie River districts and winters south to 
Texas chiefly o nthe Plains. 

This species is of the size 
of the last but is a rich buff 
color below, and the other 
markings are very different. 
These birds together with 
the next species are very 
common on the prairies in 
central United States in win- Grayish 

ter. They nest on the ground like the preced- 
ing species but the nests are scantily made of 
grasses and not warmly lined like those of the 
last. The eggs are similar but paler; size .80 
x .60. Data. Herschell Island, Arctic Ocean, 
June 10, 1901. Nest built in a tuft of grass; 
made of fine roots and grass, lined with feath- 
ers. 






Dull white 



538. CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR. Calcarius ornatus. 

Range. Plains in the interior of North America, breeding from Kansas north 
to Saskatchewan; very abundant in the Dakotas and Montana. 

This handsome species in the breeding plumage has the 
throat white, breast and belly black, and a chestnut collar on 
the nape. They are one of the most abundant breeding birds 
on the prairies, nesting in hollows on the ground either in the 
open or protected by a tuft of grass. The nests are made of 
grasses and sometimes moss; three or four eggs laid in June 
or July; white, blotched, lined 
and obscurely marked with 
brown and purplish; size .75 x .55. 

539. McCowN's LONGSPUR. Rhynchophanes 

mccowni. 

Range. Great Plains, breeding from Kansas 
to the Saskatchewan. 

This Longspur which breeds in company with 
the preceding, throughout its range, can be dis- 
tinguished from it by the 
small black patch on the 
breast, the black crown, and 
chestnut wing coverts. Their 
nesting habits are the same, 
and at this season all the 
Longspurs have a sweet song 
often uttered during flight, Grayish white 
like that of the Bobolink. Their eggs are of the 
same size and similarly marked as the last, but 
the ground color is more gray or olive. 

334 





Chestnut-collared Longspur 



PERCHING BIRDS 



540. VESPER SPARROW. Pocecetes 
gramineus gramineus. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 
Virginia and Missouri north to Manitoba and 
New Brunswick; winters in the southern half 
of the United States. 

A streaked grayish, buffy 
and white bird distinguished 
by its chestnut shoulders and 
white outer tail feathers. 
They are abundant birds in 
eastern fields where their 
loud piping whistle is known 
to many frequenters of weedy 
pastures. They build on the ground, either 
in grassy or cultivated fields, lining the hollow 
scantily with grasses. Their four or five eggs 
are usually laid in May or June; they are dull 
whitish, blotched and splashed with light 
brown and lavender tints; size .80 x .60. 




Whitish 




McCown's Long-spur 



540a. WESTERN VESPER SPARROW. Pocecetes gramineus confinis. 

Range. This paler variety is found in North America west of the Plains and 
south of Saskatchewan. 

Its nesting habits are like those of the preceding and the eggs are indistin- 
guishable. 

5 4 Ob. OREGON VESPER SPARROW. Pooecetes gramineus affinis. 

A browner variety found on the coast of Oregon and northern California. 

Its nesting habits are like those of the eastern bird and the eggs similar but 
averaging a trifle smaller. 

SPARROW. I asser 



1 





Vesper Sparrow 



domesticus. 

These birds, which were imported from 
Europe, have increased so rapidly that they 
have overrun the cities and villages of the coun- 
try and are doing inestimable damage both by 
driving out native insect 
eating birds and by their 
own destructiveness. -They 
nest in all sorts of places 
but preferably behind 
blinds, where their un- 
sightly masses of straw- 
protrude from between the 
slats, and their droppings besmirch the build- 
ings below; they breed at all seasons of the 
year, eggs having often been found in January, 
with several feet of snow on the ground and 
the mercury below zero. The eggs number from 
four to eight in a set and from four to eight 
sets a season; the eggs are whitish, spotted 
and blotched with shades of gray and black. 
Size .88 x .60. 

335 



White 




A. R. Spaid 



NEST AND EC.GS OF VESPER SPARROW 



PERCHING BIRDS 



541. IPSWICH SPARROW. Passerculus 

princeps. 

Range. Breeds on Sable Island, off Nova 
Scotia; winters on coast of South Atlantic 
States. This a large and pale colored form of 
the common Savannah Sparrow. Its nesting 
habits are similar to those of the latter and the 
eggs are marked the same but average larger. 
Size .80 x .60. 

542. ALEUTIAN SAVANNAH SPARROW. Pas- 

serculus sandwichensis sandwichensis. 

Range. Breeds on the Alaskan coast; win- 
ters south to northern California. 

A streaked Sparrow like the 
next but with the yellow super- 
ciliary line brighter and more 
extended. Its nesting habits 
are precisely like those of the 
next variety which is common 
and well known; the eggs are 




Grayish white 



indistinguishable. 




Savannah Sparrow 



542a. SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna. 
Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from the 
Middle States north to Labrador and the Hudson Bay region. 
Similar to the last but with the superciliary line paler and 
the yellow reduced to a spot on the lores. Their nests are 
hollows in the ground, lined with grasses and generally con- 
cealed by tufts of grass or weeds. Their three to five eggs 
vary greatly in markings from finely and evenly dotted all 
over to very heavily blotched, the ground color being grayish 
white. Size .75 x .55 




Grayish white 



42b. 



SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis alau- 



WE STERN 
dinus. 
Range. Western North America from Alaska to Mexico. 

A slightly paler form whose nesting habits and eggs do 
not differ from those of the last. 

542c. BRYANT'S SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis. 
bryanti. 

Range. Salt marshes of California from San Francisco 
Bay south to Mexico. 

Slightly darker and brighter than the eastern Savannah 
Sparrow and with a more slender bill. The eggs are riot 
different from many specimens of savanna', they are light 
greenish white heavily blotched with various shades of 
brown and lavender. Size .75 x .55. 

543. BELDING'S SPARROW. Passerculus beldingi. 

Range. Pacific coast marshes of southern California 
and southward. 

This species is similar to the last but 
darker .and more heavily streaked below. 
They breed abundantly in salt marshes, 
building their nests in the grass or 
patches of seaweed barely above the 
water, and making them of grass and Gravish wh j t e 
weeds, lined with hair; the eggs are dull 
grayish white, boldly splashed, spotted and clouded with 
brown and lavender. Size .78 x .55. 
337 

22 






THE BIRD BOOK 








544. LARGE-BILLED SPARROW. Passerculus restrains 
restrains. 

Range. Coast of southern and Lower California. 

Similar to the Savannah Sparrow but paler and grayer, 
without yellow lores and a larger and stouter bill. They 
are common in salt marshes, often in company with the 
last species and their nesting habits are similar to and 
the eggs not distinguished with certainty from those of 
the latter. 

544a. SAN LUCAS SPARROW. Passerculus rostratus 
guttatus. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

A slightly darker form of the preceding, having identical 
habits, and probably, eggs. 

544c. SAN BENITO SPARROW. Passerculus rostratus 
sanctorum. 

Range. Breeds on San Benito Islands; winters in south- 
ern Lower California. 

The nesting habits and eggs of these very similar sub- 
species are identical. 



544 544c 




545. 




545. BAIRD'S SPARROW. Ammodramus bairdi 
Range. Plains, breeding from northern United States to 
the Saskatchewan; south in winter to the Mexican border. 

These Sparrows breed abundantly on the plains of Dakota 
and northward, placing their nest in hollows on the ground in 
fields and along road sides. During June or July, they lay 
three to five dull whitish eggs, blotched, splashed and spotted 
with light shades of brown and gray. Size .80 x .60. White 

546. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW 

Ammodramus savannarum australis. 
Range. United States east of the Plains, 
breeding from the Gulf to Canada. 

A stoutly built Sparrow marked on the upper 
parts peculiarly, like a quail; nape grayish 

and chestnut. These birds 

are common in dry fields and 

pastures, where their scarce- 
ly audible, grasshopper-like 

song is heard during the heat 

of the day. Their nests are 

sunken in the ground and 
arched over so that they are very difficult to 
find, especially as the bird will not flush until 
nearly trod upon. The four or five eggs, laid in 
June, are white, specked with reddish brown. 
Size .72 x .55. 

Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatns 
546a. WESTERN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 

Range. West of the Plains from British 
Columbia to Mexico. 

Slightly paler than the last; has the same 
nesting habits; eggs indistinguishable. 

338 




White 




Baird's Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow 




GRASSHOPPER SPARROW ON NEST 



C. A. "Ree'd 



THE BIRD BOOK 





Hpnslow's Sparrow 

Lieconte's Sparrow 



546b. FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 
Ammodramus savannarum ftoridanus. 

Range. Central Florida. 

A local form, darker above and paler below 
than the common species. Eggs not different 
in any particular. 

547. HENSLOW'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus 
henslowi henslowi. 

Range. United States east of the Plains, 
breeding locally from Maryland and Missouri 
north to Massachusetts and Minnesota. 

This species is similar in form and marking 
to the last, but is olive green on the nape, and 
the breast and sides , are 
streaked with blackish. Their 
nesting habits are very sim- 
ilar to those of the Grasshop- 
per Sparrow, the nests being 
difficult to find. The eggs 
are greenish white, spotted White 

with reddish brown. Size .75x.55. 





547a. WESTERN HENSLOW'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus henslowi accident alia. 

Range. A paler and very local form found in the Plains in South Dakota and 

probably, adjoining states. Eggs not apt to differ from those of the preceding. 

548. LECONTE'S SPARROW. Passerherbulus lecontei. 

Range. Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to Assiniboia; 
winters south to Texas and the Gulf States. 

A bird of more slender form than the preceding, and with 
a long, graduated tail, the feathers of which are very narrow 
and pointed. They nest on the ground in damp meadows, but 
the eggs are difficult to find 
because the bird is flushed 
from the nest with great diffi- 
White culty. The eggs are white 

and are freely specked with brown. Size .70 x .52. 

549. SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. Passerher- 
bulus caudacutus. 

Range. Breeds in marshes along the Atlan- 
tic coast from Maine to South Carolina and 
winters farther south. 

These birds are very common in nearly all 
the salt marshes of the coast, nesting in the 
marsh grass. I have nearly always found their 
nests attached to the coarse 
marsh grass a few inches above 
water at high tide, and generally 
under apiece of drifted seaweed. 
The nests are made of grasses, 
and the four or five eggs are 
whitish, thickly specked with White 

reddish brown. Size .75 x .55. The birds are 
hard to flush and then fly but a few feet and 
quickly drop into the grass again. 

340 





Sharp-tailed Sparrow 



PERCHING BIRDS 



54-9.1. NELSON'S SPARROW. 
nelsoni nelsoni. 



Passerherbulus 



Range. Breeds in the fresh water marshes 
of the Mississippi valley from Illinois to Mani- 
toba. 

This species is similar to the Sharp-tailed 
Finch but more buffy on the breast and gener- 
ally without streaks. The nesting habits are 
the same and the eggs indistinguishable. 



. ACADIAN SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. 
Passerherbulus nelsoni subvirgatus. 

Range. Breeds in the marshes on the coast 
of New England and New Brunswick; winters 
south to the South Atlantic States. 

This paler variety of Nelson's Sparrow nests 
like the Sharp-tailed species and the eggs are 
the same as those of that bird. 




Seaside Sparrow 

Dusky Seaside Sparrow 



550. SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus maritimus. 

Range. Atlantic coast, breeding from southern New England to Carolina and 
wintering farther south. 

This sharp-tailed Finch is uniform grayish above and light 
streaked with dusky, below. They are very abundant in the 
breeding range, where they nest in marshes in company with 
caudacutus. Their nests are the same as those of that species 
and the eggs similar but slightly larger. Size .80 x .60. 
Data. Smith Island, Va., May 20, 1900. Nest situated in tall 
grass near shore; made of dried grass and seaweed. Collector, 
H. W. Bailey. White 

All the members of this genus have a habit of fluttering out over the water, 
and then gliding back to their perch on the grass, on set wings, meanwhile 
uttering a strange rasping song. The nesting habits and eggs of all the sub- 
species are precisely like those of this variety, and they all occasionally arch 
their nests over, leaving an entrance on the side. 




550a. SCOTT'S SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus peninsulce. 

Range. Coasts of Florida and north to South Carolina. Above blackish 
streaked with brownish gray; below heavily streaked with black. 

550b. TEXAS SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus sennetti. 
Range. Coast of Texas. Similar to maritimus, but streaked above. 

550c. LOUISIANA SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerherbulus maritimus fisheri. 

Range. Gulf coast. This form is similar to peninsulce, but darker and more 
brownish. 

341 




THE BIRD BOOK 




550d. MACGILLIVRAY'S SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Passerherbulus maritimus macgillivrai. 

Range. Coast of South Carolina. Like 
fisheri but grayer. 

5.11. DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW. Passerher- 
bulus nigrescens. 

Range. Marshes of Indian River near Titus- 
ville, Florida. 

This species is the darkest of the genus, both 
above and below, being nearly black on the 
upperparts. Their habits are like those of the 
others and the eggs are not likely to differ. 




552. LARK SPARROW. Chondestes gramma- 
cus grammacus. 

Range. Mississippi Valley from the Plains 
to Illinois and casually farther east, and from 
Manitoba to Texas; winters in Mexico. 

This handsome Sparrow has the sides of the crown and ear ^^^^^ 
patches chestnut, and the sides of the throat and a spot on the 
breast, black. They are sweet singers and very welcome birds 
in their range, where they are quite abundant. Their nests 
are generally placed on the ground in the midst of or under a 
clump of weeds or tuft of grass, but sometimes in bushes or 
even trees; they are made of grasses and weeds and the eggs, 
which are usually laid in May, are white marked chiefly 
about the large end with blackish zigzag lines and spots. 




White 



Size .80 x .60. 



552a. WESTERN LARK SPARROW. 




Range. United States west of the Plains; 
breeds from British Columbia to Mexico. 

This paler and duller colored variety is com- 
mon on the Pacific coast; its habits and nests 
and eggs are like those of the last. 

553. HARRIS'S SPARROW. 

Zonotrichia querula. 

Range. Mississippi Valley, chiefly west, 
breeding in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the 
exact range being unknown. 

Although the birds are 
abundant during migrations, 
they seem to suddenly and 
strangely disappear during 
the breeding season. Sup- 
posed nests have been found 
a few inches above the ground 
in clumps of grass, the eggs 
Whitish being wh iti s h, thickly spotted 
with shades of brown. Size .85 x .65. 

342 



Chondestes grammacus strigatut 





Harris's Sparrow 



PERCHING BIRDS 



554. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. Zonotri- 
chia leucophrys leucophrys. 

Range. North America breeding abundantly 
in Labrador and about Hudson Bay, and casual- 
ly in northern New England and in western 
United States in the Rockies and Sierras. 

Winters along our Mexican 
border and southward. A 
handsome species with a 
broad white crown bordered 
on either side by black, and 
with a white superciliary line 
and black lores; the under- 
parts are uniform grayish 
white. These birds appear to 
be nowhere as common as the White-throated 
Sparrows with which they associate during mi- 
grations and in the breeding grounds. They 
build on the ground, generally near the edges 
of woods or in clearings, and lay from four to 

six eggs similar but larger, and with as much White-crowned Sparrow 

variation in markings as those of the Song Sparrow ; pale greenish blue, spotted 
and splashed with reddish brown and grayish. Size .90 x .65. Data. Nachook, 
Labrador, June 10, 1897. Nest of fine grasses on the ground in a clump of grass. 




Pale greenish 
blue 




554a. GAMBEI/S SPARROW. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 

Range. Rocky Mountains and westward from Mexico to Alaska, breeding 
chiefly north of the United States. 

This bird is like the last but the lores are white. Its nesting habits and eggs 
cannot be distinguished from those of the former. 




Zonotrichia leucophrys 



554b. NUTTALL'S SPARROW. 
nut t alii. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia to Lower 
California. 

Similar to the last but smaller and browner above; nests 
on the ground or in bushes, the eggs not being distinguish- 
able from those of the other White-crowns. 

557. GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW. Zonotrichia coronata 

Range. Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska, breeding 
chiefly north of our borders. 

This species has the crown yellow, bordered by black on 
the sides. Their habits are like those of 
the White-crowned Sparrows, they feed- 
ing upon the ground among the dead 
leaves, and usually being found in flocks 
and often accompanied by many of the 
last species. They nest upon the ground- 
or in low bushes, and in May or June lay 
three or four eggs very similar to the 
last. Size .90 x .65. 

343 




Pale greenish 
blue 





CHIPPING SPARROW 



PERCHING BIRDS 



558. WHITE-THROATED SPARROW. 
chia albicollis. 



Zonotri- 




White 




White-throated Sparrow 



Range. North America east of the Plains' 
and breeding from the northern tier of states! 
northward; winters from the Middle States; 
southward. 

To my mind this is the 
most beautiful of Sparrows, 
with its bright and softly 
blended plumage and the pure 
white throat boldly contrast- 
ing with its grayish breast 
and sides of the head; the 
lores are adorned with a 
bright yellow spot. They are one of the most 
abundant of Sparrows in the east during mi- 
grations and their musical piping whistle is 
heard from hedge and wood. They nest most 
abundantly north of our borders, laying their 
three or four eggs in grass lined hollows in 
the ground, or more rarely in nests in bushes. 
The eggs are white or bluish white, thickly spotted with several shades of 
brown. Size .85 x .62. They nest most often in thickets or on the edge of 
swamps, in just such places as they are met with on their migrations. 

559. TREE SPARROW. Spizella monticola monticola. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding north of the United States 
to the Arctic coast, east of the Rockies ; winters within the United States. 

A larger bird but somewhat resembling the common Chipping Sparrow, but 
browner above, with a black spot on the breast and no black on the head. 
They are quite hardy birds and winter in many of the northern 
states where they may be found in flocks upon the snow, feeding 
on seeds of protruding weeds. They breed very abundantly in 
Laborador and about Hudson Bay, placing their green nests in 

hollows on the ground or moss; 
their three or four eggs are 
greenish white, abundantly 
speckled all over the surface 
with reddish brown. Size .80 x .55. Data. 
Foothills of Black Mountains, McKenzie River, 
Arctic America, June 13, 1899. Nest on the 
ground under a tuft of grass on level plain; 
made of grasses and moss and lined with feath- 
ers. 

559a. WESTERN TREE SPARROW. Spizella 

monticola ochracea. 

Range. North America west of the Plains, 
breeding in Alaska and wintering to Mexico. 
A paler form of the last, the nesting habits 
and eggs of which are the same. 

560. CHIPPING SPARROW. Spizella pas- 

serina passerina. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding from the Gulf to the interior of Can- 
ada and Newfoundland. 
345 






THE BlftD BOOK 




As indicated by their name socialis, Chipping Sparrows 
are sociable birds not only with others of the bird tribe, but 
with man. In all localities that are not overrun with Eng- 
lish Sparrows, you will find these confiding birds nesting in 
trees and shrubs in the yard and in vines from porches, 
#hile in orchards, nearly every tree has its 
tenant. They are smaller birds than the 
last (5.5 in. long) and have the brown 
crown bordered by blackish and a black 
line through the eye. Their nests, which 
may be found at any height from the 
ground and in any kind of a tree or shrub, 
are made of fine grass and weed stems, lin- 
ed with hair; their three to five eggs are a handsome 
greenish blue, sparingly specked chiefly about the large 
end with blackish brown and purplish. Size .70 x .52. 




f>60a. WESTERN CHIPPING SPARROW. Spizella 
passerina arizonce. 

Range. Western North America, chiefly west of the 
^sSSeoa Rockies, from Mexico to Alaska; winters in Mexico. 

This variety is much duller colored than the last and 

has but little brown on the back; its nesting habits are the same and the eggs 
do not appear to differ in any respect from those of the eastern bird. 




Bluish white 




56l. CLAY-COLORED SPARROW. Spizella pallida. 

Range. Interior of United States and Canada, from the Mississippi Valley to 

the Rockies, breeding from Iowa and Colorado northward; wipaTefs in Mexico. 

These birds can best be described as like 
the Chipping Sparrow with the brown large- 
ly replaced with blackish. They breed quite 
abundantly in Manitoba and Minnesota, plac- 
ing their nests on or near the ground, and 
making them of fine grasses. The eggs can- 
not be distinguished with certainty from 
those of the preceding but average a trifle 

smaller. Size .65 x .50. Data. Barnsley, Manitoba, May 

24, 1900. Nest of grass stalks lined with fine grass, one 

foot above ground in tuft of grass. 



562. BREWER'S SPARROW. Spizella breweri. 

Range. Western United States from Mex- 
ico to British Columbia rarely and chiefly 
between the Rockies and the Sierras; most 
abundant in New Mexico and Arizona. 

This bird is similar to the last but is paler 
and more finely streaked. Their nesting 
Bluish white nabits are like those of pallida and the eggs 
are indistinguishable. 

346 





561562564 




Bluish white 



THE BIRD BOOK 

563. FIELD SPARROW. 

Spizella pusilla pusilla. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding from the Gulf to southern Manitoba 
and Quebec; winters in the Gulf States. 

These are abundant birds 
along roadsides, in thickets, or 
on dry sidehills, where they nest 
indifferently on the ground or in 
bushes, making their nests of 
grass and weed stems. They are 
the birds, whose high piping 
song is most frequently heard 
on hot sultry days in summer. Their eggs. are 
laid in May or June; they are pale bluish 
white, speckled and blotched with yellowish 
brown and grayish purple. Size .65 x .50. 

563a. WESTERN FIELD SPARROW. Spizella 

Field Sparrow pusilla arenacea. 

Range. Great Plains from Mexico to Montana, breeding in the northern half 
of its range and wintering in the southern. 

A paler form of the last, whose general habits and eggs are the same as those 
of the eastern bird. 

564. WORTHEN'S SPARROW. Spizella wortheni. 

Range. Southern New Mexico southward through central Mexico. 

This pale colored species is the size of the Field Sparrow but has no decided 
markings anywhere. It is a rare bird within our borders and uncommon any- 
where. I am not able to find any material in regard to their eggs. 

565. BLACK-CHINNED SPARROW. Spizella atrogularis. 

Range. Mexican border of the United States and southward. 

This slim-bodied, long-tailed species is grayish with a dusky 
streaked, reddish brown patch on the back and a black face, chin 
and throat. Their habits are similar to those of the Field 
Sparrow and their nests are made near the ground in bushes, 
but the eggs are plain bluish green, about like unmarked 
Chipping Sparrows' eggs. Size 




Greenish 
white 

.65 x .50. 



566. WHITE-WINGED JUNCO. Junco aiJceni. 

Range. Breeds in the Black Hills of Da- 
kota and Wyoming; winters in Colorado and 
casually to Kansas. 

This species is like the next 
but larger and with the wings 
crossed by two white bars. Its 
habits are like those of the com- 
mon Juncos, the nests are placed 
on the ground, concealed under 
overhanging rocks or tufts of 
grass, and the eggs are like 
those often seen of the Slate-colored Junco; 
3 or 4 in number, pinkish white specked and 
spotted with light reddish brown. Size .75 x .55. 

348 





White-winged Junco 



PERCHING BIRDS 

567. SLATE-COLORED JUNCO. Junco hyema- 
Us hyemalis. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 

breeding in the northern tier of states and 

northward; winters in southern United States. 

This species is slaty gray 

on the head, neck, breast, 

flanks, back, wings and cen- 
tral tail feathers; the rest of 

the underparts are white, 

sharply defined against the 

gray. They migrate through 

the United States in large 
flocks, usually accompanied by White-throated 
or Fox Sparrows. They breed very abundantly 
in the northern parts of their range, frequently 
in the immediate vicinity of houses but gen- 
erally on the edges of clearings, etc., placing 
their nests on the ground and generally par- 
tially concealed by rocks, stumps, sods or logs; 
the nests are made of grasses, lined with hair, 
and the four or five eggs are white or greenish 
white, variously speckled with reddish brown 
either over the entire surface or in a wreath about the large end. Size .80 x .55. 




White 




Junco hyemalis oreganus. 
from California to Alaska, 



breeding north of the 



f>67a. OREGON JUNCO. 

Range. Pacific coast 
United States. 

This sub-species is entirely unlike the preceding, having a black head, neck, 
throat, breast, wings and tail, and brown back; the remainder of the underparts 
are white, washed with pinkish brown on the sides. The habits and nesting 
habits of this western Junco are the same as those of the eastern, the birds 
building in similar localities and making the nests of the same material. There 
appears to be little, if any, difference between the eggs of the two varieties. 



/>67b. SHUFELDT'S JUNCO. Junco hyemalis counectens. 

Range. Pacific coast breeding from Oregon to British 
Columbia and wintering south to the Mexican boundary. 

Said to be slightly larger and duller colored than the 
Oregon Junco; eggs the same. 

567c. THURBER'S JUNCO. Junco hyemalis thurberi. 

Range. The Sierra Nevadas from Oregon to southern 
California. 

Similar to oreganus but paler and back more pinkish; 
eggs will not differ. 

567d. POINT PINOS JUNCO. Junco hyemalis pinosus. 

Range. A very locally confined variety breeding in pine 
woods of southwestern California, about Monterey and 
Santa Cruz. 

Similar to tnurberi with the head and neck slaty instead 
of black. 

349 





THE BIRD BOOK 






567e. CAROLINA JUNCO. Junco hyemalis carolinensis. ' 
Range. Alleghanies in Virginia, the Carolinas and Geor- 
gia. 

A slightly larger bird than the Slate-colored Junco and 
with the bill horn color instead of pinkish white. They 
have been found to breed very abundantly in the higher 
ranges of the Carolinas, nesting under banks, in tufts of 
grass, or occasionally in small bushes, in fact in such loca- 
tions as are used by liyemalis. Their eggs which are laid 
during May, June or July (probably two broods being rais- 
ed) are similar to those of the Slate-colored species but 
slightly larger. 

56?f. MONTANA JUNCO. Junco hyemalis montanus. 

Range. Prom northern Idaho and Montana north to 
Alberta; winters south to Mexico. 

This variety is like mearnsi but darker on the head and 
throat and with less pink on the sides. Its nesting habits 
and eggs do not differ from those of the Pink-sided Junco. 

567g- PINK-SIDED JUNCO. Junco hyemalis mearnsi. 

Range. Breeds in mountains of Idaho, Wyoming and 
Montana and winters south to Mexico. 

This species has the head and breast gray, the back brown- 
ish and the sides pinkish brown. They breed at high alti- 
tudes in the ranges, placing their nests of grasses under sods 
or overhanging rocks; their eggs are pinkish white before 
being blown and are spotted over the whole surface but more 
heavily at the large end with pale reddish brown and gray. 
Size .80x.60. White 

570. ARIZONA JUNCO. Junco phceonotus palliatus. 

Range. Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona. 

Similar to the preceding species but upper mandible blackish and the gray 
on throat shading insensibly into the grayish white underparts. They are quite 
abundant in the higher ranges of southern Arizona, where they breed, placing 
their nests on the ground in similar locations to those chosen by other Juncos ; 
the three or four eggs are greenish white, finely speckled chiefly about the large 
end with reddish brown. Sixe .76 x .60. 

,5708. RED-BACKED JUNCO. Junco phceonotus dorsalis. 

Rang. Breeds in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona and southward. 
This variety is like the last but the reddish brown on the back does not extend 
to the coverts or wings. The nesting habits are like those of the last but the 
eggs are only minutely specked about the large end. 

570b. GRAY-HEADED JUNCO. Junco pJiceouotus caniceps. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south to Mexico. 

This species is similar to the Slate-colored Junco but has a 
reddish brown patch on the back. They nest on the ground in 
mountainous regions, concealing the nests in tufts of grass or 
under logs, stones, etc. The eggs are creamy or bluish white, 
specked over the whole surface, but most numerously about the 
larger end with reddish brown. Size .75 x .60. Data. Custer 
Co., Colo., June 4, 1897. Slight nest of small rootlets and fine 
grass placed under a tuft of grass. Altitude over 8,000 feet. 

350 




White 



PERCHING BIRDS 



571. BAIRD'S JUNCO. Junco bairdi. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

This gray headed species with rusty back 
and sides is locally confined to the southern 
parts of the California peninsula where it is 
resident. Its eggs are not likely to differ from 
those of the Pink-sided Junco which it most 
nearly resembles. 



56?i. TOWNSEND'S JUNCO. 
townsendi. 



Junco hy emails 



Range. Mountains of northern Lower Cali- 
fornia; resident and breeding. Similar to the 
Pink-sided Junco but duller colored; eggs prob- 
ably the same. 

572. QUADALUPE JUNCO. Junco insularis. 





Black-throated Sparrow 

Resembles the Pink-sided Junco but is smaller, darker and duller colored. 
They are common on the island where they nest in the pine groves, laying their 
first sets in February or March. The nests are like those of the genus and the 
eggs are greenish white, finely dotted with reddish brown at the large end. 
Size .77 x .60. 

573. BLACK-THROATED SPARROW, ^mphupisa bilineata bilineata. 

Range. Breeds from central Texas to Kansas; winters in southern Texas 
and Mexico. 

This species is grayish brown above, with black throat, white 
superciliary and line on side of throat. This is a common 
species that nests on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, 
making their nests of weed stems and grasses. The three to five 
eggs are bluish white, unmarked and similar to those of the 

Bluebird but smaller. Size .72 x .55. Bluish white 

573a. DESERT SPARROW. Amphispiza 
bilineata deserticola. 

Range. Southwestern United States from western Texas 
to southern California, and north, to Colorado and Nevada; 
winters in Mexico. 

Like the last but paler above. An abundant bird among 
the foothills and on plains throughout its range. Found 
generally in sage brush and thickets where it nests in 
bushes or on the ground laying three or four bluish white 
eggs like those of the last. 

57k BELL'S SPARROW. Amphispiza belli. 

Range. Southern half of California and southward. 

These grayish, black and white birds are abundant in 
sage brush and thickets, nesting on the ground or at low 
elevations in bushes, and during May or June, laying from 
three to four eggs of a pale greenish white color, spotted 
and blotched with reddish brown and purplish. Size .75 
x .60. 

351 





Amphispiza nevadensis neva- 



THE BIRD BOOK 

574.1. SAGE SPARROW. 
densis. 

Range. Sage deserts of the Great Basin from Oregon 
and Montana, south to Mexico. 

This sub-species is abundant throughout its range where 
it nests near or on the ground, in or under bushes and gen- 
erally concealed from view. The nests are made of grass 
and sage bark lined with fine grass ; the eggs are like those 
of the last species, greenish white, spotted and blotched 
with shades of brown and purplish. 

574. la. GRAY SAGE SPARROW. Amphispiza nevaden- 
sis cinerea. 

Range. A smaller and paler variety found in Lower 
California. 

The nests and eggs of this pale variety probably do not 
differ in any respect from those of the better known varie- 
.ties. 

575. PINE-WOODS SPARROW. Peuccea cestivalis cestivalis. 

Range. Florida and southern Georgia. 
These birds are common in restricted localities in their range, nesting on the 
ground under bushes or shrubs; the nests are made of grasses and the four or 
five eggs are pure white with a slight gloss. Size .75 x .60. The birds are said 
to be fine singers and to frequent, almost exclusively, pine barrens. 




575a. BACHMAN'S SPARROW. Peuccea cestivalis bachmani. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Indiana 
and Illinois. 

This variety is common in most localities in its range, fre- 
quenting pine woods and barrens chiefly, and nesting on the 
ground in May or June. Their nests are made of grasses and 
lined with very fine grass, and have the tops completely 
arched over leaving a small entrance on the side. The eggs 
are pure white with a slight gloss and measure .75 x .60. 




White 



576. BOTTERI'S SPARROW. Peuccea botterii. 

Range. Mexican plateau north to southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. 

They nest in abundance in tall grass in the lowlands of their range, the nests 
being difficult to find because the bird flushes with great difficulty. The nests 
are on the ground, made of grass, and the three to five eggs are pure white, 
measuring .75 x .60. 





352 



PERCHING BIRDS 




578. CASSIN'S SPARROWS Peuccea cassini. 

Range. Plains and valleys from Texas and Arizona 
north to Kansas and Nevada. 

These birds breed in numbers on the 
arid plains, placing their grass nests on 
the ground at the foot of small bushes 
or concealed in tufts of grass, and during 
'ajjtt May lay four pure white eggs which are 
of the same size and indistinguishable 
from those of others of the genus. 
White 

579- RUFOUS-WINGED SPARROW. Aimophila carpalis. 

Range. Plains of western Mexico and north to southern 
Arizona. 

This pale colored bird bears a remote 
resemblance to the Tree Sparrow. They 
nest commonly in dry arid regions, plac- / 
ing their nests at low elevations in / 
bushes or cacti, preferably young mes- 
quites, and making them of coarse grass 
lined with finer. Two broods are raised 
a season and from May to August sets 
of four or five plain bluish white eggs may be found. Size 

580. RUFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps. 

Range. Local in southern half of California and in Lower California. 

A brownish colored species both above and below, which is found on mount- 
ains and hillsides in restricted localities. They nest on the ground placing their 
grass structures in hollows, usually at the foot of a small bush or shrub and 
well concealed. They lay from three to five pale bluish white eggs. Size 
.SOx.60. 

580a. SCOTT'S SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps scotti. 

Range. Western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona south in Mexico. 

A paler species, above, than the last, and whitish below. It is quite a com- 
mon species on the mountain ranges where it nests on the ground, in clumps of 
grass or beneath shrubs or overhanging rocks; the nests are made of grasses 
and weeds scantily put together. The eggs are white, untinted. Size .80 x .60. 

580b. ROCK SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps eremceca. 

Range. Middle and southern Texas and south in Mexico. 

This variety frequents rocky mountain sides where it nests 
abundantly under rocks or at the foot of shrubs, the nests 
being made of coarse grasses loosely twisted together and 
lined with finer grass. The birds are shy and skulk off 
through the underbrush upon the approach of anyone so that 
the nests are quite difficult to find. The three to five eggs are 
pure white and of the same size as those of the last. 

580c. LAGUNA SPARROW. Aimophila ruficeps sororia. 

Range. Mountains of southern Lower California. 

The nests and eggs of this very similar variety to nt//re/>.v proper are not 
likely to differ in any particular from those of that species. 

353 




23 



THE BIRD BOOK 




581. 



SONG SPARROW. 
melodia. 



Melospiza melodia 



Range. North America, east of the Plains, 
breeding from Virginia to Manitoba and New 
Brunswick, and wintering chiefly in the south- 
ern half of the United States. 

A favorite and one of the 
most abundant in all sections 
of the east. They are sweet 
and persistent songsters and 
frequent side hills, pastures, 
roadsides, gardens and door- 
yards if English Sparrows be 
not present. They nest indif- 
ferently upon the ground or in bushes, gener- 
ally artfully concealing the nest by drooping 
leaves; it is made of grass and weed stems, 
lined with fine grass or, occasionally, horse 
hair. As is usual in the case of birds that 
abound about habitations they frequently 
choose odd nesting sites. They lay two and 




White 




Song- Sparrow 

sometimes three sets of eggs a season, from May to August, the eggs being 
three to five in number and white or greenish white, marked, spotted, blotched 
or splashed in endless variety of pattern and intensity, with many shades of 
brown; some eggs are very heavily blotched so as to wholly obscure the ground 
color while others are specked very sparingly. They measure .80 x .60 with 
great variations. 
581a. DESERT SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia fallax. 

Range. Desert regions of southern Nevada, Arizona and southeastern Cali- 
fornia. The eggs of this very pale form are the same as those of the last. 
58 Ib. MOUNTAIN SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia montana. 

Range. Rockies and the Great Basin from Oregon and Montana southward. 

This variety is paler than the Song Sparrow but darker than fall ax. Eggs 
the same. 

58 Ic. HEERMAN'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melo- 
dia heermanni. 

Range. California, west of the Sierra Nevadas. 

Similar to melodia but with less brown and the markings 
blacker and more distinct. The nesting habits are the same 
and the eggs similar to large dark specimens of the eastern 
Song Sparrow. Size .85 x .62. 

58 Id. SAMUELS SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia 
samuelis. 

Range. Coast regions of California, chiefly in the 
marshes. 

Similar to the last but smaller. They nest on the ground 
in marsh grass, usually in sandy districts along the shore. 
The eggs average smaller than those of melodia. Size 
.78 x .58. 

58 le. RUSTY SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia 

morphna. 

Range. Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia. 
A dark species with the upper parts dark reddish brown 
and heavily streaked with the same below. The nesting 
habits and eggs are like those of melodia. 

354 




PERCHING BIRDS 

581 f. SOOTY SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia rufina. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska. 

A darker bird, both above and below, even than the last. Eggs like the last 
but averaging a trifle larger. Size .82 x .62. 

58 Ig. BROWN'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia rivularis. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

A light colored form like the Desert Song Sparrow; said to build in cat tails 
above water as well as on the ground; eggs not different from others of the 
genus. 

58 Ih. SANTA BARBARA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia graminea. 
Range. Breeds on Santa Barbara Islands; winters on adjacent coast of Cali- 
fornia. 

A variety of the same size but paler than samuelis. Nesting or eggs not 
peculiar. 

58 li. SAN CLEMENTE SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia clementce. 

Range. San Clemente and Santa Rosa Island of the Santa Barbara group. 
Slightly larger than the last; habits and eggs the same. 

581 j. DAKOTA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia juddi. 

Range. North Dakota, breeding in the Turtle Mountains. 

Practically indistinguishable from the common Song Sparrow; the eggs will 
not differ. 

581k. MERRILL'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia merrillL 

Range. Northwestern United States; eastern Oregon and Washington to 

Idaho. 

Very similar to, but lighter than the Rusty Song Sparrow. 

5811. ALAMEDA SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia pusillula 
Range. Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay, California. 
Similar to, but still smaller than Samuel Song Sparrow. Eggs will not differ. 

581m. SAN DIEGO SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia cooperi. 
Range. Southern coast of California; north to Monterey Bay. 
Similar to, but smaller and lighter than heermanni. 

581 n. YAKUTAT SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia caurina. 

Range. Coast of Alaska from Cross Sound to Prince Williams Sound. 

Similar to the Sooty Song Sparrow but larger and grayer. Eggs probably 
average larger. 

58 lo. KENAI SONG SPARROW. Melospiza Melodia kenaiensis. 
Range. Kenai Jeninsula on the coasts. 
Like the last but still larger; length about 7 inches. 

58 Iq. BISCHOFF'S SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia insignis. 
Range. Kadiak Island, Alaska. 
Similar to and nearly^s large as the next species, but browner. 

58 Ir. ALEUTIAN SONG SPARROW. Melospiza melodia sanaka. 

Range. Found on nearly all the islands of the Aleutian group, excluding 
Kadiak. 

This is the largest of the Song Sparrows being nearly 8 
inches in length; it is similar in appearance to the Sooty 
Song Sparrow but grayer. It nests either on the ground or 
at low elevations in bushes, the nest usually being con- 
cealed in a tuft of grass or often placed under rocks or, 
sometimes, driftwood along the shores. The nests are 
made of grasses and weed stems, and the eggs are similar 
to those of the Song Sparrow but much larger and more 
elongate. Size .90 x .65. Greenish white 

355 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Lincoln's Sparrow 



583. LINCOLN'S SPARROW. Melospiza lincolni 
lincolni. 

Range. North America, breeding from 
northern United States north to the Arctic re- 
gions; most abundant in the interior and the 
west; rare in New England. 

This bird is shy and retir- 
ing and skulks off through 
the underbrush of thickets 
and swamps that it frequents 
upon the approach of anyone; 
consequently it is often little 
known in localities where it 
is quite abundant. They nest 
on the ground like Song Sparrows, and rarely 
in bushes. Their eggs are very similar to 
those of the Song Sparrow, three or four in 
number, greenish white in color, heavily spot- 
ted and blotched with chestnut and gray. Size 
.SO x .58. 




Greenish white 



alto , 




583a. FORBUSH'S SPARROW. Melospiza lincolni striata. 

Range. Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia. 

Similar to the preceding but darker and browner. Eggs probably like those 
of the last. 

584. SWAMP SPARROW. Melospiza georgiana. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains, breeding from 
middle United States north to Labrador and Hudson Bay. 

This common and dark colored Sparrow frequents swampy 
places where it breeds; owing to its sly habits it is not 
commonly seen during the breeding season. Its nests are 
made of grasses and located on the ground usually in places 
where the walking is extremely treacherous. The eggs are 
similar to those of the Song Sparrow but are generally Greenish 
darker and more clouded and average smaller. Size .75 x .55. 

585. Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca iliaca. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding r~- 

from southern Canada northward, and north- 
west to Alaska; winters in southern United 
States. 

This large handsome species, with its mot- 
tled grayish and reddish brown plumage and 
bright rufous tail, is very common in eastern 
United States during migrations, being found 
in open woods and hedges in 
company with Juncos and 
White-throated Sparrows, 
with which species their song 
vies in sweetness. They nest 
usually on the ground, but 
sometimes in low bushes ; the 
nests are made of grasses and Greenish 
are concealed beneath the 
overhanging branches of bushes or evergreens. 
The three or four eggs are greenish-white, 
spotted and blotched with brown. Size .94 x .68. 

356 





Swamp Sparrow 



PERCHING BIRDS 



Passerella - . 



585a. SHUMAGIN Fox SPARROW. 
iliaca unalaschensis. 

Range. Shumagin Islands and the Alaska 
coast to Cook Inlet. 

Similar to the last but paler, being one of the 
several recent unsatisfactory subdivisions of 
this genus. The nesting habits and eggs of all 
the varieties are like those of the common east- 
ern form. 

585b. THICK-BILLED SPARROW. Passerella 
iliaca megarhyncha. 

Range. Mountains of eastern California and 
western Nevada; locally confined. 

Entire upper parts and breast spots gray; 
wings and tail brown. It nests in the heaviest 
underbrush of the mountain sides, building on 
or close to the ground. 

585c. SLATE-COLORED SPARROW. Passerella 
iliaca schistacea. 




Fox Sparrow 



Range. Rocky Mountain region, breeding from Colorado to British Columbia. 

This variety which is similar to, but smaller than the last, nests in thickets 
along the mountain streams. The eggs are like those of iliaca, but average 
smaller. 

585d. STEPHEN'S SPARROW. Passerella iliaca stephensi. 

Range. Breeds in the San Bernadino and San Jacinto Mts. in southern Call 
fornia. 

Like the Thick-billed Sparrow, but bill still larger and bird slightly so. 

585e. SOOTY Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca fuliginosa. 

Range. Coast of Washington and British Columbia; south to California in 
winter. 

585f. KADIAK Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca insularis. 

Range. Breeding on Kadiak Island; winters south to California. 
Like the last but browner above and below. 

585g. TOWNSEND'S Fox SPARROW. Passerella iliaca townsendi. 

Range. Southern coast of Alaska; winters south to California. Like the last 
but more rufous above. 

Upperparts and tail uniform brownish umber, below heavily spotted. 

586. TEXAS SPARROW. Arremonops rufivirgatus. 

Range. Eastern Mexico and southern Texas. 

This odd species has a brownish crown, olive greenish upperparts, wings and 
tail, and grayish white underparts. They are common resi- 
dent birds along the Lower Rio Grande, being found in tangled 
thickets, where they nest at low elevations, making their A 
quite bulky nests of coarse weeds and grass and sometimes . 
twigs, lined with finer grass and hair; they are often partial- 
ly domed with an entrance on the side. Their eggs are plain 
white, without markings; often several broods are raised in a 
season and eggs may be found from May until August. White 

357 







THE BIRD BOOK 




587- TOWHEE. Pipilo erythrophthalmus 
erythrophthalmus. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba. 

The well known Towhee, Ground Robin or 
Chewink is a bird commonly met with in east- 
ern United States; it frequents thickets, 
swamps and open woods where they nest gen- 
erally upon the ground and sometimes in 
bushes near the ground. The nests are well 
made of grasses, lined with 
fine grasses and rootlets, 
and the eggs, which are laid 
in May or June, are pinkish 
white, generally finely 
sprinkled but sometimes 
with bold markings of light 
reddish brown, with great 
variations. Size .90 x .70. 
Towhees are noisy birds and at frequent inter- 
vals, while they are scratching among the 
leaves for their food they will stop and utter their familiar "tow-hee" or "che- 
wink" and then again will mount to the summit of a tree or bush and sing their 
sweet refrain for a long time. 




Purplish white 



Towhee or Chewink 



587a. WHITE-EYED TOWHEE. Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni. 

Range. Florida and the Atlantic coast to South Carolina. 

This variety is like the preceding except that the eyes are white instead of 
red. There is no difference between their nesting habits and eggs, except that 
they much more frequently, and in some localities, almost always, nest in trees. 



588. ARCTIC TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus arcticus. 

Range. Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskat- 
chewan. 

This species is similar to the eastern Towhee but has the scapulars and 
coverts tipped with white. They nest abundantly in suit- 
able localities in Montana and North Dakota and more com- ^Sfifi^fe^ 
monly north of our borders. Like the eastern Towhee, they 
nest on the ground under the protection of overhanging 
bushes, the nests being made of strips of bark and grasses 
and lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs, which 
are laid during May, June or July, are pinkish white, pro- 
fusely speckled with reddish brown; very similar to those 
of the eastern Towhee. Size .92 x .70. 




Pinkish white 



588a. SPURRED TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus montanus. 

Range. Breeds from Mexico to British Columbia, west of the Rockies. 

Similar to the last but with less white on the back. The nesting habits and 
eggs are like those of the Towhee, but in some localities the nests are most 
often found in bushes above the ground. 



358 




C. A. Reed 



NEST AND EGGS OF TOWBEE 



T 




588b 591 



588b. OREGON TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus oregonus. 

Range. Pacific coast from California to British Colum- 
bia; winters to Mexico. Similar to the last but with still 
fewer white markings on the back and the chestnut flanks 
brighter. The nesting habits and eggs of this variety 
differ in no essential particular from those of the preced- 
ing Towhees. 

588c. SAN CLEMENTE TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus cle- 
mentce. 

Range. San Clemente Is. and other of the Santa Bar- 
bara group. 

Black of male said to be duller. Probably no difference 
between the eggs and others. 

588d. SAN DIEGO TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus mega- 
lonyx. 

Range. Coast of southern California and Lower Cali- 
fornia. Said to be darker than mecjalonyx. 




588e. LARGE-BILLED TOWHEE. Pipilo maculatus magnirostris. 

Range. Southern Lower California. Similar to arcticus ; bill said to be larger. 

589- GUADALUPE TOWHEE. Pipilo consobrinus. 

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

Similar to oregonus but smaller and with a relatively shorter tail. The nest- 
ing habits and eggs of this species will not likely be found to differ essentially 
from those of others of the genus. 

591. CANON TOWHEE. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus. 

Range. Mexico and north to Arizona and New Mexico and casually farther 
to Colorado. 

A common species in the valleys and on the side hills, 
nesting in bushes near the ground, and sometimes on 
the ground; the nests are made of grasses, weeds and twigs 
lined with rootlets, and the three or four eggs are greenish 
blue sparingly spotted or scrawled with blackish brown, the 
markings being similar to those on many Red-winged 
Blackbirds' eggs. Size 1.00 x .70. Greenish blue 

59 la. SAN LUCAS TOWHEE. Pipilo fuscus albigula. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

This variety is like the last but is usually paler below. It is abundant in the 
region about the cape where they nest in thickets, either in the bushes or on 
the ground. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the Canon Towhee. 

59 lb. CALIFORNIA TOWHEE. Pipilo crissalis crissalis. 

Range. Pacific coast of California. 

This variety is similar to the Canon Towhee but is browner, both above and 
below. They are one of the most common of California birds, frequenting 
scrubby thickets, both on mountain sides and in valleys and canons, from 
which their harsh scolding voice always greets intruders. They place their 
nests in bushes at low elevations from the ground and sometimes on the ground ; 

360 




PERCH 

they are made of twigs, strips of bark, weeds and coarse 
grasses, lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs 
are laid in April or May; they are light bluish green mark- 
ed like the others with purplish or brownish black. Size 
.95x.72. 

5.9 1.1 a. ANTHONY'S TOWHEE. Pipilo crissalis senicula. 

Range. Southern California and south through Lower 
California. 

A very similar bird to the last but 
sightly smaller and lighter below. 
The habits and nesting habits of 
these birds are in every way identi- 
cal with those of the California Tow- 
hee and the eggs cannot be dis- 
tinguished from those of that variety. 
They are fully as abundant in the 
southern parts of California as the 
others are in the northern. 



BIRDS 




Greenish blue 




591.3 592 5!J2.1 




592. ABERT'S TOWHEE. Pipilo aberti. 

Range. Arizona and New Mexico north to Colorado 
and Nevada and east to southeastern California. 

This bird is wholly brownish gray both above and below 

PP** shading into reddish brown on the under tail coverts; the 

face is black. They are abundant in the valleys of Arizona 
and New Mexico, but unlike the preceding species, they 
are generally wild and shy. They nest in chaparral thick- 
ets along streams, the nests being constructed similarly to 
those of the California Towhee, and the eggs are not easily 
distinguishable from those of that species, but they are 
usually more sparsely specked and the markings more dis- 

Greenish blue tinct. Size 1.00 x .75. 

592.1. GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE. Oreospiza Morura. 

Range. Western United States, chiefly west 
of the Rockies from Montana and Washington 
south to Mexico; wintering in southwestern 
United States. 

This handsome and entirely different plumag- 
ed species from any of the preceding would, 
from appearance, be better placed in the group 
with the White-throated Sparrow than its pres- 
ent position. It has a reddish brown crown, 
the remainder of the upper 
parts, wings and tail being 
greenish yellow; the throat 
is white, bordered abruptly 
with gray on the breast and 
sides of head. These birds 
place their nests on the 
ground. The nests are built 
similarly to those of the east- 
ern Towhee, and the eggs, too, are similar, be- 
ing whitish, finely dotted and specked with 
reddish brown, the markings being most numer- 
ous around the larger end. Size .85 x .65. 




mj^jjfr. 



Whitish 



Green -tailed Towhee 



361 




CARDINAL 



PERCHING BIRDS 



593. CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis. 

Range. Eastern United States, north to New York and Illinois, west to the 
Plains and Texas. Resident in most of its range. 

These beautiful fiery red and crested songsters are one of the most attractive 
of our birds, and in their range, nest about habitations as 
freely as among the thickets and scrubby brush of wood 
or hillside. Their nests are rarely placed higher than ten 
feet from the ground in bushes, branches, vines, brush 
piles or trees; they are loosely made of twigs, coarse 
grasses and weeds, shreds of bark, leaves, etc., and lined 
with fine grass or hair. They frequently lay two or three 
sets of eggs a season, the first being completed usually 
early in May; three or four, and sometimes five, white or 
pale bluish white eggs are laid; they are very varied in markings but usually 
profusely spotted, more heavily at the large end, with reddish brown and 
lavender. Size 1.00 x .70. 




Bluish white 



ARIZONA CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis superbus. 
Range. Northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona. 
A larger and more rosy form of the Cardinal. Its eggs 
tinguished from those of the eastern Redbird. 



cannot be dis- 



593b. SAN LUCAS CARDINAL. Cardinalis cardinalis igneus. 
Range. Southern Lower California. 
Like the last but smaller and with less black on the forehead; eggs the same. 




OF CA11DINAJ 

363 




THE BIRD BOOK 

mm 




5p3c. GRAY-TAILED CARDINAL. 
cardinalis canicaudus. 



Cardinalis 



Cardinal 





Range. Northeastern Mexico and southern 
Texas. 

The male of this species is like the eastern 
Cardinal but the female is said to be grayer. 
The nesting habits are the same and the eggs 
identical with those of the latter. 

593d. FLORIDA CARDINAL. Cardinalis car- 
dinalis floridanus. 

Range. Southern Florida. 
Supposed to be a deeper and richer shade oi 
red. Eggs like those of cardinalis. 

594. ARIZONA PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhuloxia 
sinuata sinuata. 

. Range. Northwestern Mexico and the south- 
ern border of New Mexico, Arizona and western 
Texas. 

This species is of similar form and crested like a Cardinal, 
but the bill is very short and hooked like that of a Parrot ; the 
plumage is grayish, with wings and tail dull reddish; face 
and throat, and middle of belly rosy red. Their habits are 
the same as those of the Cardinal, but their nests are said to 
be slighter; they are placed in similar locations to those of 
the latter, the two species often nesting together in the same 
thicket. Their eggs are like those of the Cardinal but average 
smaller, although the ranges overlap so that the eggs cannot 
be distinguished. Size .90 x .70. Data. San 
Antonio, Texas, May 16, 1889. Nest of fine 
grasses, lined with rootlets ; 4 feet from ground 
in a mesquite tree. 

5Q4a. TEXAS PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhuloxia 
sinuata texana. 

Range. Northeastern Mexico and southern 
Texas. 

Said to be grayer and the bill to average 
larger than that of the last. There are no dif- 
ferences in the nesting habits or eggs between 
the two varieties. 

594b. SAN LUCAS PYRRHULOXIA. Pyrrhu- 
loxia sinuata peninsula. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

Smaller than the Arizona Cardinal but with 
a larger bill. The eggs are like those of the 
others but may average a trifle smaller. Texas Pyrrhuloxia 

364 



Bluish white 




PERCHING BIRDS 



595. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 
ludoviciana. 



Zamelodia 




Greenish blue 



Range. United States, 
east of the Plains, breed- 
ing from the Middle States 
and Ohio north to Mani- 
toba and Nova Scotia. 

This beautiful black and 
white bird with rosy red 
breast and under wing cov- 
erts, is one of the most 

pleasing of our songsters. They nest either in 
bushes or trees, generally between six and 
twenty feet from the ground and usually in 
thick clumps of trees or scrubby apple trees. 
The three or four eggs, which are laid in June, 
are greenish blue, spotted, most heavily about 
the larger end, with reddish brown. Size 1.00 
x .75. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 5, 1899. 
Nest of twigs and rootlets in small apple tree 
in woods ; nest very frail, eggs showing through 
the bottom. 



5.96'.. .BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
Zamelodia melanocephala. 

Range. United 
States, west of 
the Plains, breed- 
ing from Mexico 
north to British 
Columbia ; w i ri- 

ters south of the 
Pale greenish white United states< 

This species is of the size of the last 
(8 inches long), and is a bright cinna- 
mon brown color with black head, and 
black and white wings and tail. The 
habits of this bird are the same as 
those of the Rosebreasted Grosbeak 
and its song is very similar but more 
lengthy. Their nests, like those of the 
last, are very flimsy structures placed 
in bushes or trees, usually below twen- 
ty feet from the ground; they are open 
frameworks of twigs, rootlets and 
weed stalks, through which the eggs 
can be plainly seen. The eggs are 
similar to those of the preceding but 
are usually of a paler color, the mark- 
ings, therefore showing with greater 
distinctness. Size 1.00 x .70. 




Rose-breasted Grosbeak 





J. B. Pardoe. 
NEST OP ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 



365 




THE BIRD BOOK 





Bluish white 



597. BLUE GROSBEAK. Guiraca ccerulea. 

Range. Southeastern Unit- 
ed States, breeding from the 
Gulf north to Pennsylvania 
and Illinois, and casually to 
New England. 

Smaller than the last two 
species and deep blue, with 
wings and tail blackish, and 
the lesser coverts and tips of 
greater, chestnut. It is a fairly common spe- 
cies in the southerly parts of its range, nest- 
ing most frequently in low bushes or vines 
in thickets; the nest is made of rootlets, weed 
stalks and grasses and sometimes leaves. The 
three or four eggs are bluish white, unmarked. 
Size .85 x .65. Data. Chatham Co., Ga., June 
10, 1898. 3 eggs. Nest of roots, leaves and 
snake skin, lined with fine rootlets, 3 feet from 
the ground in a small oak bush. 



Blue Grosbeak 



If 
^ 



597a. WESTERN BLUE GROSBEAK. Guiraca ccerulea lazula. 

Range. Western United States north to Kansas, Colorado and northern Cal- 
ifornia. 

Slightly larger than the last and lighter blue; nests the same and egg not dis- 
tinctive. 

598. INDIGO BUNTING. Passerina cyanea. 

Range. United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to Manitoba and 

Nova Scotia; winters south of the United States. 
This handsome species is rich indigo on the 

head and neck, shading into blue or greenish 

blue on the upper and under parts. They are 

very abundant in some localities along road- 
sides, in thickets and open woods, where their 
song is frequently head, it be- 
ing a very sweet refrain re- 
sembling, somewhat, certatin 
passages from that of the 
Goldfinch. They nest at low 
elevations in thickets or 
vines, building their home of 
grass and weeds, lined with 

fine grass or hair, it being quite a substantial 

structure. The eggs, which are laid in June 

or July, are pale bluish white. Size .75 x .52. 

599. LAZULI BUNTING. Passerina amcena. 

Range. Western United States, breeding 
from Mexico to northern United States and the 
interior of British Columbia; east to Kansas. 

This handsome bird is of the size of cyaneu, 
but is azure blue above and on the throat, the indigo Bunting: 

366 




Pale bluish white 




PERCHING BIRDS 



breast being browish and the rest of the under- 
parts, white. It is the western representative 
of the Indigo Bunting, and its 
habits and nesting habits are 
in all respects the same as 
I those of that species, the 
nests being made of twigs, 
grasses, strips of bark, weeds, 
leaves, etc. The eggs are like 
those of the last, pale bluish 
white. Size .75 x .55. 






Pale bluish 
vhite 



.. 



Pale bluish 
white 




600. VARIED BUNTING. Passerina 

versicolor 

Range. Mexico and north to southern Texas. 

The general color of this odd bird is purp- 
lish, changing to bright blue on the crown and 
^^__^^ rump, and with a reddish 

nape. They are quite abun- 
dant in some localities along 
the Lower Rio Grande, where 
they nest in bushes and tan- 
gled under bru&h, the nests being like those of the last 
species, and rarely above five feet from the ground. The eggs 
are pale bluish white, three or four in number, and laid dur- 
ing May or June. Size .75 x .55. 

600a. BEAUTIFUL BUNTING. Passerina versicolor pulchra. 
Range. Southern Lower California. 
Slightly smaller but very similar to the last; eggs will not differ. 

601. PAINTED BUNTING. Passerina ciris. 



Lazuli Bunting 



Range. South Atlantic and 




Varied Bunting 



ciris. 

Gulf States; north to Illinois in the interior. 
Without exception, this is the most gaud- 
ily attired of North American birds, the 
whole underparts being red, the head and 
neck deep blue, the back yellowish green, and 
the rump purple, the line of demarcation be- 
tween the colors being sharp. They are fre- 
quently kept as cage birds but more for their 
bright colors than any musical ability, their 
song being of the character of the Indigo Bunt- 
ing, but weaker and less musical. They are 
very abundant in the South Atlantic and Gulf 
States, where they nest usual- 
ly in bushes or hedges at low 
elevations, but occasionally 
on branches of tall trees. 
Their nests are made of 
weeds, shreds of bark, 
grasses, etc., lined with fine 
grass, very much resembling white 

that of the Indigo. Their 
eggs are laid in May, June or July, they fre- 
quently raising two broods; they are white or 
pale bluish white, speckled with reddish 
brown. Size .75 x .55. 
367 





THE BIRD BOOK 







Painted Bunting 



602. SHARPE'S SEED-EATER. Sporophila 
morelleti morelleti 

Range. Eastern Mexico, breeding north to 
the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

This peculiar, diminutive Finch is but 4.5 
inches in length, and in plumage is black, white 
and gray. In restricted localities in southern 
Texas, they are not uncommon during the sum- 
mer months. They build in bushes or young 
trees at low elevations making their nests of 
fine grasses or fibres, firmly woven together 
and usually placed in an upright 
crotch. The eggs are pale 
greenish blue, plentifully speck- 
led with reddish and umber 
brown, and some markings of 
lilac. Size .65 x .45. Data. 
Brownsville, Texas, May 7, 1892. Greenish blue 
Nest of fine fibre-like material lined with horse 
hairs, on limb of small tree in open woods near 
a lake of fresh water; 6 feet above ground. 
Collector, Frank B. Armstrong. This set is in 
the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. 




[603.] GRASSQUIT. Tiaris bicolor. 

Range. This small Finch is a Cuban species which casually strays to south- 
ern Florida. 

They are abundant on the island, building large arched nests of grass, with a 
small entrance on the side. They lay from three to six white eggs, specked with 
brown. Size .65 x .50. 

[603.1] MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT. Tiaris canora. 

Another Cuban Finch which has been taken in the Florida Keys. Eggs like 
the last. 




604<. DICKCISSEL. Spiza americana. 

Range. Interior of the United States, breed- 
ing from the Gulf to northern United States, 
west to the Rockies, east to the Alleghanies. 

A sparrow-like Bunting with a yellow breast 
patch, line over eye and on side of throat; 
throat black, chin white and wing coverts chest- 
nut. These sleek-coated, harmoniously colored 
birds are very common in dry bush-grown pas- 
tures and on the prairies. 
^rtf^-r- They are very persistent 

/? ^^ singers, and their song, while 

Ji -;*;, very simple, is welcome on 

\>y fill*' hot days when other birds 

pr are quiet. They nest any- 
where, as suits their fancy, 
Bluish white on the ground, in clumps of 
grass, in clover fields, bushes, 
low trees, or in thistles. The nests are made 
of weeds, grasses, leaves and rootlets, lined 
with fine grass, and the three to five eggs are 
bluish white. Size .80 x .60. 

368 




Sharpe's Seed-eater 



PERCHING BIRDS 



605. LARK BUNTING. Calamospiza mela- 
nocorys.. 

Range. A bird of the Plains, abundant from 
western Kansas to eastern Colorado and north 
to the Canadian border; winters in Mexico. 

These black and white birds have a sweet 
song which they often utter while on the wing 
after the manner of the Bobo- 
link, all their habits being 
similar to those of this bird, 
except that this species likes 
the broad dry prairies where 
it nests on the ground under 
the protection of a tuft of 
grass or a low bush. Their 
four or five eggs are like 
those of the last but slightly larger. Size .85 
x .65. Data. Franklin Co., Kansas. 4 eggs. 
Nest in cornfield in a hollow on the ground at 
the base of a stalk; made of straw and weeds. 




Bluish white 




Dickcisf 



TANAGERS. Family TANAGRID^E 

WESTERN TANAGER. Piranga ludoviciana. 

Range. United States, west of the Plains and north to British Columbia. 

This handsome species is black and yellow, with an orange or reddish head. 

They are common and breed in suitable localities through their range, nesting 

as do the eastern Tanagers in trees usually at a low elevation, the nests being 

saddled on the forks of horizontal branches; they are made of rootlets, strips 

of bark, and weed stalks, 
- __ and are usually frail like 

those of the Grosbeaks. 

Their eggs, which are laid 

in May or June, are bluish 

green, specked with brown 

of varying shades. Size 

.95 x .65. 




I.ai-k Hunting 




()()8. SCARLET TANAGER. 
romelas. 



Piranha en/th- 



These beautiful scarlet 
and black birds frequent, 
chiefly, woodlands, al- 
though they are very of- 
ten found breeding in or- 
chards and small pine 
groves. They are quiet 
birds, in actions, but their 
loud warbling song is 

heard at a great distance, and is readily recog- 
nized by its peculiarity. They nest upon hori- 




Greenish blue 




24 



THE BIRD BOOK 



zontal limbs or forks at elevations of four to 
twenty feet, making frail nests of twigs, root- 
lets and weeds; they are often found in pine 
trees, but apparently just as frequently in 
other kinds. Their eggs are greenish blue, 
specked and spotted with various shades of 
brown. Size .95 x .65. Data. Holden, Mass., 
May 31, 1898. Nest on low limb of an oak, 4 
feet above ground; of weeds and rootlets and 
very frail. 

6'09. HEPATIC TANAGER. Piranga hep- 
atica. 

Range. Western Mexico, 
north to New Mexico and Ari- 
zona in summer. 

This species is similar to 
the next but is darker red on 
the upper parts and bright 
vermilion below. They nest 
on the lower horizontal Bluish green 
branches of trees, usually live oaks, making 
the nests of rootlets and weeds; the eggs are bluish green, like those of the 
next, but the markings appear to average more blotchy and brighter. Size 
.92 x .64. 





Scarlet Tanager 




6'10. SUMMER TANAGER. Piranga rubra rubra. - 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and Kan- 
sas, and casually farther; west to Texas; winters south of our borders. 

This bird is of the size of the Scarlet Tanager, but is of a uniform rosy red 
color, darker on the back. They are very common in the South Atlantic and 
Gulf States. Their nests are located at low elevations on horizontal branches 
of trees in open woods, edges of clearings, or 
along the roadside; the nests are made of 
strips of bark, weed stems, leaves, etc., and are 
frail like those of the other Tanagers. Their 
eggs are light bluish green, 
speckled and spotted with 
reddish brown, and not 
distinguishable with cer- 
tainty from those of the 
^^^ Scarlet Tanager. Size .92 

Light bluish green X .64. 

6lOa. COOPER'S TANAGER. 

Piranga rubra cooperi. 

Range. Western United States, breeding 
from the Mexican border and Texas north to 
central California and Nevada. 

Similar to but slightly larger than the last. 
There are no differences between the nesting 
of this form and the last and the eggs are not 
in any way different. 

370 





Summer Tanager 




SCARLET TAN AGE K 



THE BIRD BOOK 



SWALLOWS. Family HIRUNDINID^ 

611. PURPLE MARTIN. Progne subis subis. 

Range. Breeds throughout the United States 
and temperate British America; winters in 
South America. 

These large, lustrous, steely-blue Swallows 
readily adapt themselves to civilization and, 
throughout the east, may be found nesting in 
bird houses, provided by appreciative land 
owners or tenants; some of these houses are 
beautiful structures modelled 
after modern residences and : x 

tenanted by twenty or thirty ,,., 
pairs of Martins; others are 
plain, unpainted soap boxes 
or the like, but the birds 
seem to take to one as kindly 
as the other, making nests in 
their compartments of weeds, 
feathers, etc. They also, and most commonly 
in the west, nest in cavities of trees making 
nests of any available material. During June 

*WLz, "^t ^ or July, they lay from four to six white eggs; 

size .95 x .65. Data. Leicester, Mass., June 
16, 1903. 5 eggs in Martin house; nest of 

Purple Martin grasses. 




I 



White 

grass, mud, 




61 la. WESTERN MARTIN. Progne subis hesperia. 

Range. Pacific coast from Washington south. 

The nesting habits, eggs, and birds of this form are identical with those found 
In the east. 

611.1. CUBAN MARTIN. Progne cryptoleuca 

Range. Cuba and southern Florida (in sum- 
mer). 

Slightly smaller than the Purple Martin and 
the eggs average a trifle smaller. 

6*12. CLIFF SWALLOW. Petrochelidon luni- 
frons lunifrons. 

Range. -Whole of North America, breeding 
north from the south Atlantic and Gulf States. 

These birds can easily be rec- 
ognized by their brownish throat 
and breast, whitish forehead and 
buffy rump. They build one of 
the most peculiar of nests, the 
highest type being a flask 
shaped structure of mud secure- 
ly cemented to the face of a cliff or under the 
eaves of a building, the entrance being drawn 
out and small, while the outside of the nest 
proper is large and rounded; they vary from 

372 




White 




Cliff Swall 



this typical nest down to plain mud platforms, 
but are all warmly lined with grass and 
feathers. In some localities, cliffs resemble 
bee hives, they having thousands of these nests 
side by side and in tiers. Their eggs are 
creamy white spotted with reddish brown; 
size .80 x .55 with great variations. Data. 
Rockford, Minn., June 12, 1890. Nest made 
of mud, lined with feathers; placed under the 
eaves of a freight house. 



[612.1.] CUBAN CLIFF SWALLOW. Petro- 
chelidon fulva. 

Range. West Indies and Central America; 
accidental on Florida Keys. 



PERCHING BIRDS 



Hirundo erythro- 




Barn Swallow 



613. BARN SWALLOW. 
gastra. 

Range. Whole of North America; winters 
south to South America. 

This Swallow is the most beautiful and grace- 
ful of the family, and is a familiar sight to everyone, skimming over the mead- 
ows and ponds in long graceful sweeps, curves and turns, its lengthened outer 
tail feathers streaming behind. Throughout their range, they nest in barns, 
sheds or any building where they will not be often disturbed, making their nests 
of mud and attaching them to the rafters; they are warmly lined with feathers 
and the outside is rough, caused by the pellets which they place on the exterior. 

Before the advent of civil- 
ized man, they attached their 
nests to the sides of caves, 
in crevices among rocks and 
in hollow trees, as they do 
now in some localities. Their 
eggs cannot be distinguished 
from those of the Cliff Swal- 
low. Data. Penikese Is., Mass., July 2, 1900. 
Nest on beam in sheep shed; made of pellets of 
mud, lined with feathers. 



614. TREE SWALLOW; WHITE-BELLIED SWAL 
LOW. Iridoprocne bicolor. 

Range. Whole of temperate North America, 
breeding from middle United States northward; 
winters in the Gulf States and along the Mexi- 
can border and southward. 

This vivacious and active species is as well 
known as the last, and nests about habitations 
on the outskirts of cities and in the country. 





Ti-ee Swallow 






THE BIRD BOOK 

They naturally nest in holes in trees or stumps, preferable 

in the vicinity of water, but large numbers now take up 

their abode in houses provided for them 

by man, providing that English Sparrows 

are kept away. They make their nests of 

straws and grasses, lined with feathers, 

and lay four to six plain white eggs; 

size .75 x .50. Data. Portage, Mich., 

May 26, 1897. Nest in a gate post; hole 

about 6 inches deep, lined with feathers. 

6 15. NORTHERN VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW. Tachyci- 
neta thalassina lepida. 

Range. United States in the Rocky Mountains and west 
to the Pacific coast, breeding from Mexico to British Co- 
lumbia; winters south of our borders. 

This very beautiful species is smaller than the last, but, 
like it, is white below, but the upper parts 
are blue, green and purple without gloss. ^7*^- ~.^ 
They are common in their range and /%. 
nest, usually in holes in trees, less often 
in banks and under eaves; the nests are 
made of grass and feathers, and the eggs 
are pure white, four or five in number; 
615 616 size .72 x .50. 




White 



6'1 5a. SAN LUCAS SWALLOW. Tachycineta thalassina brachyptera. 

Range. Southern Lower California. Practically the same bird as the last 
but with the wing very slightly shorter. Nesting habits or eggs will not differ. 

[615.1.] BAHAMAN SWALLOW. Callichelidon cyaneoviridis. 

Range. Bahamas; casual at Dry Tortugas, Florida. 

This very beautiful species is similar to the western Violet-green Swallow, as 
are also its eggs. 

6l6. BANK SWALLOW. Riparia riparia. 

Range. Whole of North America, north to the limit of trees, breeding from 
the middle portions of the United States northward; winters south of our 
borders. 

This dull-colored Swallow is grayish above and white below, 
with a gray band across the breast, they breed in holes in em- 
bankments, digging small tunnels from one to three feet in 
^4'* length, enlarged and lined at the end with grass and feathers. 
During May, June or July, according to latitude, they lay from 
White four to six pure white eggs; size .70 x .50. 



ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 



61 

Range. United States, breeding from Mexico north to southern New England, 
Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south of our borders. 

This species is slightly larger than the last and similar but 
with the throat and breast grayish and with the outer web of 
the outer primary provided with recurved hooks. They nest in 
holes in embankments, in crevices in cliffs or among stones 
of bridges or buildings. Their eggs are like those of the 




Bank Swallow but average a trifle larger; size .75 x .52. 

374 



White 



PERCHING BIRDS 



WAXWINGS. Eamily AMPELID^E 



0'18. BOHEMIAN WAXWING. Bombyeilla 
gar ruins 

Range. Breeds in the Arctic regions except 
in the Rockies where it nearly reaches the 
United States ; winters south to the northern 
tier of states. 

This handsome crested, grayish brown Wax- 
wing resembles the common Cedar Waxwing 
but is larger (length 8 
inches), has a black throat, 
much white and yellow on the 
wing and a yellow tip to tail. 
Their nests are made of root- 
lets, grass and moss, and sit- 
uated in trees usually at a 
low elevation. The eggs re- 
semble those of the Cedar-bird, but are larger 
and the marking more blotchy with indistinct 
edges ; dull bluish blotched with blackish 
brown; size .95 x .70. Data. Great Slave Lake, 
June 23, 1884. Nest in a willow 8 feet from 
the ground. Collected for Josiah Hooper. 
(Crandall collection). 




Dull bluish 




Bohemian Waxwing 



(J19- CEDAR WAXWING. Bombyeilla cedrorum. 

Range. Whole of temperate North America, breeding in the northern half 
of the United States and northward. 

These birds are very gregarious and go in large flocks during the greater 

part of the year, splitting up into smaller 
companies during the breeding season and 
nesting in orchards or groves and in any kind 
of tree either in an upright crotch or on a hori- 
zontal bough; the nests are made of grasses, 
strips of bark, moss, string, etc., and are 
often quite bulky. Their eggs are of a dull 
grayish blue color sharply speckled with black- 
ish brown; size .85 x .60. Data. Old Say- 
brook, Conn., June 22, 1900. Nest composed of 
cinquefoil vines, grasses, wool and cottony sub- 
stances ; situated on an ap- 
ple tree branch about 10 feet 
from the ground. Collector, 
John N. Clark. This species 
has a special fondness for 
cherries, both wild and culti- 
vated, and they are often 
known as Cherry-birds. They 
also feed upon various berries, and frequently 
catch insects in the air after the manner of 
Flycatchers. Their only notes are a strange 
Cedar Waxwing lisping sound often barely audible. 




m- 




375 






THE BIRD BOOK 

620. PHAINOPEPLA. Phainopepla nitens 

Range. Southwestern United States and Mexico; north 
to southern Utah and Colorado. 

This peculiar crested species is wholly 
shining blue black except for a patch of 
white on the inner webs of the primaries. 
Their habits are somewhat like those of 
the Cedar-bird, they being restless, and 
feeding upon berries or insects, catching 
the latter in the air. They make loosely 
constructed nests of twigs, mosses, plant Light gray 
fibres, etc., placed on branches of trees, usually below 20 
feet from the ground, in thickets or open woods near water, 
the eggs are two or three in number, light gray, spotted 
sharply with black; size .88 x .65. Data. Pasadena, Cal., 
July 15, 1894. Nest in an oak 10 feet up; composed of 
weeds and string. Collector, Horace Gaylord. 

SHRIKES. Family LANIID^ 

621. NORTHERN SHRIKE. Lanius borealis. 

Range. North America, breeding north of our borders; 
winters in northern half of the United States and casually 
farther south. 

All Shrikes are similar in nature and plumage, being 
grayish above and white below, with black wings, tail and ear patches, and 
with white outer tail feathers and bases of primaries; the present species may 
be known by its larger size (length over 10 inches) and wavy dusky lines on the 
breast. They are bold and cruel birds, feeding upon in- 
sects, small rodents and small birds, in the capture of 
which they display great cunning and courage; as they 
have weak feet, in order to tear their prey to pieces with 
their hooked bill, they impale it upon thorns. They nest 
in thickets and tangled underbrush, making their nests of 
vines, grasses, catkins, etc., matted together into a rude 
Grayish white structure. During April or May they lay from four to 
six grayish white eggs, spotted and blotched 
with yellowish brown and umber; size 1.05 
x .75. 

622. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. Lanius ludo- 
vicianus ludovicianus . 

Range. United States, east of the Plains, 
breeding north to New England and Illinois; 
winters in Southern States. 

Like the last but smaller 
(length 9 inches), not marked 
below and with the ear 
patches sharply defined. They 
nest in hedges or thickly tan- 
gled brush, showing a pre- 
dilection for dense thorn 
bushes, where they place Grayish white 
their piles of weeds, grasses, feathers and rub- 
bish; the four or five eggs are laid in April 
or May; they are like those of the last, but 
smaller, averaging .96 x .72. 

376 






Northern Shrike 




I. E. Hess 



LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE AND NEST 



THE BIRD BOOK 




6'22a. WHITE-RUMPED SHRIKE. 
ovicianus excubitorides. 



Lanius iud- 



Loggerhead Shrik 



Range. North America, west of the Plains, 
breeding north to Manitoba and the Saskatch- 
ewan; winters south to Mexico. 

Like the last but paler and the rump white. 
Their nesting habits and eggs are in every re- 
spect like those of the Loggerhead Shrike. 



()22b. CALIFORNIA SHRIKE. 

Lanius ludovicianus gambeli. 

Range. Pacific coast north to British Colum- 
bia. 

Similar to the eastern form but with the 
breast washed with brownish and with indis- 
tinct wavy bars. The eggs cannot be distin- 
guished from those of the others. 



622c. ISLAND SHRIKE. Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi. 

Range. Santa Barbara Islands, California. Like the last but smaller and 
darker. Eggs not distinguishable. 

VIREOS. Family VIREONDID/E 

623. BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO. Vireosylva calidris 

barbatula. 

Range. A Central American species, breeding in Cuba, I 

Bahamas and southern Florida. 

Like the Red-eyed Vireo but with a J \, -r'fr <*<BM 

;5V BHk dusky streak on either side of the chin. ff/ 

They build pensile nests of strips of bark 
afrd fibres, swung from the forks of 
branches. The eggs cannot be distin- 
guished from those of the next species, 
White being white, more or less specked about 

the large end with reddish brown and umber. Size .78 x .55. A 







622a 622b 



378 






THE BIRD BOOK 

624. RED-EYED VIREO. Vireosylva olivacea 

Range. United States, east of the Rockies, 
breeding north to Labrador, Manitoba and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

This is the most common of the Vireos in 
the greater part of its range and is a most per- 
pistent songster, frequenting groves, open 
woods or roadsides. Their eyes are brown, 
scarcely if any more red than those of any 
other species and I have yet 
to see one with red eyes out- \ 

side of mounted museum spe- 
cimens. They swing their 
nests from the forks of trees 
at any . elevation from the 
ground but usually below ten 
feet, and I have found them White 

where the bottom rested on the ground; they 
are made of strips of bark, fibre, etc., and often 
have pieces of string or paper woven into the 
sides; they are one of the most beautiful of 

bird homes and are woven so strongly that old 

nests hang to the branches for several seasons. 
Red-eyed Vireo Their three or four eggs, often accompanied by 

one of the Cowbirds, are laid in May or June; they are white, sparingly specked 

with blackish brown. Size .85 x .55. 

625. YELLOW-GREEN VIREO. Vireosylva flavoviridis. 
Range. Southern Texas and southward to South America. 

Similar, to the Red-eye but greener above and more yellowish on the sides. 
The nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable from those of 
that species. 

626. PHILADELPHIA VIREO. Vireosylva philadelphica 

Range. Eastern United States breeding from northern New England and 
Manitoba northward. 

This species is much smaller than the Red-eye (length 5 in.) 
and is yellowish below, and without black edges to the gray 
; crown. Their eggs do not dif- 

'^^^^^ fer from those of the Red- 
eyed Vireo except in size, 
averaging .70 x .50. 
White 
627- WARBLING VIREO. Vireosylva gilva 

gilva. 

Range. North America east to the Plains, 
breeding north to Labrador. 

This Vireo is nearly as abundant as the Red- 
eye but is not generally as well known, prob- 
ably because it is usually higher in the trees 
and more concealed from view. Their nests 
are like those of the Red-eye, but smaller and 
usually placed higher in the trees. The birds 
are even more persistent singers, than are the 
latter but the song is more musical and de- 
livered in a more even man- 
ner, as they creep about 
among the foliage, peering 
t - * under every leaf for lurking 

insects. The eggs are pure 
write, spotted with brown or 
White reddish brown. Size .72 x .52. 

380 





RED- EYED VIREO ON NEST 



C. A. Reed 



THE BIRD BOOK 




627a. WESTERN WARBLING VIREO. Vireo- 
sylva gilva srvainsoni. 

Range. Western United States, breeding 
from Mexico to British Columbia. 

This species is like the last but said to be 
a trifle smaller and paler color. Its nesting 
habits and eggs are precisely like those of 
the eastern form. 



628. 



Lanivireo 




Creamy white 



Yellow- throated Vireo 



YELLOW-THROATED VIREO. 
fiavifrons. 

Range. United States east 
of the Plains, breeding from 
the Gulf to Manitoba and 
New Brunswick. 

This handsome bird is 
wholly unlike any others of 
the Vireos, having a bright 
yellow throat and breast; the 
upper parts are greenish and the wings and 
tail gray, the latter with two white bars. They 
are fairly common breeding birds in northern 
United States, placing their handsome basket- 
like structures in forks of branches and at any 
elevation from the ground; the nests are like those of the preceding Vireos but 
are frequently adorned on the outside with lichens, thereby adding materially 
to their natural beauty. The four or five eggs are pinkish or creamy white, 
speckled about the large end with reddish brown. Size .80 x .60. 

629. BLUE-HEADED VIREO. Lanivireo solitarius solitarius. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from southern 
New England and the northern states north to Hudson Bay; 
winters in the Gulf States and southward. 

A beautiful Vireo with a slaty blue crown and nape, greenish 
back, white wing bars and underparts, the flanks being washed 
with greenish yellow; a conspicuous mark is the white eye 
ring and loral spot. They build firm, pensile, basket-like 
White nests of strips of birch and grapevine bark, lined with fine 

grasses and hair, suspended from forks, usually 

at low elevation and often in pine or fir treeo 

(of some twenty nests that I have found in 

New England all have been in low branches of 

conifers). Their three or four white eggs are 

specked with reddish brown. Size .80 x .60. 




()29a- CASSIN'S VIREO. 
cassini. 



Lanivireo solitarius 




Range. United States west of the Rockies; 
north to British Columbia. 

Similar to the last but with the back grayish. 

62Qb. PLUMBEOUS VIREO. Lanivireo soli- 
Range. Rocky Mountain region, breeding 

from Mexico to Dakota and Wyoming. 

Like the Blue-headed Vireo but with the 

yellowish wholly replaced by leaden gray. 

282 




Blue-headed Vireo 



629c. MOUNTAIN VIREO. Lanivireo soli- 
tarius alticola. 

Range. Mountains of Carolina and Georgia; 
winters in Florida. 

Said to be larger and darker than solitariuv 
proper. From all accounts, the habits, nests 
or eggs of this species differ in no wise from 
many of those of the northern Solitary Vireo, 
whose nests show great variations in size and 
material. 

62Qd. SAN LUCAS VIREO. Lanivireo soli- 
tarius lucasanus. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

Similar to cassini but with the flanks more 
yellow. Their nesting habits or eggs will not 
differ from the others. 



PERCHING BIRDS 



630. BLACK-CAPPED VIREO. 
lus. 



Vireo atricapil- 



to Kansas ; 





Range. Central Texas north 

winters in Mexico. Black-capped Vireo 

This peculiar Vireo has a black crown and sides of head, 
broken by a white eye ring and loral stripe; upper parts greenish, 
below white. They appear to be fairly common in certain 
localities of their restricted range, and nest at low elevations in 
mesquites or oaks, placing the nests in forks the same as other 
Vireos; they are of the ordinary Vireo architecture, lined with 
grasses. The three or four eggs are pure white, unmarked. Size 
.70 x .50. Data. Comal Co., Texas, May 21, 1888, 4 eggs. Nest 

located in a scrub Spanish oak, 5 feet from the ground. 

fi.Sl. WHITE-EYED VIREO. Vireo griseus griseus. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to northern United 

States. 

This Vireo has white eyes, as implied by its 
name, is yellowish green on the sides and with 
two prominent bars. They have no song, like 
the other Vireos, but a strange medley of notes 
resembling those of the Chat or Shrike. They 
nest near the ground in tan- 
gled thickets, making large ^ 
nests for the size of the birds 
and not always suspended; 
they are made of weeds, 
leaves, grass, bark or any 
trash. Their three or four 
eggs are laid late in May or White 

early in June; they are white, sparingly speck- 
led with brown; size .75 x .55. 

63 la. KEY WEST VIREO. Vireo griseus 
maynardi. 

Range. Southern Florida. 

This grayer and paler variety nests in the 

same manner and the eggs are not distinct 

White-eyed Vireo from those of the last form. 

383 





THE BIRD BOOK 

63 lb. BERMUDA VIREO. Vireo griseus ber- 
mudianus. 

Range. Bermudas. 

This variety is said to be slightly smaller and to have 
no yellow on the sides. Its eggs are probably the same as 
those of the others. 

63 Ic. SMALL WHITE-EYED VIREO. Vireo griseus 
micrus. 

Range. Eastern Mexico north to southern Texas. 

Said to be slightly smaller and grayer than the common 
White-eyed Vireo. Its eggs will not differ. 

632. HUTTON'S VIREO. Vireo huttoni huttoni. 

Range. Resident on the California coast; chiefly in 
the southern parts. 

A similar species to noveboracensis but r 
with the under parts tinged with yellow. 
These birds are quite common but shy, nest- 
ing at any height from the ground in open 
woods or groves; the nests are made of 
grasses and moss and swung from forked 
limbs ; the three or four eggs are pure white, 




White 



finely specked with reddish brown. Size .70 x .50. 



632a. STEPHEN'S VIREO. Vireo huttoni stephensi. 

Range. Northwestern Mexico and the boundary of the United States. 

This variety, which is more yellowish than the last, appears to be rather un- 
common but as far as I can learn its habits and nesting do not differ from those 
of the other Vireos; the eggs are white, specked with brown. Size .70 x .50. 




632c. ANTHONY'S VIREO. Vireo huttoni obscurus. 

Range. Pacific coast from Oregon (and Cal. in winter) 
to British Columbia. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this darker and smaller 
variety are the same in all respects as those of the Hutton's 
Vireo. 



633. BELL'S VIREO. 



Vireo belli belli. 

States, breeding from 




Range. Interior of the United 
Texas to Minnesota and Dakota. 

The nesting habits of this smaller species 
are just the same as those of the larger va- 
rieties, they suspending their small grass- 
woven baskets in the forks of bushes or 
trees and usually at a low elevation. Their 
nests are handsome and compact little struc- 
tures, being often made almost wholly of 
strips of bark lined with very fine grasses. The eggs are 
white, specked with reddish brown. Size .70 x .50. Data. 
Austin, Texas, June 16, 1898. Nest of strips of bark, 
fibres and grasses, neatly woven and swung from the fork 
of a low bush, 2 feet from the ground. 

384 



White 








PERCHING BIRDS 

633a. LEAST VIREO. Vireo belli pusillus. 

Range. Western Mexico, Arizona and southern California. 

This Vireo is slightly smaller and grayer than the last; they are quite com- 
mon in southern Arizona, nesting the same as Bell's at low elevations in bushes 
or small trees. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of IcUi. 

634. GRAY VIREO. Vireo vicinior. 

Range. Southwestern United States from western Texas, southern California 
and Nevada southward. 

This species is grayish above and grayish white below, with 
white eye ring, lores and wing bar. They are not uncommon 
birds in the Huachuca Mts. of southern Arizona, where they 
nest in bushes at low elevations, making the semi-pensile struc- X 
tures of woven strips of bark and grasses, lined with fine round ] ... 
grasses attached by the rim to a fork and sometimes stayed on 
the side by convenient twigs. Eggs white, specked with brown. 
Size .72 x .53. 



White 



HONEY CREEPERS. Family COEREBIDvE 

f)35. BAHAMA HONEY CREEPER Ccereba bahamensis 

Range. Bahamas, casually to southern Florida and the Keys. 
This peculiar curved-billed species is dark brown above, with the underparts, 
superciliary line and spot at base of primaries, whitish; the rump and a breast 
patch .are yellow. They nest at low elevations in bushes or trees usually in 
tangled thickets, making a large dome-shaped nest of grasses, leaves and fibres 
and, during May or June, lay from three to five pale creamy white eggs, speckled 
sparingly all,, over the surface and more abundantly at the large end with reddish 
;>rown. Size .65 x .50. 

WARBLERS. Family MNIOTILTID^E 

Warblers, as si %niily may be classed as the most beautiful, interesting and 
useful birds that- we nave. With few exceptions, they only return from their 
winter quarters a^tlje trees shoot forth their leaves or flowers, they feed largely 
among the foliage upon small, and mostly injurious, insects. They are very 
active and always flitting from branch to branch, showing their handsome 
plumage to the beat advantage. Their songs are simple but effectively delivered 
and the nests are 6f a high order of architecture. 

*- < -T^rammm 

()3(). *' BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER. Mnio- 

tilta varia. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding, from the Gulf States north to the 
Hudson Bay region; winters from our southern 
borders to South America. 

This striped black and white 

Warbler is usually seen creeping 

about tree trunks and branches 

after the manner of a Nuthatch. 

They are very active gleaners 

and of inestimable value to man. 

They, nest on the ground in 
woods or swamps, making their nest of strips 
of bark and grass, placed among the leaves 
usually beside stones,, stumps or fallen trees. 
Their three to five eggs are white, finely 
specked and wreathed with reddish brown. 
Size .65 x. 50. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 
3, 1889. Nest of strips of bark on the ground 
in an old decayed stump. 

385 




White 




Black and White Warbler 



25 



THE BIRD BOOK 





637- PROTHONOTARY WARBLER.. Prothon- 
otaria citrea. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, 
north in the interior to Iowa and Illinois. 

This species is often known 
as the Golden Swamp Warb- 
ler because of the rich golden 
yellow of the head and under- 
parts. They frequent and 
nest in the vicinity of swamps 
or ponds, nesting in the cavi- 
ties of trees or stubs at low Creamy white 
elevations, filling the cavity with leaves, moss 
and grasses, neatly cupped to receive the four 
to seven eggs, which are creamy or pinkish 
white, profusely spotted with reddish brown 
and chestnut. Size .72 x .55. Data. Quincy, 
Mo., June 1, 1897. 5 eggs. Nest in hole of 
a dead stub 6 feet up, in timber some distance 
from water; made of moss and grasses, lined 
with hair. 




notary Warbler 



h 



638. SWAINSON'S WARBLER. Helinaia 
swainsoni. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gull 
States, north to Virginia and In- 
diana, and west to eastern Texas; 
winters in Mexico and the West 
Indies. 

This species is brownish above 
t and white below, with a whitish 
superciliary stripe. It has been 
found breeding most numerously in thickets and 
tangled underbush about swamps and pools in 
any locality. Their nests are either in bushes or 
attached to upright rushes over water after the 
manner of the Long-billed Marsh Wren, being 
made of leaves, moss, rootlets, etc., lined with fine 
grasses or hair, and deeply cupped for the recep- 
tion of the three or four unmarked white or bluioh 
white eggs which are laid during May or June. 
Size .75 x .58. Data. Near Charlestown, S. C., 
May 12, 1888, 3 eggs. Nest in canes 4 feet from 
ground, made of strips of rushes, sweet gum and 
water oak leaves, lined with pine needles. 

63Q, WORM-EATING WARBLER. 
Helmitheros vermivorus. 

Range. United States east of the 
Plains, breeding north to southern 
New England and Illinois; winters 
south of our borders. 

This bird can be identified in all 
plumages by the three light buff 
and two black stripes on the crown White 

and narrower black stripes through the eye. Their 
habits are similar to those of the Oven-bird, they 

386 








Warbler 

Worm-eating Warbler 



PERCHING BIRDS 



feeding largely upon the ground amid dead leaves. 
They are quite abundant in most localities in their 
range, nesting in hollows on the ground in open 
woods or shrubbery on hill sides ; the nest is made 
of leaves, grasses and rootlets, lined with hair or 
finer grasses, and is usually placed under the 
shelter of some small bush. They lay (in May, 
June or July) three to six eggs, white, marked or 
blotched either sparingly or heavily with chestnut 
or lavender. Size .70 x .52. 



640. BACHMAN'S WARBLER. 
bachmani. 



Vermivora 



Range. Southeastern United States, along tne 
Gulf coast to Louisiana and north to Virginia and 
Missouri. 

This species is one of the rarest of the Warb- 
lers, but is now much more abundant than twenty 
years ago, when it had apparently disappeared. 
They are greenish above, and yellow below, and 
on the forehead and shoulder, and with black 
patches on the crown and breast. They have 
been found breeding in Missouri, nesting on the 
ground like others of this genus; the eggs are 
white wreathed about the large end and sparingly 
specked over the whole surface with reddish 
brown and chestnut. Size .65 x .50. 

(iH. BLUE-WINGED WARBLER. Vermivora vinus. 







Bachman's Warbler 
Lawrence's Warbler 

Rrewster's Warblei 



Range. Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England and 
in the Mississippi Valley to Minnesota; winters south of our borders. 

This common species has the crown and underparts yellow, line through the 
eye black, and white wing bars and spots on outer tail feathers. They breed 
most abundantly in the northern half of their United States 
range, placing their nests on the ground in thickets or on the * f $. - , 
edge of woods ; the nests are made of strips of bark, usually 
grapevine, and leases, and are usually high and deeply cupped, 1 
they are almost always placed among the upright shoots of 
young bushes. The eggs are white, finely specked with reddish 
brown with great variations as to markings. Size .65 x .50. 
Data. Old Saybrook, Conn., June 1, 1900. 5 eggs. Nest composed chiefly of 
dry beech leaves and strips of cedar bark, lined with shreds of bark and fine 
grass; situated on the ground among a bunch of weeds in the woods. 

387 




THE BIRD BOOK 




642. GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. 
Vermivora chrysoptera. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding 
north to the southern parts of the British Prov- 
inces, winters south of the United States. 

This is a very handsome species with black 
throat and ear patches, and yellow crown and 
wing bars, the upper parts being 
gray and the lower white. They ^tfHfe^. 
frequent low fields or hillsides 
where they nest among weeds 
or vines, making the nest of 
strips of bark, grasses and fibres, 
and locating it close to the 
ground in clumps of weeds, low bushes or 
briers. The three to five eggs are white with 
a very great diversity of markings, either 
heavily or minutely spotted or wreathed with 
chestnut and gray. Size .62 x .50. 



White 





Golden-winged Warbler 

fM-3. LUCY'S WARBLER. Vermivora lucice. 

Range. Western Mexico, north 
commonly to Arizona and casually 
to southern Utah. 

This small gray and white Warb- 
ler is especially distinguished by a 
chestnut rump and patch in center 
of the crown. Besides nesting in 
forks of low bushes, this species is said to place 
the domiciles in almost any crevice or nook that 
suits their fancy, such as loose bark on tree 
trunks, holes in trees, or other birds' nests. The 
eggs which are usually laid during May are white, 
sparingly specked and wreathed with reddish 
brown. Size .60 x .50. 

6l'k VIRGINIA'S WARBLER. 
I-'ermivora Virginia. 

Range. Western Mexico, north to Arizona and 
New Mexico, and also less commonly to Colorado. 

This species is similar to the last but has the 
rump and a patch on the breast, yellow. They 
are found quite abundantly in some localities, 
usually on mountain ranges, nesting in hollows 
on the ground beside rocks, stumps or in crevices 
among the rocks; the nests are 
made of fine strips of bark and ^ffiH^. 
grasses, skillfully woven together, 
and the three to five eggs are pure 
white, specked arid wreathed with 
reddish brown. Size .62 x .50. 

388 




L.uy's Warbler 

Virginia Warbler 



PERCHING BIRDS 




615. NASHVILLE WARBLER. Vermivora rubri- 
capilla rubricapilla. 

Range. North America east of the Plains, 
breeding from New York and Illinois north to 
Hudson Bay and Labrador; winters south of our 
borders. 

This small species is yellow be- 
low and greenish above, with an 
ashy gray head and neck, enclos- 
ing a chestnut crown patch. Tiiey 
breed abundantly in New England, 
usually on side hills covered with 
White clumps of young pines, the nests 

being placed flush with the surface of the ground 
and usually covered with overhanging grass; they 
are made of grasses and pine needles, the eggs 
are white, finely specked with bright reddish 
brown. Size .60 x .45. Data. Worcester, Mass., 
June 23, 1895. Nest of pine needles and grasses 
in hollow in the moss on a scrubby pine hillside. 

()km. CALAVERAS WARBLER. Vermivora rub- 
ricapilla gutturalis. 

Range. Western United States, breeding on 
ranges from California and Idaho north to British 
Columbia; winters in Mexico. 

A slightly brighter colored form of the last 
species. Their habits are the same and the eggs 
cannot be distinguished from those of the eastern 
bird. 



ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER. 

Vermiiora celata celata. 




Nashville Warbler 
Orange-crowned Warbler 



United 




rhite 

brown. 



Range. North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding north of the 
States except in the Rockies south to Arizona and New Mexico; 
winters in the Gulf States and southward. 

This plainly clad, greenish colored species has a concealed 
patch of orange brown on the crown. They have been found 
breeding about Hudson Bay and in the Mackenzie River district, 
placing their nests in hollows on the ground, usually on the 
side of banks or hills and concealed by small tufts of grass or 
bushes. The three or four eggs are white, speckled with reddish 
Size .64 x .45. 

GiCa. LUTESCENT WARBLER. Vermivora celata lutescens. 

Range. Pacific coast, breeding from California to Alaska; winters in Mexico. 

Similar to the last but more yellowish below. They make their nests of 
leaves, rootlets, moss, etc., lined with hair, and placed on the ground, concealed 
by tufts of grass or by bushes. The eggs are like those of the last. Data. 
Danville, Gal., April 21, 1898. Nest on the ground on a side hill; among weeds 
in the shade of a large oak. 

389 




THE BIRD BOOK 




646b. DUSKY WARBLER. 
dida. 



Vermivora celata sor- 



Tennesee Warblers 

Olive Warblers 



Range. Santa Barbara Islands, off California. 
Said to be duller colored and darker than the 
others. The eggs cannot be distinguished. 

647. TENNESSEE WARBLER. 
Vermivora peregrina. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
the northern tier of states, northward; winters to 
northern South America. 

This species has greenish upper 
parts, white lower parts and super- $ V '..-. 
ciliary line, and gray crown and ^/ N 
nape. They nest either on the '**". 
ground or at low elevations in 
bushes, making the structure of 
grasses and fibres, lined with hair; 
they are found on wild, tangled 



White 

hillsides and 



White 



mountain ranges. The eggs are pure white, spar- 
ingly specked with reddish brown. Size .62 x .45. 

648. PARULA WARBLER. Compsothli/pis 
americana americana. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding in the 
southern half. 

The upper parts of this handsome species are 
bluish gray with a greenish patch in the middle 
of the back; the throat and breast are yellow 
with a patch of black and chestnut. They are 
abundant birds in suitable localities, breeding in 
swamps, especially those with old or dead trees 
covered with hanging moss (usnea). The nests may be found 
at any height from the ground, and are usually made by turn- 
ing and gathering up the ends of the hanging moss to form a 
pocket, which is lined with fine grass or hair. The four to six 
eggs are white or creamy white, wreathed with specks of reddish 
brown and chestnut. Size .64 x .44. 



648a. NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER. Compsothlypis americana usnece. 




Range. Northern half of eastern United States and southern Canada ; winters 
from the Gulf States southward. 

The nesting habits of the northern form of the Blue-yellow-backed Warbler 
are in all respects like those of the last, and like them, where moss grown 
swamps are not to be found, they have been known to construct nests of moss 
suspended from branches of trees, or to nest in bunches of dead leaves. Data. 
Oxford, Mass., June 7, 1895. Nest in a dead pine swamp; made in end of hanging 
moss about 6 feet from the ground. Large colony breeding. 

390 



PERCHING BIRDS 



SENNETT'S WARBLER. 
piti ayumi nigrilora. 



Compsothlypis 




White 



Range. Eastern Mexico, north to the Lower 
Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

This species is similar to the Parula but is more 
extensively yellow below, and has black lores and 
ear coverts. Their habits are the same as those 
of the last and their nests are generally placed in 
hanging moss, and are also said to have been 
found hollowed out in the mistletoe which grows 
on many trees in southern Texas, New Mexico and 
Arizona. The eggs cannot be distinguished from 
those of the last. 



650. CAPE MAY WARBLER. Dendroica tig- 
rina. 

> , Range. Eastern North America, 

breeding from northern New Eng- 
land and Manitoba northward; win- 
ters south of the United States. 

This beautiful Warbler is yellow 
below and on the rump, streaked on 
the breast and sides with black; 
the ear coverts and sometimes the throat are 
chestnut. They are very local in their distribu- 
tion both during migrations and in their breed- 
ing grounds. They nest in the outer branches of 
trees, preferably conifers, making the nest of 
slender twigs, rootlets, grasses, etc., lined with 
hair; the four or five eggs are white, variously 
specked with reddish brown and lilac; size .65 
x .48. 

6*51. OLIVE WARBLER. Peucedramus olivaceus. 

Range. Mountains of New Mexico and Arizona southward. 

This peculiar species may readily be recognized by its saffron or orange- 
brown colored head and neck, with broad black bar through the eye. They 
nest at high elevations in coniferous trees on the mountain sides, placing their 
nests either on the horizontal boughs or forks at the end of them. 
The nests are very beautiful structures made of moss, lichens, 
fine rootlets and grasses and setting high on the limb like those 
of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. The eggs are grayish white with 
a bluish tinge, thickly speckled with blackish; size .64 x .48. 
Data. Huachuca Mts., Arizona, June 21, 1901. Nest in a sugar ( 
pine near extremity of branch, 25 feet from the ground and 20 
feet out from the trunk of the tree; composed of lichens and fine rootlets, lined 
with plant down. 




'arula Warbler 

Sonnott's \Varblei 





THE BIRD BOOK 




652. YELLOW WARBLER. 
cestiva. 



Dendroica cestiva. 




Cape May Warblers 

Yellow Warblers 



Ragne. Breeds in the whole or North America ; 
winters south of our borders. 

This well known and very common species is 
wholly yellow, being more or less greenish on 
the back, wings and tail, and the male is streaked 
on the sides with chestnut. They nest anywhere 
in trees or bushes, either in woods, pastures, 
parks or dooryards, and their sprightly song is 
much in evidence throughout the summer. The 
nests are usually placed in upright 
crotches or forks, and are made of 
vegetable fibres and fine grasses 
compactly woven together and lined 
with plant down and hair; the eggs, 
which are laid in May or June, are 
greenish white, boldly specked in Greenish 
endless patterns with shades of brown and lilac; 
size .65 x .50. 

()52n. SONORA YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroica 
cestiva sonorana. 

Range. Arizona, New Mexico and western 
Texas, southward. 

This form is brighter yellow, especially above, 
than the last. The nesting habits are the same 
and the eggs indistinguishable from those of the 
preceding. 

()f>2b. ALASKA YELLOW WARBLEH. Dendroica 

cestiva rubiginosa. 
Range. Breeds in Alaska and on the coast 



south to Vancouver; winters south of the United 
States. 

Similar to the common Yellow Warbler but slightly darker above; its eggs* 
and nesting habits are the same. 




392 




J. B. Pardoe 
NEST OF YELLOW WARBLER 



THE BIRD BOOK 




653. MANGROVE WARBLER. Dendroica bryanti 
castaneiceps. 

Range. Southern Lower Cali- 
fornia and western Mexico and 
Central America. 

This species is very similar to 
the Yellow Warbler but the eu- 
tire head and neck of the male 
are yellowish chestnut. Their 
nesting habits or eggs do not vary in any essen- 
tial particular from those of the common Yellow- 
birds of the United States. 




Greenish white 



654. BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. 
droica ccerulescens ccerulescens. 



Dew- 



Mangrove Warblers 

Black-throated Blue 

Warblers 



Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
northern United States northward; winters in 
the Gulf States and southward. 

These black-throated bluish-backed Warblers 
are abundant in swampy woodland both during 
migrations and at their breeding grounds; either 
sex can readily be identified in any plumage, by 
the presence of a small white spot at the base of 
the primaries. They nest in underbrush or low 
bushes only a few inches above the ground, mak- 
ing the nests of bark strips, moss rootlets, etc., 
lined with fine grasses or hair; 
the eggs are pale buffy white 
more or less dotted with pale 
brownish; size .65 x .50. Data. 
Warren, Pa., June 9, 1891. 3 
eggs. Nest one foot from the 
Buffy white g rou nd in brush; made of fine 
pieces of rotten wood, laurel bark and lined with 
fine grasses. 



654a. CAIRNS WARBLER. Dendroica ccerulescens cairnsi. 

Range. Mountain ranges of North Carolina to Georgia. 

A darker form whose habits and eggs are identical with those of the last. 





394 



PERCHING BIRDS 



655. MYRTLE WARBLER. Dendroica coronata. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
northern United States northward. Winters in 
the southern half of eastern United States. 

This beautiful gray, white and 
/ black Warbler can readily be iden- 

tified by its yellow rump, side 
patches and crown patch. It is one 
of our most common species during 
migrations when it is found west 
to the Rockies and casually far 
ther. They nest on the lower branches of conifer- 
ous trees, making their homes of rootlets, plant 
fibres and grasses; during June or the latter part 
of May, three or four eggs are laid; they are white, 
spotted with several shades of brown and lilac; 
size .70 x .50. Data. Lancaster, N. H., June 7, 
1888. Nest in a small spruce, about 6 feet up; 
made of fine twigs, lined with leathers. 



White 



656. AUDUBON'S WARBLER. 
boni auduboni. 



Dendroica audu- 



United 




Range. Mountain ranges of western 

States from British Columbia to Mexico. 
This bird resembles the last in the location of 
^^^^ the yellow patches but has a yellow 
instead of a white throat, and is 
otherwise differently marked. They 
are as abundant in suitable locali- 
ties as are the Myrtle Warblers in 
the east, nesting on the outer 
branches of coniferous trees at any 

height from the ground. The nests are made of 

bark strips, rootlets, plant fibre, grasses and pine 

needles, the three to five eggs are greenish or bluish white marked with brown 

and lilac; size .68 x .52. The one figured is from a beautiful set of four in Mr. 

0. W. Crandall's collection, and the ground color is a delicate shade of blue. 

Data. Spanaway, Washington, April 23, 1902. Nest on the limb of a large fir 

in a clump of three in prairie country. 



Hluish white 




Myrtle Warblers 

Audubon's Warblers 



656a. BLACK-FRONTED W T ARBLER. Dendroica auduboni nigrifrons. 

Range. Mountains of southern Arizona and Mexico. 

Similar to the preceding, but with the forehead and ear coverts black. Their 
nests and eggs are in no way different from those of Audubon's Warbler. 





395 



THE BIRD BOOK 




657- MAGNOLIA WARBLER. 
nolia. 



Dendroica mag- 




Range. North America east of the Rockies, 
breeding from northern United States to Hudson 
Bay region and in the Alleghanies, south to Penn- 
sylvania. Winters south of our borders. This 
species, which is one of the most beautiful of the 
Warblers, is entirely yellow below and on the 
rump, the breast and sides being heavily streaked 
with black; a large patch on the 
back and the ear coverts are black. 
They build in coniferous trees at 
any elevation from the ground, 
making their nests of rootlets and 
grass stems, usually lined with 
hair; the eggs are dull white, White 

specked with pale reddish brown; size .65 x .48. 
Data. Worcester, Mass., May 30, 1895. 4 eggs. 
Nest of fine rootlets and grasses about 30 feet 
up on the end of a limb of a pine overhanging a 
brook. 

658. CERULEAN WARBLER. Dendroica coerulea 
Range. United States east of the Plains, breed- 
ing chiefly in the northern half of the Mississippi 
Valley, rare east of the Alleghanies and casual in 
New England. These beautiful 
Warblers are light blue gray above, 
streaked with black on back, white 
below, with a grayish blue band on 
breast and streaks on the sides; 
they have two wide white wing bars 
and spots on the outer tail feathers. 
They are found chiefly in the higher trees where 
they glean on the foliage; they build also usually 
above twenty feet from the ground in any kind of 
tree, placing the nests well out on the horizontal 
limbs, generally in a fork. The nests are made of 
rine strips of bark, fibres, rootlets, etc., lined with hair; the eggs are white or 
pale bluish white, specked with reddish brown; size .62 x .48. Data. Fargo, 
Ontario, June 2, 1901. Nest in a burr oak, 18 feet from the ground on a hori- 
zontal limb. 




White 



Magnolia Warblers 

Cerulean Warblers 




396 



THE BIRD BOOK 





White 



Chestnut-sided Warblers 
Bay-breasted Warblers 




659- CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. Dendroica 
pensylvanica. 

Range. United States, east of the Plains, breed- 
ing in the Middle States and Illinois, north to Man- 
itoba and New Brunswick. Winters south of our 
border. 

The adults of this handsome spe- 
cies may readily be known by the 
white underparts and the broad 
chestnut stripe on the flanks; the 
crown is yellow. They frequent low 
brush in open woods or on hillsides 
and pastures, nesting at low ele- 
vations, usually below three feet from the ground, 
and often concealing their nests beneath the 
leaves in the tops of low small bushes. The nests 
are made of grasses, weed stems and some fibres, 
but they do not have as wooly an appearance as 
those of the Yellow Warblers which nest in the 
same localities and similar locations. Their eggs 
are white or creamy white (never greenish white), 
specked with brown and gray. Size .65 x .50. 
Data. Worcester, Mass., June 6, 1890. Nest in 
the top of a huckleberry bush, 2 feet from the 
ground; made of grasses and plant fibres. Bird 
did not leave nest until touched with the hand. 



BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. Dendroica cas- 
tanea. 



Range. North America, east of the Plains, 
breeding from northern United States north to 
the Hudson Bay; winters in Central and South 
America. 

This species has the crown, throat and sides a 
rich chestnut; forehead and face black; underparts white. They 
nest in coniferous trees in swampy places, making their nests 
of bark shreds and rootlets and placing them in horizontal 
forks at elevations of from five to thirty feet from the ground. 
The three or four eggs are laid late in May or during June; 
they are white, usually quite heavily spotted and blotched with 
reddish brown, umber and grayish. Size .70 x .50. 




398 






PERCHING BIRDS 




White 



661. BLACK-POLL WARBLER. Dendroicu 
striata. 

Range. North America, east of the Rockies, 
breeding from northern United States north to 
Labrador and Alaska; winters in South America. 
This black and white Warbler has 

a solid black cap, and the under- 

parts are white, streaked witii 

black on the sides. In the woods 

they bear some resemblance to the 

Black and White Warbler, but do 

not have the creeping habits of that 
species. During migrations they are found in 
equal abundance in swamps or orchards. In their 
breeding range, they nest at low elevations in 
stunted pines or spruces, making their nests of 
rootlets and lichens, lined with feathers. The 
eggs are dull whitish, spotted or blotched with 
brown and neutral tints. Size .72 x .50. Data. 
Grand Manan, N. B., June 12, 1883. Nest and 
four eggs on branch of a stunted spruce 2 feet 
from the ground. 

662. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. Dendroica 

fusca. 

Range. North America, east of the Plains, 
breeding from Massachusetts and Minnesota north 
to Hudson Bay; south in the Alleghanies to the 
Carolinas. Winters in Central and South Amer- 
ica. 

This species is, without exception, the most ex- 
quisite of the family; the male can always be 
known by the bright orange throat, breast and 
superciliary stripe, the upper parts being largely 
black. They arrive with us when the apple trees 
are in bloom and after a week's delay pass on to 
more northerly districts. Their nests are constructed of rootlets, 
fine weed stalks and grasses, lined with hair, and are placed on 
horizontal limbs of coniferous trees. The three or four eggs are 
greenish white, speckled, spotted and blotched with reddish 
brown and neutral tints. Size .70 x .48. Data. Lancaster, Mass., 
June 21, 1901. Nest in a white pine, 38 feet from the ground on Greenish whit 
a limb 4 feet from the trunk; composed of fine rootlets and hair, 
resembling the nest of a Chipping Sparrow. 




Black-poll Warblers 

Blarkburnian Warblers 






BLACKBURN! AN WARBLERS 



PERCHING BIRDS 



663. YELLOW-THRAOTED WARBLER. Den- 
droica dominica dominica. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, north 
to Virginia and casually farther; winters in Flor- 
ida and the West Indies. 

This species has gray upper parts with two 
white wing bars, the throat, breast and superciliary 
line are yellow, and the lores, 
cheeks and streaks on the sides 
are black. These birds nest abun- 
dantly in the South Atlantic States, \ 
usually in pines, and either on hori- 
zontal limbs or in bunches of Span- ^ reen j sh white 
ish moss. The nests are made of 
slender pieces of twigs, rootlets and strips of 
bark, and lined with either hair or feathers, the 
eggs are three to five in number, pale greenish 
white, specked about the large end with red- 
dish brown and gray. Size .70 x .50. Data. 
Raleigh, N. C., May 3, 1890. Nest 43 feet up on 
limb of pine; made of grasses and hair. 




663a. SYCAMORE WARBLER. 
inica albilora. 



Dendroica dom- 



Range. Mississippi Valley, breeding north to 
Ohio and Illinois, and west to Kansas and Texas; 
winters south of the United States. 

This bird is precisely like the last except that 
the superciliary stripe is usually white. Their 
nesting habits are precisely like those of the 
last, and the nests are usually on horizontal 
branches of sycamores; the eggs cannot be dis- 
tinguished from those of the Yellow-throated 
Warbler. 




Yellow-throated Warblers 
Grace's Warblers 



664. GRACE'S WARBLER. Dendroica gracice. 

Range. Southwestern United States, abundant in Arizona and New Mexico. 

This Warbler is similar in markings and colors to the Yellow- 
throated variety except that the cheeks are gray instead of black. 
The nesting habits of the two species are the same, these birds 
building high in coniferous trees; the nests are made of rootlets 
and bark shreds, lined with hair or feathers; the eggs are white, 
dotted with reddish brown and lilac. Size .68 x .48. White 





401 



26 



THE BIRD BOOK 








Black-throated Warblers 
Golden-cheeked Warblers 



665. BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER. Den- 

droica nigrescens. 

Range. United States from the Rockies to the 
Pacific coast and north to British Columbia; win- 
ters south of our borders. 

The general color of this species 
is grayish above and white below as 
is a superciliary line and stripe 
down the side of the throat; the 
crown, cheeks and throat are black 
and there is a yellow spot in front 
Greenish white of the eye. They inhabit woodland 
and thickets and are common in 
such localities from Arizona to Oregon, nesting 
usually at low elevations in bushes or shrubs; 
the the nests are made of grasses and fibres, 
woven together, and lined with hair or fine 
grasses, resembling, slightly, nests of the Yellow 
Warbler. The eggs are white or greenish white, 
specked with reddish brown and umber. Size 
.65 x .52. Data. Waldo, Oregon, June 1, 1901. 
Nest 3 feet from the ground in a small oak in 
valley. Collector, C. W. Bowles. (Crandall col- 
lection.) 

666. GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER. Dendroica 

chrysoparia. 

Range. Central and southern Texas south to 
Central America. 

This beautiful and rare species 
is entirely black above and on the 
throat, enclosing a large bright yel- 
low patch about the eye and a 
small one on the crown. In their 
very restricted United States range, 



White 

the birds are met with in cedar timber where they 
nest at low elevations in the upright forks of young trees of this variety. Their 
nests are made of strips of cedar bark, interwoven with plant fibres and spider 
webs making compact nests, which they line with hair and feathers. Their 
three or four eggs are white, dotted and specked with reddish brown and umber. 
Si2e .75 x .55. 





402 



PERCHING BIRDS 



667- BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. 
Dendroica virens. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 
southern New England, South Carolina in the Al- 
leghanies, and Illinois north to Hudson Bay; win- 
ters south of the United States. 

These common eastern birds are 
similar to the last but the entire 
upper parts are olive greenish. 
They are nearly always found, and 
always nest, in pines, either groves 
or hillsides covered with young 
pines. The nest are usually placed 
out among the pine needles where they are very 
difficult to locate, and resemble nests of the Chip- 
ping Sparrow. I have found them at heights rang- 
ing from six to forty or fifty feet from the ground. 
The three or four eggs, which they lay in June, 
are white, wreathed and speckled with brownish 
and lilac. Size .60 x .50. 




White 



TOWNSEND'S WARBLER. 
townsendi. 



Dendroica 




Range. Western United States, 
from the Rockies to the Pacific and 
from Alaska southward; winters in 
Mexico. 

This is the common western rep- 
resentative of the last species, and 
is similar but has black ear patches 
and the crown is black. They nest 
in coniferous woods throughout their United 
States and Canadian range, the nests being placed 
at any height from the ground and being con- 
structed like those of the Black-throated Green. 
Their eggs are not distinguishable from those of 
the latter. Size .60 x .50. 



White 




Black-throated Green 

Warbler 
Townsend's Warblers 






403 




THE BIRD BOOK 





669- HERMIT WARBLER. Dendroica occiden- 
talis. 

Range. Western United States and British Co- 
lumbia chiefly on the higher ranges. Winters 
south to Central America. 

This peculiar species has the entire head 
bright yellow and the throat black; upperparts 
grayish, underparts white. They are found nest- 
ing in wild rugged country, high up in pine trees, 
the nests being located among bunches of needles 
so that they are very difficult to find. The nests 
are made of rootlets, shreds of bark, pine needles, 
etc., lined with fine grasses or hair. The three or 
four eggs are laid during June or the latter part 
of May; they are white or creamy white, and 
sometimes with a faint greenish tinge, specked 
and wreathed with brown and lilac gray. Size 
.68 x .52. 



670. KIRTLAND'S WARBLER. 
landi. 



Dendroica kirt- 



Range. Eastern United States; apt to be found 
in any of the South Atlanic, Middle or Central 
States, and in Ontario, Canada. Winters in the 
Bahamas where by far the greater number of 
specimens have been found. 

This very rare Warbler is bluish gray above, 
streaked with black, and yellow below with the 
throat and sides streaked. Until the summer of 
1903, the locality where they bred was a mystery. 
The capture of a specimen, in June, in Oscodo Cc., 
Michigan, led to the search for the nests by N. 
A. Wood, taxidermist for the Michigan Museum 
at Ann Arbor. He was successful in his quest 
and found two nests with young and one egg. The 
nest in which the egg was found contained two 
young birds also. It was in a depression in the 
ground at the foot of a Jack pine tree and only a few feet from a cart road. 
The nest was made of strips of bark and vegetable fibres, lined with grass and 
pine needles. The egg is white, sprinkled with brown in a wreath about the 
large end. Size .72 x .56. It is estimated that there were thirteen pairs of the 
birds in this colony. 



^ 



Hermit Warblers 

Kirtland's Warblers 




404 



671. PINE WARBLER. Dendroica 



PERCHING BIRDS 



vigorsi. 




Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 
the Gulf to southern British Provinces; winters 
in the Gulf States and southward. 

This common eastern species 
is greenish above and dull yel- 
lowish below, streaked with 
dusky on the sides. They are 
almost exclusively found in pine 
woods, either light or heavy 
growth, where they can always 
be located by their peculiar, mu- 
sical lisping trill. They nest high in these trees, 
placing their nests in thick bunches of needles, 
so that they are very difficult to locate. They 
nest from March in the south to May in the north- 
ern states, laying three or four dull whitish eggs, 
specked or blotched with shades of brown and 
lilac; size .68 x .52. Data. Worcester, Mass., 
May 28, 1891. Nest 30 feet up in a pine; made of 
pine needles and rootlets. 



Dull white 



Dendroica palmarum 



672. PALM WARBLER. 
palmarum. 

Range. Interior of North America, breeding 
about Hudson Bay and northward and wintering 
in the lower Mississippi Valley and the West 
Indies. 

This species is brownish yellow 

above and yellow on the throat and 

breast, the crown and streaks on 

the sides are chestnut. They are 

found during migrations on or near 

the ground on the edges of woods 

or thickets and along roadsides; 
have a peculiar habit of "teetering" their tail 
which will readily identify them. They nest on the ground in, or on the edges 
of swampy places, lining the hollow with grasses and rootlets. In May or June 
they lay three or four eggs which are creamy white, variously specked with 
brown and lilac; size .68 x 52. 




Creamy white 




Warblers 

Palm Warblers 



672a YELLOW PALM WARBLER. Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from Nova Scotia, northward. 

This is the common Yellow Red-poll Warbler of the eastern states, and is 
very abundant during migrations. Their habits are the same, if not identical 
with the interior species. Their nests are also like those of the last, placed 
on the ground and the eggs are indistinguishable. 




405 




C. A. Reed 



PRAIRIE WARBLER NEST 



PERCHING BIRDS 




Whitish 



6'73- PRAIRIE WARBLER. Dendroica discolor. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 
the Gulf to Massachusetts and Ontario; winters 
in southern Florida and the West Indies. 

A species readily recognized by 
its bright yellow underparts and 
the black stripes on the face and 
sides; several bright chestnut 
spots are in the middle of the 
greenish back. These birds will 
be found on dry scrubby hillsides 
and valleys, where they nest in low bushes, and 
the male will be found in the tops of the tallest 
lookout trees delivering his quaint and very pe- 
culiar lisping song. Their nests are handsomely 
made of vegetable fibres and grasses, closely 
woven together and lined with hair; this structure 
is placed in the top of low bushes so that it is 
well concealed by the upper foliage. Their three 
to five eggs are whitish, specked and spotted 
with shades of brown and neutral tints; size .64 
x .48. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 23, 1891. 
Nest in the top of a young walnut, two feet from 
ground; made of plant fibres and grasses. Four 
eggs 



674. OVEN-BIRD. Seiurus aurocapillus. 

Range. North America east of the Rockies, 
breeding from the middle portions of the United 
States, north to Labrador and Alaska. Winters 
from the Gulf States southward. 

This species is fully as often known as the 
Golden-crowned Thrush, because of its brownish 
orange crown bordered with black. They are 
woodland birds exclusively and nest on the 
ground, arching the top over with rootlets or leaves, the nest 
proper being made of grasses and leaf skeletons. As they 
are concealed so effectually, the nests are usually found 
by flushing the bird. The four to six eggs are white, slightly 
glossy and spotted, blotched or wreathed with reddish brown 
and lilac; size .80 x .60. Data. Old Saybrook, Conn., June 
19, 1899. Domed nest with a side entrance on the ground in 
woods. 




Prairie Warblers 

Oven-bird 




White 




407 




C. A. Reed 



ARCHED NEST OF OVEN-BIRD 




J. B. Canfleld 
NEST AND EGGS OF LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH 



PERCHING BIRDS 



* 




White 



675. WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus novebora 
censis noveboracensis. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
northern United States north to Hudson Bay and 
Newfoundland. Winters from the Gulf to South 
America. 

This species is uniform brownish 
olive above and white below, 
streaked heavily with blackish; it 
has a whitish superciliary line. It 
is known in most of the United 
States only as a migrant, being 
found in moist woods or swampy 
places. They nest in such localities in their 
breeding range, placing their nests among the 
cavities of rootlets and stumps, the nest being 
made of moss, leaves and rootlets. Their eggs 
are white, profusely specked and blotched with 
reddish brown and lavender gray. Size .80 x .60. 
Data. Listowell, Ontario, May 28, 1895. Nest in 
a turned-up root over water; made of moss, grass 
and hair. Collector, Wm. L. Kells. This set of 
five is in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. 



6?5a. GRINNELL'S WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus 
noveboracensis notabilis. 

Range. Western North America, migrating be- 
tween the Mississippi Valley and the Rockies; 
breeds from northern United States north to 
Alaska; winters in the south. 

This sub-species is said to be very slightly 
larger, darker on the back, and paler below. Their 
nesting habits and eggs are identical with those 
of the last. 




Louisiana Water Thrush 
Water-Thrush 



676. LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus motacilla. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf, north to southern 
New England, Ontario and Minnesota; winters south of our borders. 

This species is similar to the last but is larger, grayer and 
less distinctly streaked on the underparts. They nest in 
swampy places, concealing their home in nooks among roots 
of trees or under overhanging banks, the nest being made 
of leaves, moss, mud, grasses, etc., making a bulky structure. 
The eggs, which are laid in May and number from four to 
six, are white, spotted and blotched with chestnut and neu- 
tral tints. Size .76 x .62. 




White 




409 



THE BIRD BOOK 




677- KENTUCKY WARBLER. Oporornis for- 
mosus. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 
the Gulf to New York and Michigan; winters 
south of the United States to South America. 

Crown and ear coverts black, un- 
derparts and line over eye yellow; x^-*<~ -< 
no white in the plumage. Thes- 
birds are found in about such local- Bggy^-iflV 
ities as are frequented by Oven- 
birds, but with a preference for 
woods which are low and damp. White 
They are locally common in some of the southern 
and central states. They are active gleaners of 
the underbrush, keeping well within the depths 
of tangled thickets. Like the Maryland Yellow- 
throat, which has similar habits to those of this 
bird, they are quite inquisitive and frequently 
come close to you to investigate or to scold. They 
nest on the ground in open woods or on shrubby 
hillsides, making large structures, of leaves and 
strips of bark, lined with grasses. The eggs are 
white, sprinkled with dots or spots of reddish 
brown and gray. Size .70 x .55. Data. Greene 
Co., Pa., May 26, 1894. 4 eggs. Nest a mass of 
leaves, lined with rootlets, placed on the ground 
at the base of a small elm sprout in underbrush 
on a hillside. 

678. CONNECTICUT WARBLER. Oporonis 



Range. Eastern United States; known to breed 
only in Manitoba and Ontario. 

These birds have greenish upperparts and 
sides, yellowish underparts, and an ashy gray 
head, neck and breast; they have a complete whit- 
ish ring about the eye, this distinguishing them 
in any plumage from the two following species. 
As they do most of their feeding upon the ground 
and remain in the depths of the thickets, they are rarely seen unless attention 
is drawn to them. They are quite abundant in New England in fall migrations, 
being found in swampy thickets. They have been found breeding in Ontario 
by Wm. L. Kells, the nest being on the ground in the woods among raspberry 
vines. It was made of leaves, bark fibres, grass, rootlets and hair. The eggs 
are white, specked with brown and neutral tints. Size .75 x .55. 



Kentucky Warbler 

Connecticut Warblers 





410 




PERCHING BIRDS 

679- MOURNING WARBLER. Oporornis phila. 
delphia. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from 

northern New England, Pennsylvania, (Philadel- 
phia) and Nebraska northward. 

Very similar to the last but with 
no eye ring and a black patch on 
the breast. The habits and nesting 
habits of this species are very sim- 
ilar to those of agilis, the nest be- 
ing on or very close to the ground. 
White With the exception of on mountain 

ranges it breeds chiefly north of our borders. 

The eggs are white, specked with reddish brown. 

Size .72 x .55. They cannot be distinguished from 

those of the last. Data. Listowell, Ontario, June 

5, 1898. Nest in a tuft of swamp grass in low 

ground; not very neatly made of dry leaves, 

grasses and hair. Collector, Wm. L. Kells. (Cran- 

dall collection.) 

680. MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER. Oporornis 
tolmiei. 

Range. Western United States from the Rock- 
ies to the Pacific, breeding north to British Co- 
lumbia; winters in Mexico and Central America. 
__ Similar to the last but with white 

spots on the upper and lower eye- 
lids, black lores, and the black 
patch on the breast mixed with 
gray. These ground inhabiting 
birds are found in tangled thickets 
and shrubbery where they nest at 
low elevations, from one to five feet from the 
ground. Their nests are made of grasses and 
shreds of bark, lined with hair and finer grasses, 
and the eggs are white, specked, spotted and blotched with shades of brown 
and neutral tints; size .72 x .52. Data. Sonoma, Cal., May 17, 1897. A small 
nest, loosely made of grasses (wild oats) lined with finer grasses; placed in 
blackberry vines 14 inches from the ground in a slough in the valley. 




White 




Mourning Warblers 

Macg-illivray Warblers 



THE BIRD BOOK 





White 



Maryland Yellow-throats 
Belding's Yellow-throat 



681. MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis 
trichas trichas. 

Range. Eastern United States; this species has 
recently been still further sub-divided so that this 
form is supposed to be restricted to the south 
Atlantic coast of the United States. 

The Maryland Yellow-throat is represented in 
all parts of the United States by one of its forms. 
They are ground loving birds, frequenting swamps 
and thickets where they can be 
located by their loud, unmistakable 
song of "Witchery, witchery, 
witch." They nest on or very near 
the ground, making their nests of 
grass, lined with hair; these are 
either in hollows in the ground at 
the foot of clumps of grass or 
weeds, or attached to the weed stalks within a 
few inches of the ground. They lay from three 
to five eggs in May or June; these are white, 
specked about the larger end with reddish brown 
and umber, and with shell markings of stone gray. 
Size .70 x .50. All the sub-species of this bird 
have the same general habits of this one and their 
eggs cannot be distinguished from examples of 
the eastern form; the birds, too, owing to the 
great differences in plumage between individuals 
from the same place, cannot be distinguished with 
any degree of satisfaction except by the ones who 
"discovered" them. 

68 la. WESTERN YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis 
trichas occidentalis. 

Range. This variety, which is said to be bright- 
er yellow below, is ascribed to the arid regions of 
western United States; not on the Pacific coast. 




68 Ib. FLORIDA YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis 
trichas ignota. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf coast to Texas. 

681c. PACIFIC YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis 
trichas arizela. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia southward. 
68 le. SALT MARSH YELLOW-THROAT. Geoth- 
lypis trichas sinuosa. 

Range. Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay. 



4X2 



PERCHING BIRDS 



682. BELDING'S YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis 



Range. Lower California. 

This peculiar species is like the common Yel- 
low-throat but has the black mask bordered by 
yellow instead of white, and the black on the 
forehead extends diagonally across the head from 
in front of one eye to the rear of the other. Theii 
habits are like those of the other Yellow-throats 
and the nests are similar to those of the latter, 
which are frequently placed in cane over the 
water. Nests found by Mr. Walter E. Bryant 
were situated in clumps of "cat-tails" between 
two and three feet above the water; the nests 
were made of dry strips of these leaves, lined 
with fibres; the eggs were like those of the com- 
mon Yellow-throats but larger; size .75 x .56. 

682.1. Rio GRANDE YELLOW-THROAT. Cham- 
cethlypis poliocephala. 

Range. Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande 
Valley in Texas. 

This Yellow-throat has the crown and ear 
coverts gray, only the lores and forehead being 
black. The nests and eggs of these birds, which 
are fairly common about Brownsville, Texas, do 
not differ from those of the other Yellow-throats. 

683. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. Icteria virens 
virens. 

Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf 
coast north to southern New England and Min- 
nesota. 

This strange but handsome species is very com- 
mon in underbrush and thickets in the south; they are 
usually shy and endeavor, with success, to keep out of 
sight, but their strange song and calls, consisting of 
various whistles and squawks mingled together, are often 
heard. Their nests are built in bushes or briars at low 
elevations, being made of grass, strips of bark and leaves, 
lined with finer grass; their eggs are white, sharply 
speckled and spotted with various shades of brown and 
lavender; size .90 x .70. 




Rio Grande Yellow-throat 
Yellow-breasted Chat 




White 



LONG-TAILED CHAT. Icteria virens longicauda. 

Range. United States west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico to British 
Columbia. 

This bird is said to be grayer and to have a slightly longer tail than the last. 
Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same. 

413 




THE BIRD BOOK 




White 



684. HOODED WARBLER. Wilsonia citrina. 

Range. Eastern United States, ^ fc 
breeding north to southern New 
England and Michigan; winters 
south of our borders. 

This yellow and greenish species 
can be identified by its black head, 
neck and throat, with the large 
yellow patch about the eye and the forehead. The 
members of this genus are active fly-catchers, 
darting into the air after passing insects in the 
manner of the Flycatchers. They frequent tan- 
gled thickets where they build their nests within 
a few inches of the ground, making them of leaves, 
bark and grass, lined with hair; the four or five 
eggs are white, specked with reddish brown and 
neutral tints; size .70 x .50. Data. Doddridge Co., 
Mo., May 29, 1897. Nest one foot from the ground 
in a small bush; made of leaves, strips of bark 
and fine grasses. 

685. WILSON'S WARBLER. Wilsonia pusilla 

pusilla 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
northern United States northward; south to Cen- 
tral America in winter. 

These handsome little black-cap- 
ped flycatching Warblers are abun- 
dant during migrations, especially 
in the spring, being found on the 
edges of woods and in orchards. 
They nest on the ground, usually 
on the edges of swamps, embedding 
their nests in the ground under the shelter of low 
branches or on the edges of banks; the nest is oi! 
bark strips, fibres and leaves, and the eggs are white, specked with reddish 
brown; size .60 x .50. 





White 



Hooded Warblers 

Wilson's Warblers 



685a. PILEOLATED WARBLER. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 

Range. Western United States, breeding in the Rocky Mountain region from 
Mexico to Alaska; winters south of the United States. 

Similar to the eastern form but the yellow underparts and greenish back are 
brighter. Like the last species, this form nests on the ground or very close to it, 
in weeds or rank undergrowth, in swamps. Their eggs which are laid in May 
or June are not distinguishable from those of the last. 




414 



White 



PERCHING BIRDS 

685b. GOLDEN PILEOL/ATED WARBLER. Wil- 
sonia pusilla chryseola. 

Range. Pacific coast of North America, breed- 
ing from southern California in mountain ranges 
north to British Columbia. 

686. CANADIAN WARBLER. Wilsonia canaden- 

sis. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from 
Mass., New York, and Michigan north to Labrador 
and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America. 

This handsome Warbler is plain 
, , v gray above and yellow below, with 

a black stripe down the sides of 

the neck and across the breast in 

a broken band. They frequent 

swamps or open woods with a 

heavy growth of underbrush, where 
they build their nests on or very close to the 
ground. I have always found them in Massachu- 
setts nesting about the roots of laurels, the nests 
being made of strips of bark, leaves and grass; 
in June or the latter part of May they lay from 
three to five white eggs, specked and wreathed 
with reddish brown and neutral tints; size .68 
x .50. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 10, 1891. 
Nest on the ground under laurel roots in swampy 
woods; made entirely of strips of laurel bark 
lined with fine grass. 

687. AMERICAN REDSTART. Setophaga 

ruticilla. 

Range. North America, chiefly east of the 
Rockies, breeding in the northern half of the 
United States and north to Labrador and Alaska; 
winters south of our borders. 

The male of this handsome, active and well known species is black with a 
white belly, and orange patches on the sides, wings and bases of outer tail 
feathers. They breed abundantly in swamps, open woods or 
thickets by the roadside, placing their nests in trees or bushe? 
at elevations of from three to thirty feet above ground and 
usually in an upright fork. The nests are very compactly 
made of fibres and grasses, felted together, and lined with 
hair. Their eggs are white, variously blotched and spotted 
with brown and gray; size .65 x .50. Data. Chili, N. Y., June White 
1, 1894. Nest, a cup-shaped structure of plant fibres lined with fine grasses 
and hair; 4 feet from the ground in the crotch of a small chestnut. 




Canadian Warblers 

American Redstart 






416 




C. A. REED 



MALE REDSTART FEEDING YOUNG 



PERCHING BIRDS 




688. PAINTED REDSTART. Setophaga picta. 

Range. Southern New Mexico 
and Arizona, southward. 

This beautiful Redstart is black 
with a large white patch on the 
wing coverts, white outer tail 
w , . feathers, and with the belly and 

middle of the breast bright red. 
These active birds, which have all the habits and 
mannerisms of the common species, nest on the 
ground in thickets or shrubbery usually near 
water, and generally conceal their homes under 
overhanging stones or stumps; the nests are 
made of fine shreds of bark and grasses, lined 
with hair; the eggs are white, dotted with red- 
dish brown; size .65 x .48. Data. Chiricahua 
Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1900. Nest of fine bark 
and grass under a small bush on the ground. 



689. RED-BELLIED REDSTART. Setophaga 
mini at a. 

Range. Mexico; admitted to our avifauna on 
the authority of Giraud as having occurred in 
Texas. 

This species is similar to the last, but has a 
chestnut crown patch, more red on the under- 
parts, and less white on the tail; it is not prob- 
able that their nesting habits or eggs differ from 
the last. 



690. RED-FACED WARBLER. 
rubrifrons. 



Cardellina 




Range. Southern Arizona and New Mexico, 
southward. 

This attractive little Warbler is quite common in mountain 
ranges of the southern Arizona. They nest on the ground on the 
side hills, concealing the slight structure of grasses and root- 
lets under overhanging shrubs or stones. Their eggs are speck- 
ed and blotched with light reddish brown and lavender. Size 
.64 x .48. Data. Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1902. Nest 
in a depression under a tuft of grass growing about 8 feet up on 
the side of a bank. 



Painted Redstart 

lled-faeed Warblers 




White 




417 




27 



THE BIRD BOOK 



WAGTAILS. Family MOTACILLID^ 

[694.] WHITE WAGTAIL. Motacilla alba. 




Prague's Pipit 



Range. An Old World species; accidental in 
Greenland. 

These birds are abundant ^ -? 

throughout Europe, nesting ^0 
on the ground, in stone walls, ;; 
or in the crevices of old 
buildings, etc., the nests be- 
ing made of grass, rootlets, 
leaves, etc.; the eggs are White 
grayish white, finely specked with blackish 
gray. Size .75 x .55. 



[695.] SWINHOE'S WAGTAIL. 
ocularis. 



Motacilla 



Range. Eastern Asia; accidental in Lower 
California and probably Alaska. 



ALASKA YELLOW WAGTAIL. Budyt< 
flavus alascensis. 



the 



Range. Eastern Asia; abundant on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska in 
summer. 

These handsome Wagtails are common in summer on the coasts 
and islands of Bering Sea, nesting on the ground under tufts of 
grass or beside stones, usually in marshy ground. Their eggs 
number from 'four to six and are white, profusely spotted with 
various shades of brown and gray. Size .75 x .55. Data. Kam- 
chatka, June 20, 1896. Nest on the ground; made of fine root- 
White lets, grass and moss, lined neatly with animal fur. 





697. PIPIT. Anthus rubescens. 

Range. North America, breeding in the Arctic regions, and in the Rocky 
Mountains south to Colorado, winters in southern United States and southward. 

The Titlarks are abundant birds in the United States during ..,,_.- 

migrations, being found in flocks in fields and cultivated ^ 
ground. Their nests, which are placed on the ground in '^ 

meadows or marshes under tufts of grass, are made of moss 
and grasses; the four to six eggs are dark grayish, heavily 
spotted and blotched with brown and blackish. Size .75 x .55. Gray 

[698.] MEADOW PIPIT. Anthus pratensis. 

Range. Whole of Europe; accidental in Greenland. 

This species is similar to the American Pipit and like that species nests on 
the ground; they are very abundant and are found in meadows, woods or thick- 
ets in the vicinity of houses. Their nests are made chiefly of grasses, lined 
with hair; the eggs are from four to six in number and are grayish, very heavi- 
ly spotted and blotched with grayish brown. Size .78 x .58. 

418 



[699-] RED-THROATED PIPIT. Anthus 



PERCHING BIRDS 

' 



cermnus. 

Range. An Old World species; accidental in 
the Aleutians and Lower California. 

The nesting habits of this bird are like those 
of the others of the genus. 

700. SPRAGUE'S PIPIT. Anthus spraguei. 

Range. Interior of North America, breed- 
ing from Wyoming north to Saskatchewan. 
Winters in the plains of Mexico. 

These birds are common on 
the prairies and breed abund- 
antly on the plains of the in- 
terior of northern United 
States and Manitoba. They 
have a flight song which is 

Grayish white said to be fully equal to tnat 
of the famous European Skylark. They nest on 
the ground under tufts of grass or up-turned 
sods, lining the hollow with fine grasses; their 
three or four eggs are grayish white, finely specked with grayish black or pur- 
plish. Size .85 x .60. Data. Crescent Lake, Canada. Nest of fine dried 
[Trasses, built in the ground at the side of a sod. 





Sage Thrasher 



DIPPERS. Family CINCLID^E 

701. DIPPER. Cinclus mexicanus unicolor. 

Range Mountains of western North America from Alaska to Central America. 

These short-tailed, grayish colored birds are among the strangest of feathered 
creatures; they frequent the sides of mountain streams where they feed upon 
aquatic insects and small fish. Although they do not have webbed feet, they 
swim on or under water with the greatest of ease and rapidity, using their 
wings as paddles. They have a thrush-like bill and the teetering habits of the 
Sandpiper, and they are said to be one of the sweetest of songsters. They nest 
among the rocks along the banks of swiftly flowing streams, and sometimes 
beneath falls; the nests are large round structures of green moss, lined with 
fine grass and with the entrance on the side. The eggs are pure white, four or 
five in number, and laid during May or June. Size 1.00 x .70. 

WRENS, THRASHERS, ETC. Family TROGLODYTID^ 

702. SAGE THRASHER. Oreoscoptes montanus. 

Range. Plains and valleys of western United States, east of the Sierra Ne- 
vadas, from Montana to Mexico. 

This species is abundant in the sage regions of the west, 
nesting on the ground or at low elevations in sage or other 
bushes. Their nests are made of twigs, rootlets and bark 
strips, lined with fine rootlets; the three or four eggs are a 
handsome greenish blue, brightly spotted with reddish brown 
and gray. Size .95 x .70. Data. Salt Lake Co., Utah, May 
11, 1900. Nest placed in a sage bush; made of twigs of the 
same and lined with bark strips. Collector, W. H. Parker, 
(Crandall collection.) 

419 




Urreenish 



THE BIRD BOOK 




703. 



MOCKINGBIRD. 
polyglottos 



Mimus polyglottos 




Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, 
north to New Jersey and Illinois. 

These noted birds are 
very common in the south 
where they are found, and 
nest about houses in open 
woods, fields, and along 
roadways; their nests are 
rude, bulky structures of 
twigs, grasses, leaves, etc., 

placed in trees or bushes Dull greenish blue 
at low elevations; the three to five eggs are 
usually dull greenish blue, boldly spotted with 
brownish. Size .95 x .72. 

703a. WESTERN MOCKINGBIRD. Mimus 
polyglottos leucopterus. 

Range. Southwestern United States from 
Texas to California, and southward. 

This subspecies is as common in its range, 
and its habits are the same as those of the eastern bird. The nests and eggs 
are identical with those of the last, and like that variety they frequently nest 
in odd places as do all common birds when they become familiar with civili- 
zation. 



Mockingbird 




704*. CATBIRD. Dumetella carolinensis. 

Range. North America, breeding from the 
Gulf States to the Saskatchewan; rare on the 
Pacific coast; winters in the Gulf States and 
southward. 

This well known mimic is abundant in the 
temperate portions of its range, frequenting 
open woods, swamps, hill- 
sides and hedges. Their 
nests are usually low 
down in bushes or trees, 
and are constructed simi- 
larly to those of the Mock- 
ingbird, of twigs and root- 
lets; a tangled mass of 
vines and briers is a fa Bluish green 
vorite place for them to locate their home. 
Their eggs are laid in the latter part of May 
or during June, and are from three to five in 
number and a bright bluish green in color, 
unmarked. Size .95 x .70. 





420 



PERCHING BIRDS 




Greenish white 



705. BROWN THRASHER. Toxostoma rufum 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding 
from the Gulf States north to Canada. Win 
ters in the Gulf States and southward. 

This large, handsome songster is found 
breeding in just such lo- 
calities as are preferred by 
the Catbird and the two 
are often found nesting in 
the same hedge or thicket. 
The nests, too, are similar 
but that of the Thrasher is 
usually more bulky; be- 
sides building in bushes 
they frequently nest on 

the ground, lining the hollow under some bush 
with fine rootlets. Their three to five eggs 
are laid during May or June; they are whitish 
or pale greenish white, profusely dotted with 
reddish brown. Size 1.05 x .80. Brown Thrusiu-r 

706. SENNETT'S THRASHER. Toxostoma longirostre sennetti. 
Range. Southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. 

Very similar to the last but darker above and with the spots on the breast 
blacker and more distinct. This species which is very abundant in the Lower 
Rio Grande Valley nests the same as the last species 
in thick hedges and the eggs are very similar to those 
of the Brown Thrasher, but in a large series, average 
more sparingly marked over the whole surface and with 
a more definite wreath about the large end. Data. Corpus 

Christi, Texas, May 12, 1899. Nest 

of twigs and vines in a bush in 

thicket. Six feet from the ground. 





indant in the Lower 

m 



i07a 708 710 



Greenish white 

CURVE-BILLED THRASHER. Toxostoma 
currirostre curvirostre. 

Range. Mexico, north to southern Texas and eastern 
New Mexico. 

This species is a uniform ashy gray above and soiled 
white below; the bill is stout and decurved. These 
birds are as numerous in the Lower Rio Grande Valley 
as are the Sennett's Thrasher, frequenting thickets 
where they breed in scrubby bushes and cacti. Their 
nests are rather larger and more 
deeply cupped than are those ol: 
the last species and the eggs can 
easily be distinguished. They 
have a ground color of light blu- 
ish green, minutely dotted even- 
ly all over the surface with red- 
dish brown. Size 1.10 x .80. 
Data. Brownsville, Texas, April 

6, 1900. 5 eggs. Nest of sticks and thorns on a cactus 
in a thicket; 6 feet from the ground, 
421 



ties and cacti, men 






THE BIRD BOOK 

707a. PALMER'S THRASHER. Toxostoma curvirostre palmeri. 

Range. Very abundant in southern Arizona and southward into Mexico. 

The nesting habits and eggs of these birds are exactly like those of the last; 
they show a preference for placing their nests of sticks and thorny twigs upon 
cacti at elevations below five feet from the ground. Like the last, they generally 
raise two broods a season. 



708. BENPIRE'S THRASHER. Toxostoma bendirei. 

Range. Southern Arizona and Mexico; north locally to southern Colorado. 

This species is not as abundant in the deserts of southern 
Arizona as are the last species with which they associate. /'"" 
They nest at low elevations in mesquites or cacti, laying 
their first sets in March and early April and usually rais- 
ing two brooks a season; their three or four eggs are dull 
whitish, spotted and blotched with brownish drab and lilac 
gray. Size 1.00 x .72. Data. Tucson, Arizona, April 15, 
1896. Nest 3 feet up in a cholla cactus; made of large 
sticks lined with fine grasses. Grayish white 



709. SAN LUCAS THRASHER. Toxostoma cinereum cihereum. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 
This species is similar to curvirostre but the under 
parts are spotted with dusky. Their habits and nests 
are similar to those of the other Thrashers and the three 
'-iff '+*& r four eggs are P ale greenish white, spotted with red- 
dish brown. Size 1.08 x .75. Data. Santa Anita, June 
I ,*5^r''' 3, 1896. 3 eggs. Nest in a cactus. 

Pale greenish white 

70Qa. MEARNS'S THRASHER. Toxostoma cinereum mearnsi. 

Range. Northern Lower California. 

This species is described as darker than the last and with larger, blacker spots 
on the breast and underparts. 



710. CALIFORNIA THRASHER. Toxostoma redivivum. 

Range. Southern half of California, west of the Sierra Nevadas. 

This species is more brownish than the other curve- 
billed species and has a much longer and more curved ^ ,. y -^ . 
bill. They are common in the under brush of hillsides 
and ravines, where they locate their nests at low eleva- 
tions. Their nests are made of sticks and grass, lined 
with rootlets, and the three or four eggs are bluish 
green with spots of russet brown. Size 1.12 x .82. Data. 
San Diego, Cal., Feb. 7, 1897. Nest of sticks and root- 
lets in a grease-wood bush 4 feet from the ground. 
Collector, Chas. W. Brown. Bluish green 



422 




Pale er 




11712 



PERCHING BIRDS 

711. LECONTE'S THRASHER. Toxostoma lecontei 
lecontei. 

Range. Desert regions of southwestern United States, 
chiefly in the valleys of the Gila and Colorado Rivers. 

This species is much paler 
than the last and has a shorter 
: f ~ bill. It is fairly common but 

locally distributed in its range 
and nests at low elevations in 
bushes or cacti. The three or 
four eggs are pale greenish blue, 
sparingly dotted with reddish 
brown. Size 1.10 x .75. Data. 

Phoenix, Arizona, April 2, 1897. 3 eggs. Large nest 
of dry twigs, rootlets, etc., lined with bits of rabbit hair 
and feathers; 4 feet from the ground in a small shrub. 

71 la. DESERT THRASHER. Toxostoma lecontei 
arenicola. 

Range. Northern Lower California. 

This form of the last is said to differ in being darker 
above. It is a very locally confined race, chiefly about 
Rosalia Bay, Lower California. Its eggs will not be distinctive. 

712. CRISSAL THRASHER. Toxostoma crissale. 

Range. Southwestern United States from western Texas 
to eastern California; north to southern Utah and Nevada. 
This species may be known from any other of the curve- 
billed Thrashers by its grayish underparts and bright 
chestnut under tail coverts. These sweet songsters are 
abundant in suitable localities, nesting at low elevations in 
chaparral. Their nests are large, and bulkily made of 
sticks and rootlets ; the eggs range from two to four in num- 
ber and are pale greenish blue, unmarked. Size 1.10 x .75. 

713. CACTUS WREN. Ileleodytes brunnei- 

capillus couesi. 

Range. Southwestern United States from 
Texas to eastern California; north to southern 
Nevada and Utah. 

This species is the largest of the Wrens, be 
ing 8.5 inches in length. They are very com- 
mon in cactus and chaparrel districts, where 
they nest at low elevations in bushes or cacti, 
making large purse-shaped structures of 
grasses and thorny twigs, lined with feathers 
and with a small entrance at 
one end. They raise two or 
three broods a year, the first 
set of eggs being laid early in 
April; the eggs are creamy 
white, dotted, so thickly as to 
obscure the ground color, with 
pale reddish brown. Size .95 
x .65. Data. Placentia, Cal., April 
Nest in cactus about 6 feet from the ground; 
made of grasses and lined with feathers and rab 
bit fur ; nest 8 inches in diameter, 18 inches long. 
423 






Pale greenish blui 





1901. 



Cactus Wren 




THE BIRD BOOK 



71 3a. BRYANT'S CACTUS WREN. Heleodytes 
brunneicapillus bryanti. 

Range. Northern Lower California and 
coast of southern California. 

The nesting habits of this variety differ in 
no respect from those of the last. 

713b. SAN LUCAS CACTUS WREN. Heleo- 
dytes brunneicapillus affinis. 
Range. Southern Lower California. 
Eggs indistinguishable from those of the last. 

715. ROCK WREN. Salpinctes obsoletus 

obsoletus. 

Range. United States, west of the plains, 
breeding north to British Columbia, and south 
,___ ll ^^^____. to Mexico; winters in south- 

t^glBBT^BBBIM^, western United States and south- 
ward. 

mrti$z This species appears to be ^KA.>-.->I 

quite abundant on rocky hill- 
sides throughout its range; like 
most of the Wrens they draw White 
attention to themselves by their loud and va- 
ried song. They nest in crevices or beneath overhanging rocks, making the 
nest out of any trash that may be handy, such as weeds, grass, wool, bark, root- 
lets, etc.; their eggs range from four to eight in number and are pure white, 
linely specked with reddish brown. Size .72 x .50. 




Rock Wren 




716. GUADALUPE ROCK W T REN. Sdlpmctes guadeloupensis. 

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

A similar but darker and browner species than the Rock Wren. It breeds in 
abundance throughout the island from which it takes its name, placing its 
nests in crevices among the boulders or cavities of fallen tree trunks and, as is 
often done by the last species, lining the pathway to the nest with small 
pebbles. The eggs, which are laid from January to April, resemble, in all 
respects, those of the common Rock Wren. 

717. WHITE-THROATED WREN. Catherpes mexicanus albifrons. 

Range. Northeastern Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. 

The habits of the White-throated Wren are the same as those of the Canon 
Wren, which variety is more common and better known; the eggs of this 
species are not distinguishable from those of the next. 





424 



7l7a. CANON WREN. Catherpes mexicanus 
conspersus. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region and west to 
the Sierra Nevadas; north to Wyoming and 
Idaho and south to New Mexico and Arizona. 

The Canon Wrens are uniform rusty brown 
all over except the large sharply denned white 
throat patch; the underparts, wings and tail 
are barred with black, and the back is specked 
with white. Their name is well chosen for 
they are found abundantly in rocky canyons, 
ravines, and side hills. They nest in crevices 
or caves among the rocks, placing their nests 
in small niches; they are made of twigs, leaves, 
grasses and feathers, and the three to six eggs, 
which are laid from April to June according to 
locality, are white, sprinkled and blotched with 
reddish brown and lilac. Size .72 x .52. 

71 7b. DOTTED CANON WREN. Catherpes 
mexicanus punctulatus. 



PERCHING BIRDS 




Carolina Wren 




White 



Range. Pacific coast from Oregon to Lower California. 

The habits and eggs of this coast form of the White-throated Wren do not 
vary in any particular from those of the preceding variety. 
718. CAROLINA WREN. Thryothorus ludo- 
vicianus ludovicianus. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to 
southern New England and Illinois; resident in the greater 
part of its range. 

These loud-voiced songsters are well known in the south 
where they are very abundant, being found along banks of 

streams, in thickets, along walls, or about brush heaps. They 
^ nest in almost any suitable nook or corner, in hollow trees 

& or stumps, bird boxes, about buildings, and in brush or 

^ bushes. When in exposed positions, the nest, which is 

1|| made of all sorts of trash, is arched over; the eggs, which 

^gk are laid from March to June, and frequently later, as sev- 

1% eral broods are sometimes reared in a season, are white, 

profusely specked with light reddish brown and purplish. 
Size .74 x .60. 

71 8a. FLORIDA WREN. Thryothorus ludovicianus 
miamensis. 

Range. Southern Florida. 

A similar bird to the last but darker above and brighter 
below. Its eggs are not distinguishable from those of 
the last. 




718b. 



LOMITA WREN. 
lomitensis. 



Thryothorus ludovicianus 



717a 719a 



Range. Southern Texas. 

This sub-species is abundant along the Lower Rio 
Grande in southern Texas, where its habits are the same as 
those of the others and the eggs are not distinctive, 
425 




THE BIRD BOOK 

719. BEWICK'S WREN. Thryomanes bewicki 
bewicki. 

Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, and 
the Mississippi Valley north to Minnesota and 
locally to the Middle States in the east. 

This species is not common on the Atlantic 
coast but in the interior it is 
the most abundant of the Wrens, ^~ . 
nesting in holes in trees, stumps, 
fences, bird boxes, tin cans, etc., 
filling the cavities with grass 
and rootlets. Their eggs are 
laid in the latter part of April 
or May; they are white, specked and usually 
wreathed about the large end with reddish 
brown and purplish. Size .65 x .50. 

719a. VIGORS 's WREN. Thryomanes bewicki 
spilurus. 

Range. Pacific coast of California. 

This similar bird to the last has the same 
general habits and the eggs are not in any way different from those of Bewick's 
Wren. 




White 



Bewick's Wren 



719b. BAIRD'S WREN. Thryomanes bewicki bairdi. 

Range. Southwestern United States, from western Texas to eastern Cali- 
fornia and north to Colorado and Nevada. 

Like the two preceding Wrens, this one nests in natural or artificial cavities, 
and the four to seven eggs that they lay are precisely alike, in every respect, 
to those of the others. 

719c. TEXAS WREN. Thryomanes bewicki cryptus. 

Range. Texas, north in summer to western Kansas. 

A very abundant bird in Texas. Nesting habits not unusual nor eggs dis- 
tinctive. 

719d. SAN DIEGO WREN. Thryomanes bewicki charienturus. 
Range. Coast of southern California. 

719e. SEATTLE WREN. Thryomanes bewicki calophonus. 

Range. Pacific coast from Oregon to British Columbia. 

These last two sub-species have recently been separated from Vigors's Wren, 
but their habits and eggs remain the same as those of .that variety. 




719-1. SAN CLEMENTE WREN. Thryomanes leucophrys. 

Range. San Clemente Island, California. 

This species is similar to Vigors's Wren but is grayer and paler above, 
not peculiar in its nesting habits and the eggs are like those of bcwickii. 



It is 



720. GUADALUPE WREN. Thryomanes brevicauda. 

Range. Guadalupe Island. 

A very similar species to the Vigors's Wren; nesting habits and the eggs are 
not apt to differ in any respect. 

426 



PERCHING BIRDS 



721. HOUSE WREN. 

aedon. 



Troglodytes aedon. 




Range. North America east of the Missis- 
sippi, breeding from the Gulf north to Mani- 
toba and Ontario; winters in the southern half 
of the United States. 

This familiar and noisy little Wren is the 
most abundant and widely distributed of the 

Wrens; they are met with on 

the edges of woods, swamps, 

fields, pastures, orchards and 

very frequently build about 

houses, in bird houses or any 

nook that may suit them; they 

fill the cavity of the place they 
may select with twigs, grass, feathers, plant 
down, etc., and lay from five to nine eggs in a 
set and frequently three sets a year. The eggs 
are pinkish white, very profusely and minutely 
dotted with pale reddish brown so as to make 
the egg appear to be a nearly uniform salmon 
color and with a wreath of darker spots about 
the large end. Size .65 x .52. Data. Gretna, 
N. Y., May 29? 1896. Nest three feet from the ground in cavity of an apple tree; 
made of twigs and grass, and lined with hair and feathers. 



Pinkish white 




House Wren 



72 la. WESTERN HOUSE WREN. Troglodytes aedon parkmani. 

Range. United States, from the Mississippi Valley to eastern California. 
This variety is grayer above and below than the eastern form, but its habits 
and eggs do not differ in any respect. 



722. WINTER WREN. Nannus hiemalis hiemalis. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States north- 
ward, and south in the Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters in the United 
States. 

These are the smallest of the Wrens, being but four inches in 

length; they have a very short tail which, like those of the 

others, is carried erect over the back during excitement or 

anger. They are very sly birds and creep about through stone 

walls and under brush like so many mice; they have a sweet 

song but not as loud as that of the House Wren. Their nests 

are placed in crevices of stumps, walls, old buildings or in brush 

heaps, oeing made of twigs and leaves, lined with feathers. Their eggs, which 

are laid during May or June, are pure white, finely and sparingly dotted with 

reddish brown; size .60 x .48. 





427 



THE BIRD BOOK 





722a. WESTERN WINTER WREN. 
hiemalis pacificus. 



Nannus 



the 



Range. Western North America from 
Rockies to the coast, north to Alaska. 

This species is much browner both above and 
below and is more heavily barred than the 
last; its habits and eggs are like those of 
hiemalis. 



722b. KADIAK WINTER WREN. 
hiemalis helleri. 



Nannus 



Range. Kadiak Island, Alaska. 
Said to be slightly larger and paler than 
pacificus. 



723. ALASKA WREN. Nannus alascensis. 

Range. Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, Al- 
Winter Wren aska. 

Larger and paler than the Western Winter 
Wren. The habits of this species are similar to those of 
the eastern Winter Wren; they nest be- 
tween boulders and in crevices of rocks or 
stumps, making their nesfs of moss and 
rootlets, lined with feathers. The eggs are 
like those of the Winter Wren but slightly 
larger; size .65 x .51. White 



723.1. ALEUTIAN WREN. Nannus meliger. 

Range. Western Aleutian Islands to Alaska. Very sim- 
ilar to the above, both in song and general habits. They 
nest in the crevices of rocks or between boulders, making 
their nests of rootlets and grass, lining it with hair and 
feathers. Usually six eggs are laid, white with a few specks 
of brown (.58x.46). 



724. SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN. Cistothorus stellaris 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf 
to Manitoba and Maine. 

This species does not appear to be as common anywhere 
as is the Long-billed variety, whose habits and nests are 
similar. They nest in or on the borders of 
marshes, and nests being globular struc- 
tures of grasses, lined with hair, and with 

j the entrance on the side; they are attached above the ground or 
water in marsh grass or reeds. Their eggs, which number from 
six to eight, are pure white; size .64 x .48. 

428 




623 723.1 725a 



PERCHING BIBDS 



725. LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN. Telma- 
todytes palustris palustris. 

Range. United States east of the Rockies, 
breeding from the Gulf north to Manitoba and 
New England; winters in southern United 
States. 

These birds are very abundant in suitable 
localities throughout their range, breeding in 
colonies in large marshes and in smaller num 
bers in small marshy places. 
Their nests are similar to those 
of the last, being globular and 
attached to cat-tails or reeds; 
the entrance is a small round 
hole in the side of the rush- 
woven structures and the inter- 
ior is neatly finished with fine grass and hair. 
They lay from five to eight eggs of a pale choc- 
olate color, dotted and spotted with darker 
shades of the same; size .64 x .45. Data. 
Delray, Mich., May 27, 1900. Six eggs. Nest 
a ball of woven flags and grasses, lined with 
cat-tail down, and attached to rushes in salt marsh over two feet of water. 
Collector, Geo. W. Morse. 




Pale brown 




Short-billed Marsh Wren 

Long-billed Marsh Wren 



TULE WREN. Telmatodytes palustris paludicola. 

Range. Western United States on the Pacific coast; north to British 
Columbia. 

The nesting habits and eggs of these birds are in all respects like those of 
the last. 



725b. WORTHINGTON'S MARSH WREN. Telmatodytes palustris griseus, 

Range. Coast of South Carolina and Georgia. 

The habits and eggs of this paler form are identical with those of palustri*. 



72oc. WESTERN MARSH WREN. Telmatodytes palustris plesius. 

Range. United States west of the Rockies, except the Pacific coast; north to 
British Columbia. This variety is like the Tule Wren but slightly paler; its 
nesting habits and eggs are the same. 



725.1. MARIAN'S MARSH WREN. Telmatodytes palustris mariance. 

Range. West coast of Florida. 

This species is similar to the Long-billed variety but is darker and more bar- 
red above and below. Its nests and eggs will not be found to differ materially 
from those of. the others of this genus. 

429 




THE BIRD BOOK 



CREEPERS. Family CERTHIID^E 




726. BROWN CREEPER. Certhia familiaris 
americana. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding 
firon^. the northern tier of states northward ; 
the United States. 



Brown Creeper 



Thiese peculiar, weak-voiced Creepers are 
common in northern United States during the 
winter, when they may be seen slowly toiling 
up the tree trunks, searching the 
crannies of the bark for larvae. 
They make their nests behind 
loose hanking bark on old tree 
stubs, usually at low elevations, 
building them of twigs, bark, 
moss, etc., held together with 
cobwebs. The eggs, which are laid in May 
or June, are pure white, specked and spotted 
with reddish brown; they average in size .58 
x .48. The nests are most often found under 
the loosened bark on coniferous trees. 




White 



726a. MEXICAN CREEPER. Certhia familiaris albescens. 

Range. Western Mexico north to southern Arizona. 

The nesting habits of this brighter colored form are the same as those of 
the others. 

726b. ROCKY MOUNTAIN CREEPER. Certhia familiaris montana. 

Range. Rocky Mountains, breeding from New Mexico to Alaska. 
The eggs of this grayer variety cannot be distinguished from those of the 
eastern birds and the nests are in similar situations. 

726c. CALIFORNIA CREEPER. Certhia familiaris occidentalis. 

Range. Pacific coast from southern California north to Alaska. 
An abundant species, especially on mountatin ranges, breeding behind the 
bark chiefly on pine trees. The eggs are not different from those of the others. 




726d. SIERRA CREEPER. Certhia familiaris zelotes. 

Range. Sierra Nevada Mountains in California and the Cascade Range in 
Oregon. 
Very similar to the last and with the same habits; eggs indistinguishable. 

430 



PERCHING BIRDS 



NUTHATCHES AND TITS. Family SITTID^E 



727- WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 
carolinensis carolinensis. 



Sitta 



Range. United States east of the Rockies, 
breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada; 
resident throughout its range. 

These birds are creepers, but unlike the last 
species, these run about on the trunks, either 
up or down; their tails are not pointed and 

stiffened like those of the Brown 

Creepers, and their plumage is 

gray and black above with a 

black crown, and white below. 

They nest in holes in trees, 

usually deep in the woods and 

at any elevation from the 
ground; they nearly always use deserted Wood- 
peckers' holes but are said at times to exca- 
vate their own, with great labor as their bills 
are little adapted for that work. They, line the 
cavities with bark strips and hair or feathers, 
and during April or May, lay from four to nine 
white eggs, profusely specked with reddish 
brown and lilac. Size .80 x .60. Data. Lancaster, Mass., May 16, 1902. Nest in 
hole in an oak tree, 45 feet above ground; made of fine strips of bark fibre and 
hair. 




White 




White-breasted Nuthatch 



SLENDER-BILLED NUTHATCH. Sitta carolinensis aculeata. 

Range. North America, west of the Rockies and from Mexico to British Co- 
lumbia. 

This species is as abundant in the west as the last is in the east, and nests in 
like situations. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the eastern 
birds. 

727b. FLORIDA WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. Sitta carolinensis atkinsi. 

Range. Florida and the South Atlantic coast to South Carolina- 

The habits and eggs of these birds are like those of the northern ones. 

727c. ROCKY MOUNTAIN NUTHATCH. Sitta carolinensis nelsoni. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from Mexico north to British Columbia. 
Their nesting habits or eggs are not distinctive in any respect. 



727d. SAN LUCAS NUTHATCH. Sitta carolinensis lagunce. 

Range. Mountain ranges of Lower California. 

Said to be like aculeata but with the wings and tail slightly shorter. 

431 




THE BIRD BOOK 




728. RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 
densis. 



Sitta cana- 




ited-breasted Nuthatch 



Range. North America, breeding from the 
northern tier of states northward, and farther 
south in mountain ranges; winters south to 
southern United States. 

This species is smaller than 
the last and has reddish brown 
underparts and a black stripe 
through the eye. The breed- 
ing habits are the same as those 
of the White-bellied variety, but 
these birds almost invariably 
coat the tree below the opening with pitch, 
for what purpose is unknown. They lay from 
four to six white eggs, numerously spotted 
with reddish brown; size, .60 x .50. Data. 
Upton, Maine, June 21, 1898. Nest in hole of 
dead birch stub, 20 feet from the ground; made 
of strips of bark and a few feathers. 5 eggs. 



White 



729. BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH. Sitta pusilla. 



Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States. 

This species has a yellowish brown crown and whitish underparts. Their 
habits are like those of the other Nuthatches, they nesting in 
cavities at varying heights, from two to fifty feet from the ground. 
That they sometimes depart from the usual custom is evidenced 
by the data accompanying this egg. They lay from four to 
seven eggs, white with profuse markings of reddish brown; size 
.60 x .48. Data. St. Mary's Ga. Nest situated under the bark 
of an old dead pine stump, 4 feet from the ground; made of fine 




White 



strips of bark. 



730. PYGMY NUTHATCH. Sitta pygmcea 
pygmaia. 

Range. North America west of the Rockies, 
breeding from Mexico north to British Colum- 
bia. Resident throughout its range. 

This species has an olive gray crown bor- 
dered by dusky, the back is ashy blue and the 
underparts soiled white or rusty. They are 
common in mountains of western United States, 
nesting in holes in trees the 
same as the other species of ^ : * ,, 
Nuthatches. They lay from five 
to nine eggs which are white, '. 
speckled thickly with reddish 
brown; size .60 x .50. Data. 
Huachucha Mts., Arizona, May White 
25, 1901. Nest in cavity (10 inches deep) in 
dead pine stump about 15 feet from the ground ; 
composed of a mass of vegetable down; alti- 
tude 9000 feet. 

432 




Brown-headed Nuthatch 



PERCHING BIRDS 



730a. WHITE-NAPED NUTHATCH. Sitta 
pygmcea leuconucha. 

Range. Lower California. 

Like the last but grayer above and white 
below. Its habits and eggs are the same as 
those of the Pyginy Nuthatch. 

731. TUFTED TITMOUSE. Bceolophus bicolor 

Range. Eastern United States, resident and 
breeding from the Gulf north to New York and 
Illinois. 

This species has a grayish 

crest and upper parts, and is 

white beneath with brownish 

sides and black forehead. 

These common and noisy 

birds nest in natural cavities 

in trees or in holes deserted 

by Woodpeckers; they may 
be found at any elevation, from two to thirty 
feet from the ground. They line the bottom 
of the cavity with leaves, bark, fibres and hair, and during April or 
five to eight white eggs, plentifully specked with reddish brown. Size 




White 




Tufted Titmouse 

Black-crested Titmouse 



May lay 
.74 x .54. 



BLACK-CRESTED TITMOUSE. Bceolophus atricristatus atricristatus. 

Range. Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward. 

This Titmouse has a black crest and the forehead is white; otherwise similar 
to the preceding. Like the last, these birds nest in deserted 
Woodpeckers' holes and natural cavities in trees, either in opeu 
woods or in the vicinity of habitations. Their eggs are sparsely 
spotted with reddish brown, and not usually distinguishable from 
those of the Tufted Titmouse. Size .70 x .54. Data. Browns- 
ville, Texas, May 11, 1892. Nest of moss, hair, down and wool in 
cavity in tree in open woods near town; 4 feet from the ground. 




White 




433 




28 



THE BIRD BOOK 





733. PLAIN TITMOUSE. Bceolophus inornatus inornatus 

Range. California and Oregon west of the Sierra Ne- 
vadas. 

This common, slightly crested Titmouse is grayish brown 
above and grayish white below. They nest anywhere in 
cavities that meet with their approval, about 
old buildings, in fence posts, etc., as well 
as holes in trees. Their eggs range from 
five to eight in number and are white, usual- 
ly spotted with pale brownish. Size .72 x 
.52. Data. Tulare Co., California, April 3, 
1895. Nest in an oak tree, 32 feet from the 
ground, in a natural cavity of a horizontal limb; composed 
of grasses, feathers and fur. 




White 



733a. GRAY TITMOUSE. Bceolophus inornatus griseus. 

Range. Southeastern United States, from Colorado and 
Nevada southward. 

The nesting habits of this gray Titmouse are just the 
733 734 same as those of the other. 

733b. ASHY TITMOUSE. Bceolophus inornatus cineraceus. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

The habits of this variety are the same as those of the Plain Titmouse and 
doubtless the eggs are also. 

734. BRIDLED TITMOUSE. Bceolophus wollweberi. 

Range. Mexico north to southern Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas. 
This handsome species is quite abundant in the mountains 
of southern Arizona, and nests in woods or about ranches, 
ft \ lining the cavities of trees with moss, down, leaves, etc. The 

three to seven eggs that they lay are pure white, unmarked. 
Size .65 x .52. Data. Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, April 
5, 1901. Nest in the natural cavity of a live oak, 12 feet 
from the ground; cavity lined 
with bark and feathers. 



White 



735. CHICKADEE. Penthestes atricapillus 
atricapillus. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding 
itom the Middle and Central States northward 
to Labrador; only migratory to a slight ex- 
tent. 

The Chickadee is too well known 
to need any description; suffice it 
to say that they are the favorites, 
with everybody, among all the 
North American birds. They breed 
in holes in trees in orchards or 
woods, and also in bird boxes. 1 
have found by far the greater number in de- 
cayed birch stubs. They line the cavities 
with fine grasses and feathers, and during 
May or June lay from five to eight white 
eggs, dotted with reddish brown; size .55 x .45. 



434 




White 




Chickadee 
Carolina Chickadee 



PERCHING BIRDS 



735a. LONG-TAILED CHICKADEE. Penthestes 
ataricapillus septentrionalis. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region, north to British Co 
lumbia. 

This variety is very similar to the last but has a slightly 
longer tail and the colors are purer. Its nesting habits 
are the same and the eggs are indistinguishable from those 
of the eastern Chickadee. 



735b. OREGON CHICKADEE. 
occidentals. 



Penthestes atricapillus 



Range. Pacific coast from California to Alaska. 

The habits and eggs of this slightly darker variety are 
just the same as those of the common Chickadee of 
the east. 



786. CAROLINA CHICKADEE. 
carolinensis. 



Penthestes carolinensis 





537538 



White 



Range. Southern United States from the 
Gulf to New Jersey and Illinois. 

The southern Chickadee is smaller than 
the northern and the wing coverts and feathers have little or 
no white edgings, Their nesting habits are in every particular 
the same as those of atricapillus and the eggs cannot be dis- 
tinguished with certainty, but average smaller; size .53 x .43. 



736a. PLUMBEOUS CHICKADEE. Penthestes carolinensis agilis. 

Range. Eastern and central Texas. 

This variety is said to be more plumbeous above and much whiter below 
than the preceding. No differences can be found in the eggs of the two varieties 
and the nesting habits are the same. 

737. MEXICAN CHICKADEE. Penthestes sclateri. 

Range. Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona. 

This species has the black more extended on the throat and the under parts 
are grayish of a lighter shade than the upper, the cheeks, however, remaining 
white. Their nests are in hollow stubs and the eggs are indistinguishable from 
those of the foregoing Chickadees. 



738. MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE. Penthestes gambeli gambeli. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region and west to the Pacific; north to British 
Columbia chiefly in higher ranges. 

This handsome little Titmouse has a white superciliary 
line, leaving a black stripe through the eye. Their habits 
are like those of the other Chickadees and they are equally 
confiding and inquisitive. Their eggs range from five to eight ^v: : , ; 
in number and are either pure white or faintly marked with 
reddish brown; size .60 x .45. Data. Estes Park, Colorado, 
June 8, 1803. Nest in an old Sapsucker's hole in a live as- \viiite 
pen tree, 28 feet from the ground; cavity lined with hair and fur. 

435 




THE BIRD BOOK 




739- ALASKA CHICKADEE. 
ctus alascensis. 



Penthestes cin- 



Range. Northern Alaska and eastern Si- 
beria. 

This bird, which is most like the Hudsonian 
Chickadee, nests in the usual manner and its 
eggs are like those of the common Chickadee 
of the east. 

74-0. HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE. Penthestes 
hudsonicus hudsonicus. 

Range. Western half of British America. 
These brown capped Chickadees 
m. are very abundant throughout the 

Jy \^V northwest and are even tamer than 

our United States varieties. They 
usually make their nests at low ele- 
vations in dead and decayed stumps 
and line the bottom of the cavity, 
which varies from three to eight inches in 
depth, with moss and fur. Their eggs, which 
they lay in May, June or July, are white, specked with reddish brown and 
cannot with any certainty be distinguished from those of the Black-capped 
Chickadees, the eggs of all the species showing considerable variations; size 
.60 x .45. 




White 



Hudsonian Chickadee 



740a. ACADIAN CHICKADEE. Penthestes hudsonicus littoralis. 

Range. Kowak River, northwest Alaska. 

A larger and grayer form of the last species; nesting habits and eggs not 
differing. 

740b. COLUMBIAN CHICKADEE. Penthestes hudsonicus columbianus. 

Range. Rocky Mountains from northern United States to Alaska. 
Like nudsonicus but with the crown slaty instead of brownish. No difference 
can be distinguished either in their habits or eggs. 

740c. CANADIAN CHICKADEE. Penthestes hudsonicus littoralis. 

Range. Eastern half of Canada and northern New England and New York. 

These birds were formerly hudsonicus in company with the western ones, but 
they are now supposed to be a trifle smaller and with the crown duller; this 
division does not affect the similarity of their habits and eggs. 






PERCHING BIRDS 

741. CHESTNUT-BACKED CHICKADEE. Penthestes rufescens rufescens. 

Range. Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. 

This species is similar to the Hudsonian in having a 
brown crown and black throat, but has in addition, a chest- 
nut colored back and sides. They breed locally in Oregon, 
more commonly in Washington and are abundant in British 
Columbia, making the nests of animal fur in holes in dead 
stubs. Their eggs vary in number from five to eight and are 
creamy white, dotted with reddish; size .60 x .45. Data. Dayton, Oregon, 
May 28, 1806. Nest of hair and fur in willow stub, 10 feet up. 

74 la. CALIFORNIA CHICKADEE. Penthestes rufescens neglectus. 

Range. Coast regions of California. 

This variety is not as rufous on the sides as the more northern one. Its habits 
and eggs are the same. 

741b. BARLOW'S CHICKADEE. Penthestes rufescens barlowi 

Range. About Monterey Bay, California. 

This variety is said to have no rusty on the flanks. Its habits and eggs are 
like those of the others. 

742a. PALLID WREN-TIT. Chamcea fasciata henshawi 

Range. Interior of California from Lower California to the Sacramento 
Valley. 

This duller colored variety has the same nesting habits and similar eggs to 
those of the Coast Wren-tit. 

742b. COAST WREN-TIT. Chamcea fasciata fasciata. 

Range. Pacific coast from southern California north to Oregon. 

These peculiar brownish gray colored birds frequent the tan- 
gled underbrush of ravines and mountain sides where they lead 
the life of a recluse. They nest at low elevations in the densest 
thickets, making them of twigs, strips of bark, grasses and 
feathers, compactly woven together and located in bushes from 
one to four feet from the ground. They lay from three to five 
plain, unmarked, pure white eggs; size .75 x .54. Data. 
Wrights, Cal. Nest in a tangle of vines in a deep ravine; com- 
posed of strips of bark, moss and grasses, lined with cattle hair; a bulky nest. 

743. BusH-TiT. Psaltriparus minimus minimus. 

Range. Pacific coast of northern California, Oregon and Washington. 

These diminutive little birds build nests that are marvels of 
architecture, making long purse-like structures, suspended from 
twigs usually at low elevations from the ground. The nests are 
made of moss, lichens, fibres, ferns and grasses and lined with 
feathers or wool; the opening is on one side near the top, and a 
typical nest averages 12 inches in length, by 4.5 inches in diameter 
at the bottom and 3 at the top. Their eggs number from four to 
nine and are pure white; size .54 x .40. The birds are very active and have the 
same habits as the Chickadees, being seen often suspended, head downward, 
from the ends of twigs, in their search for insects. 

437 





THE BIRD BOOK 

743a. CALIFORNIA BusH-TiT. Psaltriparus minimus calif ornicus. 

Range. California with the exception of the northern part. 

This sub-species, which is like the last but with a lighter brown head, has 
the same habits, nests in the same manner and its eggs are not distinguishable 
from those of the others. 

743b. GRINDA'S BusH-TiT. Psaltriparus minimus grindce. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

The nesting habits of this variety, 
which is very similar to the last, do 
not vary in any respect; eggs indis- 
tinguishable. 



744. LEAD-COLORED BUSH-TIT. 

Psaltriparus plumbeus. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region 
from Wyoming south to Arizona. 

This species suspends its semi-pen- 
sile nests in bushes or trees, and some 
times from the mistletoe, which grows 
on numerous trees in southern Ari- 
zona. The nests are composed like 
those of the Cal. Bush-Tit and range 
from 6 to 10 inches in length. The 
eggs are white, five or six in number 
and measure .55 x .42. 

745. LLOYD'S BUSH-TIT. Psaltri- 
parus melanotis lloydi. 

Range. Northern Mexico north into 
western Texas and New Mexico. 

This species is similar to the lead- 
colored Bush-Tit but has the ear cov- 
erts glossy black. Like the others, it 
builds a long pensile nest of similar 
material and suspended from .the 
extremities of limbs near the ground 
The five to seven eggs are pure white. 
Size .58 x .42. 




E. L. Bickford 
BUSH-TIT AND NEST 





438 



PERCHING BIRDS 



746. VERDIN. Auriparus ftaviceps ftaviceps 



Range. Mexican border of the United States, 
north to Colorado and Nevada. 

This Bush-Tit has a bright yellow head and 
throat, the upper parts being gray and the 
belly, white. They are abundant in chaparral 
brush, locally throughout their 
range. Their large globular 
nests are situated in bushes at 
low elevations from the ground, 
and are made of twigs and 
( , weeds, softly lined with fur and 

feathers. Their three to six eggs 
are pale greenish blue, specked and dotted 
with reddish brown. Size .58 x .44. Data. 
Brownsville, Texas, May 8, 1894. Large nest 
of sticks and thorns, lined with hair and 
feathers, and located in a bush in brush thicket, 
8 feet from the ground. 





Verdin 



746'a. CAPE VERDIN. Auriparus ftaviceps lamprocephalus. 

Range. Lower California. 

This new sub-species is said to have shorter wings and tail, and also to be 
brighter yellow on the head. Its habits and eggs will not differ from those of 
the common Verdin or Yellow-headed Bush-Tit. 



747. 



WARBLERS, KINGLETS and GNATCATCHERS. 
Family SYLVIID/C 

KENNICOTT'S WILLOW WARBLER. Acanthopneuste borealis. 




Range. Asia, casually found in Alaska. 

This species breeds in the extreme northern parts of Asia, and 
I believe its eggs have never been found on this continent. They 
build their nests of moss and grasses, on the ground in open 
woods, concealing them under tufts of grass or tussocks of earth. 
The three to five eggs are white, spotted with pale reddish brown. 
Size .70 x .50. 

748. GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. Regulus satrapa satrapa. 

Range. North America, breeding from northern United States northward, 

and south in the Rockies to Mexico, and in the Alleghanies to the Carolinas; 

winters throughout the United States. 

This rugged little fellow appears to be perfectly content in our 
northern states even during the most severe winters and leaves 
us early in the spring for his breeding grounds farther north. 
They are usually found in company with Chickadees and, like 
them, may be seen hanging to twigs in all sorts of positions as 
Grav thev search for their meagre fare. Their nests are large, round 

structures of green moss, bark strips and fine rootlets, very 

thickly lined with soft feathers; these are placed in forks or partially suspended 

among the branches of spruce trees, usually high above the ground. During 

June they lay from five to ten eggs of a dull whitish or grayish color, spotted 

heavily with pale brown and lilac. Size .55 x .42, 





THE BIRD BOOK 



748a. WESTERN GOLDEN-CROWNED KING- 
LET. Regulas satrapa olivaceus. 

Range. Pacific coast from southern Califor- 
nia to Alaska. 

This variety is said to be brighter colored 
than the last; its habits and eggs are the same 
in all particulars. 

749. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. Regulus 
calendula calendula. 

Range North America, breed- 
ing from the northern border of 
the United States northward, 
and farther south in mountain 
ranges; winters in southern 
United States. 

This little bird is of the size 
of the Golden-crowned Kinglet 
long) and has a partially concealed patch of 
red on the crown, not bordered by black and 
yellow as is the last species. Their nests are 
similar in construction to those of the last species and are situated in coniferous 
trees at any altitude from the ground. Their four to nine eggs are creamy 
white, finely specked with reddish brown. Size .56 x .44. 





White 
(4.25 inches 



Golden-crowned Kinglets 





C. A. Smith 

NEST AND EGGS OF BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER 
440 



PERCHING BIRDS 



74<9a. SITKA KINGLET. Regulas calendula 
grinnelli. 

Range. Pacific coast, breeding in Alaska. 
Said to be brighter than the preceding va 
riety. 

749b. DUSKY KINGLET. Regulus calendula 
obscurus. 

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

This species nests during March in the large 
cypress and pine groves at high elevations 
above the ground. The nests are similar in 
construction to those of the common Ruby- 
crown, and the eggs are scarcely different from 
some specimens of that species; white, dotted 
and wreathed with reddish brown. Size .56 
x .43. 

751. BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER. 
Polioptila ccerulea ccerulea. 




Ruby-crowned Kinglet 



Range. United States, east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to the 
Middle and Central States; casually north to Massachusetts and Minnesota. 

These graceful birds are bluish gray above with a black forehead and central 
tail feathers, and white underparts. They are common in wooded districts in 
the south, where they saddle their beautiful nests upon horizontal branches or 
in crotches usually at quite an elevation from the ground; they 
resemble large Ruby-throated Hummers' nests but the walls are jfr V-V-. 
much higher and thicker; they are made of plant fibres and ^f%T 
down, lined with cottony substances and hair, and covered on tt^'-v'-., ', 
the outside with lichens to match the limb upon which it is 



Bluish white 



placed. Their eggs are bluish white, specked with reddish chest- 
nut. Size .58 x .45. Data. Chattanooga, Tenn., April 30, 1900. 
Nest of moss, covered with lichens and lined with hair and feathers; 20 feet 
from the ground in a small tree. 



75 la. WESTERN GNATCATCHER. Polioptila ccerulea obscura. 

Range. Western United States and Lower California. 

The habits and eggs of this sub-species are the same as those of the eastern 
bird, and the nests do not differ except, perhaps, in less ornamentation of the 
exterior. 



752. PLUMBEOUS GNATCATCHER. Polioptila plumbea. 

Range. Mexican boundary from western Texas to southern California. 

This species has a bright shining black crown and more black 
on the tail than the eastern Gnatcatcher. They saddle their 
nests upon the branches of trees or in upright forks, usually at an 
elevation of ten feet or more from the ground; the nests are 
made of plant fibres and fine bark strips, compactly felted to- 
Greenish blue gether, and with little, if any, ornamental lichens on the exterior. 
Their eggs are pale greenish blue, spotted with reddish brown, and vary from 
three to five in number. Size .54 x .44. 




441 



THE BIRD BOOK 




753. BLACK-TAILED GNATCATCHER. 
optila calif ornica. 



Poli- 



Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 



Range. Pacific coast of southern California 
and northern Lower California. 

This bird is very similar to the last but has 
still less white on the outer tail feathers. Like 
the last, the nests of this spe- 
cies usually lack the exterior 
covering of lichens, being made 
of vegetable fibres and plant 
down, firmly quilted together and 
saddled on horizontal limbs or 
placed in forks of trees at any Grayish whlte 
height from the ground. Their eggs are grayish 
white, specked with bright reddish brown. 
Size .55 x .44. Data. Escondido, Cal., May 17, 
1903. 5 eggs. Nest on a large limb of a syca- 
more, 30 feet above ground; made of weed 
fibres, etc., lined with hair and fine fibres. 




THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. Family TURDIDAE 

754. TOWNSEND'S SOLITAIRE. Myadestes townsendi. 

Range. Western United States, breeding from Arizona, New Mexico and 

southern California north to British Columbia. 

This unique species is of a uniform brownish gray color, with a white eye 
ring, narrow bar on wing, and outer tail feathers, and 
with the bases of the primaries rusty colored. It is a 
ground inhabiting bird, feeding upon insects and berries 
in shrubbery and thickets. Their song is said to be liquid, 
melodious and often long continued, equalling that of any 
other bird. They nest on the ground in hollows under 
banks or crevices about roots of trees or fallen stumps, 
making a large, loosely constructed pile of weeds and 
trash, hollowed and lined with rootlets. The three or 
four eggs, which are laid in June, are grayish white, 

spotted with pale brown, chiefly or most abundantly about the large end. Size 

.96 x .70. 




Grayish white 



755. WOOD THRUSH. Hylocichla mustelina. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from North Carolina and Kansas 
north to northern United States; winters south of our borders. 

This Thrush with his brightly spotted breast is the most handsome of this 
group of musical birds. They are common in damp woods 
and thickets, in which places they breed, placing their 
nests of straw, leaves and grasses in low trees usually be- 
tween four and ten feet from the ground; their nests are 
often very rustic, being ornamented by pieces of paper 
and twigs with dead leaves attached handing from the 
sides of the quite bulky structures. During May or June 
they lay three or four greenish blue eggs of about the 
shade of a Robin's. Size 1.05 x .70. 




Greenish blue 



442 



PERCHING BIRDS 



756. VEERY. Hylocichla fuscescens 
fuscescens. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in 
the northern half of its United States range 
and in the southern British Provinces. 

The Veery is very abundantly distributed in 
woodland, either moist or dry, and nests on 
the ground or within a very few inches of it, 
usually placing its structures of woven bark 
strips and grasses, in the midst of a clump 01' 
sprouts or ferns. The three or four eggs which 
they lay in May or June are bluish green, much 
darker than those of the Wood Thrush, and 
nearly the color of those of the Catbird. Size 
.90 x .65. 

756a. WILLOW THRUSH. Hylocichla fus- 
cescens salicicola. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region, north tQ 
British Columbia. V * 

The nests and eggs of this similar bird dp 
not differ from those of the last. 




Wood Thrusl 



757. GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH. Hylocichla alicice alicice. ,, 

Range. Breeds from Labrador to Alaska; winters south to Central America. 
The nesting habits and eggs of this species are very similar to those of the 
following sub-species and the same description will answer for both. 




757. BICKNELL'S THRUSH. Hylocichla alicice bicknelli. 

Range.--Breeds in the Catskills, White Mountatins and Nova Scotia. 

These birds, which are practically identical 
with the preceding, build their nests at low 
elevations in trees, usually evergreens when 
present, making them of twigs, moss and root- 
lets, lined with fine grasses. 
The eggs, which are laid dur- 
ing May or June, are pale 
greenish blue, spotted and 
blotched with pale brown or 
russet. Size .88 x .64. Data. 
Seal Island, Nova Scotia, 
June 3, 1901. Nest of green Greenish blue 
moss and rootlets, in a spruce, 5 feet from the 
ground. 

758. RUSSET-BACKED THRUSH. Hylocichla 
ustulata ustulata. 

Range. Pacific coast, breeding in Oregon 
and Alaska; winters in Central America. 

This species is very abundant in moist 
thickets throughout its range, nesting in bushes 
Wilson's Thrush and low trees, and making them of weed 

443 






WOOD TH 



PERCHING BIRDS 




stalks, bark strips, grasses and moss, lined 
with fine black rootlets. They are found ar 
elevations of from two to ten feet above the 
ground. Like the Wood Thrush the birds are 
tame while sitting on the nest and will allow a 
very close approach, without taking alarm; 
nests are frequently found which are made al- 
most entirely out of green 
moss and are very handsome 
structures. Their three to 
five eggs are laid in May or 
June; they are greenish blue, 
spotted with brown of vary- 
ing shades. Size .92 x .65. 
Data. Eureka, California, Greenish blue 
July 6, 1899. Nest in a fir tree, 5 feet from the 
ground; made of moss and strips of redwood 
bark. 4 eggs. 



758a. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. Hylocichla 

srvainsoni. 

Gray -cheeked Thrush 

Range.-Eastern North America, breeding Olive-backed Thrush 

chiefly north of the United States, but. locally in the northern parts, and abund- 
antly in mountain ranges. 

The nesting habits and eggs of this eastern representative of the last species 
are like those of that bird in all respects and the eggs cannot be distinguished 
from those of ustulatus. 




758b. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. Hylocichla cedica 

Range. California and southern Oregon. 

Nesting habits and eggs identical with those of ustulatus. 



759. ALASKA HERMIT THRUSH. Hylocichla guttata guttata. 

Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska. Winters in Mexico. 
The Hermit Thrushes can readily be identified from any other by the reddish 
brown tail which is in marked contract to the color of the back. The nesting 
habits and eggs of this species are precisely like those of the eastern Hermit 
Thrush, which is a sub-species of this. 

75Qa. AUDUBON'S HERMIT THRUSH. Hylocichla guttata auduboni. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Winters in Central 
America. 

The nesting habits of this bird are like those of the next except that it more 
frequently nests in bushes above the ground. The eggs are not distinctive. 





THE BIRD BOOK 




75pb. HERMIT THRUSH. Hylocichla guttata 
pallasi. 

Range. Eastern North America, breeding in 
northern United States and north to Labrador; 
winters in southern United States. 

This species, which is noted for its weet and 
musical song, frequents damp swamps and 
thickets where it builds its nest either on the 
ground or near it, like that of the Wilson 
Thrush; it is made of shreds 
of bark, grasses, leaves and 
rootlets, lined with fine root- 
lets; the three or four eggs, 
which are deposited in May 
or June, are bluish green and 
cannot, with certainty, be 
distinguished from those of 
the Veery; size .85 x .65. 




Bluish green 



759c. DWARF HERMIT THRUSH. Hylocichla 
Hermit Thrush gut tat a nanus. 

Range. Pacific coast of United States, from Washington, southward. 
The nesting habits and eggs of this slightly smaller and duller colored variety 
are like those of the other Hermit Thrushes. 




[760.] RED-WINGED THRUSH. Turdus musicus. 

Range. An Old World species, accidentally straying to Greenland. 
This common European bird nests at low elevations in bushes or trees, laying 
four or five bluish green eggs, spotted with reddish brown; size 1.05 x .75. 

761. ROBIN. Planesticus migratorius 

migratorius. 

Range. North America east of the Rockies, 
breeding from the middle portions of the United 
States, north to the Arctic Ocean. 

These common birds nest in trees about 

houses, in orchards, open woods, in corners of 

fences, on blinds on houses, and in fact al- 

most every conceivable 

^^ ^\ position. Their nests 

jf ^k are made of grasses, 

m& 2 firmly cemented togeth- 

mj er with mud and lined 
f with finer grasses; 
N^H when placed in trees 

they are generally firm- 
Greenish blue ly saddled in crotches 
and may be found at any height, from on the 
ground to sixty feet above it. Their eggs are 
greenish blue; size 1.15 x .80. Eggs may be 
found at any time from May until July or 
August as they raise several broods a season. American Robin 




446 



PERCHING BIRDS 

76 Ib. SOUTHERN ROBIN. Planesticus migra- 
torius achrusterus. 

Range. The Carolinas and Georgia. 

The eggs of this bird, which is said to be smaller and duller colored than the 
northern variety, show no differences in any respect. 

76*2. SAN LUCAS ROBIN. Planesticus con- 
finis. 

Range. Southern Lower California. 

This is a very much paler form of the American Robin; its eggs probably 
will not differ from those of the others. 




J. B. Pardoe 
NEST AND EGGS OP ROBlN 



441 




THE BIRD BOOK 




Wheatear 



763. VARIED THRUSH. Ixoreus ncevius 
ncevius. 

Range. Pacific coast from northern Califor- 
nia to Alaska; south to Mexico in winter. 

These handsome birds breed abundantly in 
Alaska and locally in mountain ranges south 
to northern California. They nest at low ele- 
vations in trees, making 
them of moss, twigs, 
weeds and grasses, 
forming a flat shallow 
structure. Their eggs 
are greenish blue sharp- 
ly but sparingly spotted 
with dark brown; size 
1.12 x .80. Data. Delta Greenish blue 

of Kowak River, Alaska, June 11, 1899. Four 
eggs. Nest 12 feet from the ground, against 
the trunk of a slender spruce and supported 
by a clump of stiff twigs. 




763a. NORTHERN VARIED THRUSH. Ixoreus ncevius meruloides. 

Range. Interior of western North America, breeding from British Columbia 
to Alaska. Its habits and eggs do not differ from those of the last. 

[764]. SIBERIAN RED-SPOTTED BLUETHROAT. Cyanosy I via suecica 
robusta. 

Range. Northern Asia; casually to Alaska. 

This beautiful foreigner nests on the ground and lays four to six greenish blue 
eggs, spotted with reddish brown; size .75 x .50. 

765. WHEATEAR. Saxicola cenanthe cenanthe. 

Range. Asia; casual in Alaska in summer; nesting habits and eggs like the 
next. 




765a. GREENLAND WHEATEAR. Saxicola 
cenanthe leucorhoa. 

Range. Europe and Greenland ; casual on the Atlantic coast 
of North America. 

This very abundant Old World species is a common breed- 
ing bird in Greenland and probably also in Labrador. They j 
nest in crevices of quarries, holes in the ground, or stone 
walls, making a rude nest of weeds, moss or^ grasses, lined 
with hair or feathers, and during May lay from four to six . . 
pale greenish blue eggs; size .90 x .60. 

448 




BLUEBIRD 



THE BIRD BOOK 



766. BLUEBIRD. Sialia sialis sialis. 

Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada. 
Winters in the southern half of the United States. 

These familiar birds build in cavities in trees, 
usually below 20 feet from the ground, crev- 
ices among ledges, bird boxes and in any suit- 
able nook they may discover about buildings, 
providing that English Sparrows do not molest 
them. They raise several 
broods a year, commencing in 

W April when they lay from 
three to six pale bluish white 
eggs (rarely pure white) ; 
size .80 x .60. The cavities 
of their nesting sites are lined 
Bluish white with grasses and feathers 

usually, although I have found the eggs on 
the unlined bottom of cavities in trees. 



766a. AZURE BLUEBIRD. Sialia sialis 
fulva. 

Range. This pale variety is found in south- 
ern Arizona and southward. 

Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs 
are indistinguishable from the last. 




Bluebird 



767. WESTERN BLUEBIRD. Sialia mexicana occidentalis. 

Range. Pacific coast from Lower California to British Columbia. 

The Western Bluebird is as common and familiar in its range as the common 
Bluebird is in the east. It nests in similar locations and its eggs are scarcely 
distinguishable, although averaging a trifle darker in shade; size .80 x .60. 

767a. CHESTNUT-BACKED BLUEBIRD. Sialia mexicana bairdi. 

Range. Rocky Mountain region from Mexico to Wyoming. 
The nesting habits or eggs of this brighter colored bird do not differ from 
those of the last species. 




767b. SAN PEDRO BLUEBIRD. Sialia mexicana anabelce. 

Range. San Pedro Martir Mountains in Lower California. 
The eggs of this variety will not in all probability be any different from those 
of the preceding Bluebirds. 

768. MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD. Sialia currucoides. 

Range. Rocky Mountatin region, breeding from New Mexico north to Great 
Slave Lake; winters in southwestern United States and Mexico. 

This azure blue species is common in the greater part of its range and is found 
west to the Sierra Nevadas in California. Like the eastern Bluebird they nest 
in holes in trees or anywhere that they can find a suitable cavity or crevice. 
Their eggs are slightly larger than those of the other Bluebirds and have a 
slight_.greenish tint; size .85 x .64. 

450 



INDEX 



Acanthis hornemanni 328 

exilipes 328 

linaria 329 

" holboeli 329 

rostrata 329 

Acanthopneuste borealis 430 

Accipiter cooperi 205 

velox 204 

Actitis macularia 158 

^Echmophorus occidentalis 11 

^egialitis dubia 166 

hiaticula 166 

meloda 166 

mongola 167 

nivosa 167 

semipalmata 165 

Aeronautes melanoleucus 270 

^Estrelata fisheri 67 

hasitata 67 

scalaris 67 

Aethia cristatella 25 

pygmaea 25 

pusilla 26 

Agelaius gubernator californicus . . 317 

phoeniceus 316 

bryanti 316 

caurinus 316 

" floridanus 316 

fortis 316 

neutralis 316 

sonoriensis 316 

tricolor 317 

Aimophila carpalis 353 

ruficeps 353 

eremceca 353 

scotti 353 

sororia 353 

Aix sponsa 95 

Ajaja ajaja 115 

Alauda arvensis 297 

Alaudidae 297 

Albatross, Black-footed 59 

Laysan 60 

Short-tailed 59 

Sooty 60 

Yellow-nosed 60 

Alca torda 31 

Alcedinidae 247 

Alcidae 21 

Alle alle 34 

Aluconidae 227 

Alucopratincola 227 



Amzilis cerviniventris chalconota. 279 

tzacatl 278 

Ammodramus bairdi 338 

savannarum australis 338 

bimaculatus 338 

floridanus 340 

Amphispiza belli 351 

nevadensis cinerea 252 

nevadensis 352 

bilineata bilineata 351 

deserticola 351 

Anas platyrhynchos 88 

fulvigula fulvigula 90 

maculosa 91 

rubripes 90 

Anatidae 87 

Anhinga 77 

anhinga 77 

Anhingidae 77 

Ani 241 

Grove-billed 243 

Anous stolidus 57 

Anser albif rons albifrons 108 

gambeli 108 

fabalis 108 

Anseres 87 

Anthus cervinus 419 

pratensis 418 

rubescens 418 

spraguei 419 

Antrostomus carolinensis 263 

vociferus vocif erus 263 

" macromystax 264 

Aphelocoma californica californica 307 

Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca 307 

obscura . 307 

cyanea 306 

cyanotis 307 

insularis 307 

sieberi arizonae 307 

couchi 308 

texana 307 

woodhousei 306 

Aphriza virgata 169 

Aphrizidae 169 

Aquila chrysaetos 215 

Aramidae 129 

Aramus vociferus 129 

Archibuteo ferrugineus 215 

lagopus sancti-johannis 214 

Archilochus alexandri 273 

colubris 273 



451 



INDEX 



Arctonetta fischeri 102 

Ardea cinerea 122 

herodias 121 

fannini 121 

wardi 122 

occidentalis 121 

Ardeidse 119 

Arenaria interpres interpres 169 

melanocephala 170 

morinella 169 

Arquatella maritima couesi 146 

ptilocnemis 147 

maritima maritima 146 

Arremonops rufivirgatus 357 

Asio accipitrinus 229 

" flammeus 229 

" wilsonianus 227 

Astragalinus lawrencei 331 

psaltria psaltria 331 

tristis tristis 329 

pallidus 331 

" salicamans 331 

Astur atricapillus atricapillus 205 

striatulus 207 

Asturina plagiata 214 

Asyndesmus lewisi 257 

Atthis morcomi 278 

Auk, Great 33-32 

Razor-billed 31 

Auklet, Cassin's 24 

Crested 26 

Least 27 

Paroquet 26 

Rhinoceros 23 

Whiskered 26 

Auriparus flaviceps flaviceps 439 

" lamprocephalus 439 

Avocet 139 

Baeolophus atricristatus atricrista- 

tus 433 

bicolor 433 

inornatus inornatus 434 

" cineraceus 434 

" griseus 434 

wollweberi 434 

Baldpate 92 

Bartramia longicauda 156 

Basilinna leucotis 279 

xantusi 279 

Becard, Xantus's 280 

Bittern 119 

Cory's Least 120 

Least 120 

Blackbird, Bicolored 317 

Brewer's 322 

Red-winged 316 

Rusty 322 



Tricolored 317 

Yellow-headed 315 

Bluebird 448 

Azure 448 

Chestnut-backed 450 

Mountain 450 

San Pedro 450 

Western 450 

Bluethroat Siberian Red-spotted . . 448 

Bobolink 314 

Bob-white 175 

Florida 175 

Masked 175 

Texan 175 

Bombycilla cedrorum 375 

garrula 375 

Bombycillidse 375 

Bonasa umbellus umbellus 180 

sabini 182 

togata 182 

umbelloides ... 182 

Booby 75 

Blue-faced 74 

Blue-footed 74 

Brewster's 75 

Red-footed 75 

Botaurus lentiginosus t 119 

Brachyramphus brevirostris 27 

craveri's 28 

hypoleucus 27 

marmoratus 27 

Brant Ill 

Black Ill 

Branta bernicla glaucogastra Ill 

canadensis canadensis 109 

hutchinsi 109 

minima 109 

occidentalis 109 

leucopsis 112 

Branta nigricans Ill 

Bubo virginianus virginianus 235 

elachistus 237 

pacificus 235 

pallescens 235 

" saturatus 235 

subarticus 235 

Budytes flavus alascensis 418 

Buffle-head 100 

Bullfinch, Cassin's 325 

Bulweria bulweri 67 

Bunting, Beautiful 367 

Indigo 366 

Lark 369 

Lazuli 366 

McKay's Snow 333 

Painted 367 

Pribilof Snow 332 



452 



INDEX 



Snow 332 

Varied 367 

Bush-Tit 437 

California 438 

Grinda's 438 

Lead-colored 438 

Lloyd's 438 

Buteo abbreviatus 211 

albicaudatus sennetti 212 

borealis borealis 208 

calurus 20 

harlani 20? 

krideri 208 

brachyurus 213 

lineatus lineatus 209 

alleni 209 

elegans 211 

platypterus 213 

swainsoni 212 

Buteonidae 201 

Butorides virescens virescens. . . . 124 
" anthonyi .... 125 

frazari 125 

Buzzard, Turkey 199 

Calamospiza melanocorys 369 

Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus.. 333 
alascensis . . 333 

ornatus 334 

pictus 334 

Calidris leucophaea 151 

Callichelidon cyaneoviridis 374 

Callothrus robustus 

Callipepla squamata squamata. . . . 176 
" castanogastris 177 

Calothorax lucifer 278 

Calypte anna 275 

costae 275 

Campephilus principalis 249 

labradorius 101 

Camptostoma imberbe 296 

Canachites canadensis canadensis 179 
canace . . . 179 
osgoodi . . 179 

franklini 180 

Canvas-back 97 

Caprimulgidse 263 

Caracara, Audubon 224 

Guadalupe 224 

Cardellina rubrifrons 417 

Cardinal 363 

Arizona 363 

Florida 364 

Gray-tailed 364 

San Lucas 363 

Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis . . . 363 

canicaudus 364 

floridanus , . 364 



Cardinalis igneus 363 

" superbus 363 

Carpodacus amplus 326 

cassini 326 

mcgregori 326 

mexicanus dementis 326 

frontalis 326 

ruberrimus 326 

purpureus purpureus 325 

californicus 325 

Casarca ferruginea 93 

Catbird 420 

Catharista urubu 199 

Cathartes aura septentrionalis 199 

Cathartidae 198 

Catherpes mexicanus albif rons . . . 424 
conspersus. 425 
punctulatus 425 
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sem- 

ipalmatus 155 

semipalmatus inornatus ...... 156 

Centrocercus urophasianus 188 

Centurus aurifrons 258 

carolinus 257 

uropygialis 258 

Cepphus columba 29 

grylle 28 

mandti 29 

Cerorhinca monocerata 23 

Certhia familiaris albescens 430 

americana .... 430 

montana 430 

Certhia familiaris occidentalis . . . 430 

zelotes 430 

Certhiidse 430 

Ceryle alcyon 247 

americana septentrionalis.... 249 

torquata 247 

Chachalaca 191 

Chsemepelia passerina terrestris. 195 

pallescens. 195 

" bermudiana 195 

Chaetura pelagica 269 

vauxi 270 

Chamaea fasciata fasciata 437 

henshawi 437 

Chamaethlypis poliocephala 413 

Charadriidae 161 

Charadrius apricarius 163 

dominicus dominicus 163 

fulvus 163 

Charitonetta albeola 100 

Chat, Long-tailed 413 

Yellow-breasted 413 

Chaulelasmus streperus 91 

Chen caerulescens 107 

hyperboreus hyperboreus 107 



453 



2!) 



INDEX 



Chen hyperboreus Nivalis 107 

rossi 108 

Chewink 358 

Chickadee 434 

Acadian 436 

Alaska 436 

Barlow's 437 

California 437 

Carolina 435 

Chestnut-backed 437 

Hudsonian 436 

Long-tailed 435 

Mexican 435 

Mountain 435 

Oregon 435 

Plumbeous '. 435 

( hcndestes grammacus grammacus 342 

strigatus 342 

Chbrdeiles acutipennis texensis . . 268 

virginianus virginianus 266 

" chapmani 266 

henryi 266 

sennetti 268 

Chuck-will's widow 263 

Ciconiidae 118 

Cinclidae 419 

Cinclus mexicanus unicolor. . . . . . 419 

Circus hudsonius 204 

Cistothorus stellaris 428 

Clangula clangula americana 99 

islandica 99 

Coccyges 241 

Coccyzus americanus americanus 244 
occidentalis 246 

erythrophthalmus 246 

Ccereba bahamensis 385 

Ccerebidae 385 

minor minor 244 

" maynardi 244 

Colaptes auratus auratus 258 

luteus 259 

cafer collaris 259 

Colaptes cafer. saturatior 259 

chrysoides 262 

rufipileus 262 

Colinus ridgwayi 175 

virginianus 175 

floridanus 175 

texanus 175 

Columba fasciata fasciata 192 

vioscae 192 

flavirostris 192 

leucocephala 192 

squamosa 192 

Columba 192 

Columba- 192 

Columbidae 192 



Colymbidse 11 

Colymbus auritus 13 

dominicus brachypterus 15 

holbcelli 11 

nigricollis californicus 13 

Compsothlypis americana ameri- 
cana 390 

americana usnese 390 

nigrilora 391 

Conuropsis carolinensis 241 

Coot 136 

European 136 

Cormorant 79 

Baird's 82 

Brandt's 82 

Double-crested 79 

Farallon 81 

Florida 81 

Mexican 81 

Pelagic 82 

Red-faced 82 

Violet-green 82 

White-crested 81 

Corvidse 300 

Corvus brachyrhynchos brachy- 

rhynchos 312 

brachyrhynchos pascuus 312 

corax principalis 311 

" sinuatus 311 

cryptoleucus 311 

ossifragus 312 

Cotingidae 280 

Cowbird 314 

Dwarf 315 

Red-eyed 315 

Cracidse 191 

Crake, Corn 135 

Spotted 133 

Crane, Little Brown 127 

Sandhill 129 

Whooping 127 

Creciscus jamaicensis 134 

coturniculus 134 

Creeper, Brown 430 

California 430 

Mexican 430 

Rocky Mountain 430 

Sierra 430 

Crex Crex 135 

Crossbill 327 

Mexican 327 

White-winged 327 

Crotophaga ani 241 

sulcirostris 243 

Crow 312 

Carrion 199 

Fish 312 



454 



INDEX 



Florida 312 

Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni . . 232 

acadica acadica 232 

scotaea , 232 

Cuckoo, Black-billed 246 

California 246 

Kamchatka 246 

Mangrove 244 

Maynard's 244 

Yellow-billed 244 

Cuculidae 241 

Cuculus canorus telephonus 246 

Curlew, Bristle-thighed 160 

Eskimo 160 

Hudsonian 159 

Long-billed 159 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus . . . . 313 

Cyanolsemus clemencise 271 

Cyanocitta cristata cristata 303 

florincola 303 

stelleri stelleri 303 

" annectens 306 

carlottae 306 

diademata 303 

frontalis 303 

Cyanosylvia suecica robusta 448 

Cyanthus latirostris 279 

Cypseloides niger borealis 268 

Cyrtonyx montezumse mearnsi... 178 

Daflla acuta 94 

Daption capense 67 

Darters 77 

Dendragapus obscurus obscurus.. 178 

fuliginosus 178 

richardsoni 179 

Dendrocygna autumnalis 113 

bicolor 113 

Dendroica aestiva aestiva 392 

rubiginosa 392 

sonorana 292 

auduboni auduboni 395 

nigrifrons 395 

bryanti castaneiceps 394 

castanea 398 

caerulea 396 

caerulescens caerulescens 394 

cairnsi 394 

chrysoparia 402 

coronata 395 

discolor 407 

dominica albilora 401 

dominica dominica 401 

fusca 399 

gracise 401 

kirtlandi 404 

magnolia 396 

nigrescens 402 



occidentalis 404 

palmarum palmarum 405 

hypochrysea 405 

pensylvanica 398 

striata 399 

tigrina 391 

townsendi 403 

vigorsi 405 

virens 403 

Dichromanassa rufescens 123 

Dickcissel 368 

DIomedea albatrus 59 

immutabilis 60 

nigripes 59 

Diomedeidae 59 

Dipper 419 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 314 

Dotterel 161 

Dove, Bermuda Ground 195 

Blue-headed Quail 196 

Ground 195 

Inca 196 

Key West Quail 196 

Mexican Ground 195 

Mourning 193 

Ruddy Quail 196 

White-fronted 195 

White-winged 195 

Zenaida 194 

Dovekie 34 

Dowitcher 144 

Long-billed 145 

Dryobates arizonse 252 

borealis 252 

nuttalli 252 

pubescens pubescens 251 

gairdneri 251 

homorus 251 

medianus 251 

" nelsoni 251 

turati 251 

scalaris bairdi 252 

lucasanus 252 

villosus villosus 250 

auduboni 250 

harrisi 250 

hyloscopus 250 

leucomelas 250 

monticola 250 

picoideus 250 

Duck, Black 90 

Florida 90 

Harlequin 101 

Labrador 101 

Lesser Scaup 98 

Masked 106 

Mottled 91 



455 



INDEX 



Ring-necked , 98 

Ruddy 166 

Rufous-crested 95 

Scaup 97 

Wood 95 

Dumetella carolinensis 420 

Dunlin 149 

Eagle, Bald 217 

Golden 215 

Gray Sea 217 

Northern .Bald 217 

Ectopistes migratorius 193 

Egret 122 

Reddish 123 

Snowy 122 

Egretta candidissima candidissima 122 

Eider 103 

King 104 

Northern 102 

Pacific 103 

Spectacled 102 

Steller's 102 

Elanoides forficatus 201 

Elanus leucurus 201 

Empidonax difficilis cineritius 294 

difficilis difficilis 293 

flaviventris 293 

fulvifrons pygmaeus 296 

griseus 296 

hammondi 295 

minimus 295 

trailli trailli 294 

alnorum 295 

virescens 294 

wrighti 295 

Ereunetes mauri 151 

pusillus 150 

Erismatura jamaicensis 10G 

Erolia ferruginea 149 

Eudromias morinellus 161 

Eugenes fulgens 271 

Euphagus carolinus 322 

cyanocephalus 322 

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus . . 150 

Palco aesalon 221 

columbarius columbarius .... 220 

suckleyi 220 

fusco-cserulescens 221 

islandus 218 

mexicanus 219 

peregrinus anatum 220 

pealei 220 

" peregrinus 219 

richardsoni 220 

rusticolus rusticolus 218 

gyrfalco 218 

" obsoletus . . 219 



sparverius sparverius 222 

peninsularis 222 

phalcena 221 

sparveroides 222 

tinnunculus 221 

Falcon Aplomado 221 

Peale's 220 

Peregrine 219 

Prairie 219 

Finch, Aleutian Rosy 327 

Black Rosy 328 

Brown-capped Rosy 328 

California Purple 325 

Cassin's Purple 326 

Gray-crowned Rosy 328 

Guadalupe House 326 

Hepburn's Rosy 328 

House 32o 

McGregor's House 326 

Purple 325 

San Clemente House 326 

San Lucas House 326 

Flamingo 115 

Flicker 258 

Gilded 262 

Guadalupe 262 

Northern 259 

Northwestern 259 

Red-shafted 259 

Florida Ccerulea 124 

Flycatcher, Acadian 294 

Alder 295 

Arizona Crested 286 

Ash-throated 286 

Beardless 296 

Buff -breasted 296 

Coues's 291 

Crested 285 

Derby 284 

Fork-tailed 280 

Gray 296 

Hammond's 295 

Least 295 

Lower California 287 

Flycatcher, Mexican Crested. 286 

Olivaceous 287 

Olive-sided 290 

San Lucas 294 

Scissor-tailed 281 

Sulphur-bellied 285 

Traill's 294 

Vermilion 296 

Western 293 

Wright's 295 

Yellow-bellied 293 

Fratercula arctica arctica 22 

" naumanni 23 



456 



INDEX 



corniculata 23 

Fregata aquila 86 

Fregatidae 86 

Fregetta grallaria 71 

Frigate Bird 86 

Fringillidae 324 

Fulica americana 136 

atra 136 

Fulmar 62 

Giant 62 

Pacific 63 

Rodgers's 63 

Slender-billed 63 

Fulmarus glacialis glacialis 62 

" glupischa 63 

rodgersi 63 

Gadwall 91 

Gallinae 175 

Gallinago delicata 143 

gallinago 140 

meda 143 

Gallinula galeata 136 

Gallinule, Florida 136 

Purple 135 

Gannet 76 

Gavia adamsi 18 

arctica 18 

immer 18 

stellata 19 

pacifica 19 

Gaviidae 17 

Gelochelidon nilotica 50 

Geococcyx californianus 243 

beldingi 413 

trichas arizela 412 

" trichas 412 

" arizela 412 

" ignota 412 

occidentalis 412 

" sinousa 412 

Geotrygon chrysia 196 

montana 196 

Glaucidium gnoma calif ornicum .. 239 

" gnoma 239 

hoskinsi 239 

phalaenoides 240 

Glottis nebularia 152 

Gnatcatcher, Black-tailed 442 

Blue-gray 441 

Plumbeous 441 

Western 441 

Godwit, Black-tailed 152 

Hudsonian 152 

Marbled 151 

Pacific 152 

Golden-eye 99 

Barrow's 99 



Goldfinch 329 

Arkansas 331 

Black-headed 331 

Lawrence's 331 

Pale 331 

Willow 331 

Goose, American White-fronted. . . 108 

Barnacle 112 

Bean 108 

Blue 107 

Canada 109 

Cackling 109 

Emperor 112 

Greater Snow 107 

Hutchins's 109 

Ross's 108 

Snow 107 

White-cheeked 109 

White-fronted 108 

Goshawk 205 

Mexican 214 

Western 207 

Grackle, Boat-tailed 323 

Bronzed 323 

Florida 323 

Great-tailed 324 

Purple 323 

Grassquit 368 

Melodious : . 368 

Grebe, Eared 13 

Holbcell's 14-11 

Horned 12-13 

Least 15 

Pied-billed 16-15 

Mexican 15 

Western 11 

Greenshank 152 

Grosbeak, Alaska Pine 325 

Black-headed 365 

Blue 366 

California Pine 325 

Evening 324 

Kadiak Pine 325 

Pine 324 

Rocky Mountain Pine 325 

Rose-breasted 365 

Western Blue 366 

Western Evening 324 

Grouse 

Canada Ruffed 182 

Columbian Sharp-tailed 187 

Dusky 178 

Franklin's 180 

Gray Ruffed 182 

Oregon Ruffed 182 

Prairie Sharp-tailed 187 

Richardson's 179 



457 



INDEX 



Ruffed 180 

Sharp-tailed 187 

Sooty 178 

Gruidae 127 

Grus americana 127 

canadensis 127 

mexicana 129 

Guara alba 117 

rubra 117 

Guillemot, Black 28 

Mandt 29 

Pigeon 29 

Guiraca caerulea 366 

lazula 366 

Gull, Bonaparte's 48 

California 45 

Franklin's 48 

Glaucous 40 

Glaucous-winged 42 

Great Black-backed 43 

Heerman's 46 

Herring 44 

Iceland 41 

Ivory 39 

Kittiwake 39 

Kumlien 42 

Laughing *t 

Little 49 

Mew 46 

Nelson 42 

Pacific Kittiwake 40 

Point Barrow 41 

Red-legged Kittiwake 40 

Ring-billed 45 

Ross's 49 

Sabine's 49 

Short-billed 46 

Siberian 44 

Slaty-backed 43 

Vega 45 

Western 44 

Gymnogyps californianus 198 

Gyrfalcon 218 

Black 219 

Gray 218 

White 218 

Haematopodidae 170 

Haematopus bachmani 171 

frazari 171 

ostralegus 170 

palliatus 170 

Haliseetus albicilla 217 

leucocephalus leucocephalus . 217 

" alascanus . . . 217 

Halocyptena, microsoma 68 

Harelda hyemalis 100 



Hawk, Black Pigeon 220 

Broad-winged 213 

Cooper's 205 

Cuban Sparrow 222 

Desert Sparrow 221 

Duck 220 

Florida Red-shouldered 209 

Harlan's 209 

Harris's 207 

Krider's 208 

Marsh 204 

Mexican Black 213 

Pigeon 220 

Red-bellied 211 

Red-shouldered 209 

Red-tailed 208 

Richardson's Pigeon 220 

Rough-legged 214 

Sennett's White-tailed 212 

Sharp-shinned 204 

Short-tailed 213 

Sparrow 222 

San Lucas Sparrow 222 

Swainson's 212 

Western Red-tail 208 

Zone-tailed 211 

Heath Hen 186 

Heleodytes brunneicapillus affinis 424 

couesi. 423 
bryanti 424 

Helinaia swainsoni 386 

Helmitheros vermivorus 386 

Helodromas ochropus 155 

solitarius solitarius 154 

" cinnamomeus 155 

Herodias egretta 122 

Herodiones 115 

Heron, Anthony's Green 125 

Black-crowned Night 126 

European 122 

Frazar's Green 125 

Great Blue 121 

Great White 121 

Green 124 

Little Blue 124 

Louisiana 123 

Northwestern Coast 121 

Snowy 122 

Ward's 122 

Yellow-crowned Night 126 

Heteractitis incanus 156 

Hesperiphona vespertina vesper- 

tina 324 

vespertina montana 324 

Himantopus mexicanus 139 

Hirundinidae 372 

Hirundo erythrogastra 373 



458 



INDEX 



Histrionicus histrionicus 

Honey Creeper, Bahama 

Hummingbird, Allen's 

Anna's 

Black-chinned 

Blue-throated 

Broad-billed 

Broad-tailed 

Buff-bellied 

Calliope 

Costa's 

Lucifer 

Morcom's 

Reiffer's 

Rivoli's 

Ruby-throated 

Rufous 

White-eared 

Xantus's 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis. . . 
Hydrochelidon leucoptera 

nigra surinamensis 

Hylocichla alicise aliciae 

" bicknelli 

fuscescens fuscescens 

salicicola 

guttata auduboni 

" guttata 

mustelina 



nanus 

" pallasi 

ustulata swainsoni 

ustulata 

Ibididae 

Ibis, Glossy 

Scarlet 

White 

White-faced Glossy 

Wood 

Icteria virens virens 

longicauda 

Icteridse 

Icterus melanocephalus auduboni, 

bullocki 

cucullatus nelsoni 

sennetti 

galbula 

parisorum , 

spurius , 

Ictinia mississippiensis 

lonornis martinicus 

Iridoprocne bicolor 

Ixobrychus exilis 

neoxenus 

Ixoreus naevius meruloides 

" nsevius 

Jabiru . 



101 Jabiru mycteria 119 

385 Jacana, Mexican 172 

277 spinosa 172 

275 Jacanidae 172 

273 Jaeger, Long-tailed 37 

271 Parastic 37 

279 Pomarine 36 

276 Jay, Alaska 309 

279 Arizona 307 

278 Belding's 307 

275 Black-headed 306 

278 Blue 303 

2*<8 Blue-eared 307 

278 Blue-fronted 303 

271 California 307 

273 Canada 308 

276 Couch's 308 

279 Florida 306 

279 Florida Blue 303 

123 Gray 311 

57 Green 308 

56 Labrador 309 

443 Long-crested 30^ 

443 Oregon 309 

443 Pinon 313 

443 Queen Charlotte . , 306 

445 Rocky Mountain 309 

445 Santa Cruz 307 

442 Steller's 303 

446 Texas 307 

446 Woodhouse's 306 

445 Xantus's 307 

443 Junco aikeni 348 

117 Arizona 350 

118 Baird's 351 

117 bairdi 351 

117 Carolina 350 

118 Guadalupe 351 

118 hyemalis hyemalis 349 

413 hyemalis carolinensis 350 

413 mearnsi 350 

314 ' connectens 349 

319 montanus 350 

322 ' oreganus 349 

320 ' pinosus 349 

320 ' thurberi 349 

321 insularis 351 

320 mearnsi 

321 Montana 350 

202 Oregon 349 

135 phaeonotus dorsalis 350 

373 " palliatus 350 

120 Pink-sided 350 

120 Point Pinos 349 

448 Red-backed 350 

448 Shufeldt's 349 

119 Slate-colored 349 



459 



INDEX 



Thurber's 349 

Townsend's 350 

townsendi's 350 

White-winged 348 

Kestrel 221 

Killdeer 165 

Kingbird 281 

Arkansas 283 

Cassin's 284 

Couch's 283 

Gray 283 

Kingfisher, Belted 247 

Ringed 247 

Texas 249 

Kinglet, Dusky 441 

Golden-crowned 439 

Ruby-crowned 440 

Sitka 441 

Western Golden crowned .... 440 

Kite, Everglade 202 

Mississippi 202 

'Swallow-tailed 201 

White-tailed 201 

Kittiwake 39 

Kittiwake, Pacific 40 

Red-legged 40 

Knot 146 

Lagopus evermanni 184 

lagopus lagopus 183 

alleni 183 

leucurus leucurus 185 

" peninsularis 185 

rupestris 183 

atkhensis 184 

nelsoni 184 

" reinhardi 184 

" townsendi 184 

welchi 184 

Laniidae 376 

Lanius borealis 376 

ludovicianus ludovicianus 376 

anthonyi 376 

excubitorides 378 

" gambeli 378 

Lanivireo flavifrons 382 

solitarius alticola 383 

cassini 382 

lucasanus 383 

plumbeus 382 

solitarius 382 

Lapwing 161 

Laridse 38 

Lark, California Horned 298 

Desert Horned 298 

Dusky Horned 299 

Horned 297 

Hoyt's Horned 299 



Island Horned 299 

Montezuma Horned 299 

Pallid Horned 297 

Prairie Horned 298 

Ruddy Horned 298 

Scorched Horned 298 

Sonora Horned 299 

Streaked Horned 299 

Texan Horned 29* 

Larus affinis 44 

argentatus 44 

atricilla 47 

brachyrhynchus 46 

californicus 45 

canus 46 

delawarensis 45 

franklini 48 

glaucescens 42 

hyporboreus 40 

heermanni 46 

kumlieni 42 

leucopterus 41 

marinus 43 

minutus 49 

nelsoni 42 

occidentals 44 

Philadelphia 48 

schistisagus 43 

vegse 45 

Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera 195 

Leucosticte, atrata 328 

australis 328 

griseonucha 327 

tephrocotis tephrocotis 328 

littoralis 328 

Limicolae 137 

Limosa fedoa 151^ 

hsemastica 152 

lapponica baueri 152 

limosa 152 

Limpkin 129 

Lobipes Lobatus 137 

Longipennes 35 

Longspur, Alaska 333 

Chestnut-collared 334 

Lapland 333 

McCown's 334 

Smith's 334 

Loon 38-17-20-18 

Black-throated 18 

Pacific 19 

Red-throated 19 

Yellow-billed 18 

Lophodytes cucullatus 88 

Lophortyx californica 177 

vallicola... 177 
gambeli 177 



460 



INDEX 



Loxia curvirostra minor 327 

Strickland! 327 

leucoptera 327 

Lunda cirrhata 22 

Machetes Pugnax 156 

Macrochires 262 

Macronectes giganteus 62 

Macrorhamphus griseus griseus.. 144 
" scolopaceus 145 

Magpie, Yellow-billed 300 

Mallard 88 

Man-o'-War Bird 86 

Mareca americana 92 

penelope 91 

Marila affinis 98 

americana 95 

collaris 98 

marila 97 

valisineria 97 

Martin, Cuban 372 

Purple 372 

Western 372 

Meadowlark 317 

Rio Grande 317 

southern 319 

Western 319 

Megalestris skua 36 

Megaquiscalus major major 323 

" macrourus.. 324 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus 256 

formicivorus f ormicivorus .... 256 

" angustifrons . . . 257 

bairdi 257 

Meleagridse ' 178 

Meleagris gallopavo intermedia.. 191 

merriami ... 190 

" osceola 191 

" silvestris . . . 190 

Melopelia asiatica 195 

Melospiza melodia caurina 355 

" cooperi 355 

" clementse .... 355 

" fallax 354 

" graminea 355 

heermanni . . . 354 

" insignis 355 

juddi 355 

" kenaiensis .... 355 

" melodia 354 

merrilli 355 

montana 354 

" morphna 354 

" pusillula 355 

rivularis 355 

" rufina 355 

" samuelis 354 

georgiana 356 



lincolni lineolni 356 

" striata 356 

Merganser 87 

Hooded 88 

Red-breasted 88 

Mergus americanus 87 

serrator 88 

Merlin 221 

Micropalama himantopus 145 

Micropallas whitneyi 240 

Micropodidae 268 

Mimus polyglottos 420 

polyglottos 420 

leucopterus . . . 420 

Mniotilta varia 385 

Mniotiltidse 385 

Mockingbird 420 

Western 420 

Molothrus ater ater 314 

" obscurus 315 

Motacilla alba 418 

ocularis 418 

Motacillidse 418 

Murre 29 

Brunnich's 31 

California 30 

Pallas's 31 

Murrelet, Ancient 26 

Craveri's 28 

Kittlitz 27 

Marbled 27 

Xantus 27 

Muscivora forficata 281 

tyrannus 280 

Myadestes townsendi 442 

Mycteria americana 118 

Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens 286 
Myiarchus cinerascens pertinax. . 287 

crinitus 285 

olivascens 287 

magister magister 286 

nelsoni 286 

Myiochanes pertinax pallidiven- 

tris 291 

richardsoni richardsoni 293 

peninsulas 293 

virens 291 

Myiodynastes luteiventris 285 

Nannus alascensis 428 

meliger 428 

niemalis helleri 428 

niemalis 427 

pacificus 428 

Netta rufina 95 

Nettion carolinense 92 

crecca 92 

Nighthawk 266 



46X 



INDEX 



Florida 266 

Sennett's 268 

Texas 268 

Western 266 

Noddy 57 

Nomonyx dominicus 106 

Nucifraga columbiana 313 

Numenius americanus 159 

borealis 160 

hudsonicus 159 

phseopus 160 

tahitiensis 160 

Nutcracker, Clark's 313 

Nuthatch, Brown-headed 432 

Florida White-breasted 431 

Pygmy 432 

Red-breasted 432 

Rocky Mountain 431 

Slender-billed 431 

San Lucas 431 

White-breasted 431 

White-naped 433 

Nuttallornis borealis 290 

Nyctanassa violacea 126 

Nyctea nyctea 237 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius .... 126 

Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli... 265 

Oceanites oceanicus 71 

Oceanodroma furcata 68 

homochroa 70 

ksedingi 69 

leucorhoa 69 

macrodactyla 69 

melania 70 

socorrcensis 70 

Ochthodromus wilsonius 168 

Odontoglossse 115 

Odontophoridse 175 

Oidemia americana 104 

deglandi 105 

fusca 105 

perspicillata 105 

Old-cquaw 100 

Olor buccinator 114 

columbianus 114 

cygnus 114 

Oporornis agilis 410 

formosus 410 

Philadelphia 411 

tolmei 411 

Oreortyx picta picta 176 

" confinis 176 

" plumifera 176 

Oreospiza chlorura 361 

Oriole, Arizona Hooded 320 

Audubon's 319 

Baltimore . . 321 



Bullock's 322 

Scott's 320 

Sennett's 320 

Orchard 321 

Oreoscoptes montanus 419 

Ortalis vetula mccalli 191 

Osprey 225 

Octocoris alpestris alpestris 297 

actia 298 

adusta 299 

articola 297 

giraudi 298 

hoyti 299 

insularis .... 299 
" leucolaema . . . 298 

merrilli 299 

occidentalis. . . 299 

pallida 299 

praticola 298 

rubea 298 

strigata 299 

Otus asio aikeni 234 

" asio 233 

" bendirei 233 

" cineraceus 234 

" floridanus 233 

" kennicotti 233 

" macfarlanei 

1 " maxwellise 233 

" mccalli 233 

flammeolus flammeolus 234 

idahoensis 234 

Trichopsis 234 

Xantusi 234 

Ouzel, Water 419 

Oven-bird 407 

Owl, Aiken's Screech 234 

Arctic Horned 235 

Barn 227 

Barred 229 

Burrowing 238 

California Pygmy 239 

California Screech 233 

Dusky Horned 235 

Dwarf Horned 237 

Dwarf Screech 234 

Elf 240 

European Hawk 237 

Ferruginous Pygmy 240 

Flammulated Screech 234 

Florida Barred 229 

Florida Burrowing 239 

" Screech 233 

Great Gray 231 

Great Horned 235 

Hawk 238 

Hoskin's Pygmy 239 



462 



INDEX 



Kennicott's Screech 233 

Lapp 232 

Long-eared 227 

MacParlane's Screech 234 

Mexican Screech 234 

Northern Spotted 231 

Northwestern Saw- whet 232 

Pacific Horned 235 

Pygmy 239 

Richardson's 232 

Rocky Mountain Screech .... 233 

Saw-whet 232 

Screech 233 

Short-eared 229 

Snowy 237 

Spotted 237 

Screech 234 

Texas Barred 231 

Texas Screech 233 

Western Horned 235 

Xantus's Screech 234 

Oxyechus vociferus 165 

Oyster-catcher 170 

European 170 

Black 171 

Prazar's 171 

Pagophila alba 39 

Paludicolae 127 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis . . . 225 

Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi 207 

Parauque, Merrill's 265 

Paroquet, Carolina 241 

Parrot, Thick-billed 141 

Partridge, Alaska Spruce 179 

Canada Spruce 179 

Hudsonian Spruce 179 

Passer domesticus 335 

Passerculus beldingi 337 

princeps 337 

rostratus rostratus 338 

guttatus 337 

santorum 338 

sandwichensis sandwichensis 337 

alaudinus 337 

bryanti 337 

savanna 337 

Passerella iliaca fuliginosa 357 

" iliaca 357 

" insularis 357 

megarhyncha . . 357 

" schistacea 357 

" stephensi 357 

" townsendi 357 

" unalaschensis. . . 357 

Passeres 280 

Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi 340 
" occidentalis 340 



caudacutus 340 

lecontei 340 

maritimus fisheri 341 

" macgillivrai 342 
" maritimus.. 341 
" peninsulse . . 341 
" sennetti ... 341 

nelsoni nelsoni 341 

subvirgatus 341 

nigrescens 342 

Passerina amoena 366 

ciris 367 

cyanea 366 

versicolor versicolor 367 

pulchra 367 

Pedicecetes phasianellus phasianel- 

lus 187 

phasianellus campestris 187 

columbianus 187 

Pelagodroma marina 71 

Pelecanidse 83 

Pelecanus californicus 85 

erythrorhynchos 83 

occidentalis 85 

Pelican, White 83 

Brown 85 

California Brown 85 

Pelidna alpina alpina 149 

sakhalina 149 

Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus 434 

occidentalis.. 435 

" septentrionalis 435 

carolinensis agilis 435 

carolinensis .... 435 

cinctus alascensis 436 

" gambeli 435 

hudsonicus hudsonicus 436 

littoralis 436 

rufescens barlowi 437 

neglectus 437 

" rufescens 437 

sclateri 435 

Perisoreus canadensis canadensis 308 
capitalis ... 309 
fumifrons. . . 309 
nigricapillus 309 

obscurus obscurus 309 

" griseus 311 

Petrel, Ashy 70 

Black 70 

Black-capped 67 

Bulwer's 67 

Fisher's 67 

Fork-tailed 68 

Guadalupe 69 

Kaeding's 69 

Leach's 68 



463 



INDEX 



Least 68 

Pintado 67 

Scaled 67 

Socorro 70 

Storm 68 

White-bellied 71 

White-faced 71 

Wilson's 71 

Petrochelidon fulva 372 

lunifrons lunifrons 372 

melanogastra 373 

Peucaea aestivalis sestivalis 352 

" bachmani 352 

botterii 352 

cassini 253 

Peucedramus olivaceus 391 

Pewee, Western Wood 293 

Large-billed Wood 293 

Wood 291 

Phaethon americanus 72 

sethereus 73 

rubricaudus 73 

Phaethontidse 72 

Phainopepla 376 

nitens 376 

Phalacrocoracidae 78 

Phalacrocorax carbo 79 

auritus auritus 79 

" albociliatus 81 

" cincinatus 81 

" floridanus 81 

vigua mexicanus 81 

pelagicus pelagicus 82 

resplendens 82 

robustus 82 

penicillatus 82 

urile 82 

Phalaenoptilus nuttalli nuttalli 264 

" californicus . . 264 

" nitidus 264 

Phalarope, Northern 137 

Red 137 

Wilson's 138 

Phalaropodidae 137 

Phalaropus fulicarius 137 

Phaleris psittacula 25 

Phasianidae 188 

Phasianus torquatus 188 

Pheasant, Ring-necked 188 

Philacte canagica 112 

Philohela minor 140 

Phloeotomus pileatus pileatus 255 

Phoebe 287 

Black 289 

Say 289 

Phcebetria palpebrata 60 

Phcenicopteridse 115 



Phcenicopterus ruber 115 

Pica pica hudsonia 300 

nuttalli 300 

Pici 249 

Picidae 249 

Picoides americanus americanus.. 253 

dorsalis . . . 254 

fasciatus . . 254 

arcticus 253 

Pigeon- Band-tailed 192 

Passenger 193 

Red-billed 192 

Scaled 192 

Viosca's 192 

White-crowned 192 

Pinicola enucleator alascensis . . . 325 

californica . . . 325 

flammula 325 

leucura 324 

" montana 325 

Pintail 94 

Pipilo aberti 361 

consobrinus 360 

erythrophthalmus erythroph- 

thalmus 358 

erythrophthalmus alleni 358 

fuscus albigula 360 

crissalis crissalis 360 

fuscus mesoleucus 360 

crissalis senicula 361 

maculatus arcticus 358 

" clementae 360 

" magnirostris 360 

" megalonyx 360 

" montanus 35S 

" oregonus 360 

Pipit 418 

Meadow 418 

Red-throated 419 

Sprague's 419 

Piranga erythromelas 369 

heuatica 370 

ludoviciana 369 

rubra rubra 370 

" cooperi 370 

Pisobia aurita 147 

bairdi 148 

daniacensis 149 

fuscicollis 148 

maculata 147 

minutella 148 

Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus . . 284 

Planesticus confinis 447 

migratorius achrusterus 447 

" migratorius 446 

" propinquus . . 446 



464 



INDEX 



Plataleidae 115 

Platypsaris aglaise albiventris 280 

Plautus impennis 32-33 

Plectrophenax hyperboreus 333 

nivalis nivalis 332 

" townsendi .... 332 

Plegadis autumnalis 118 

guarauna 118 

Plover, Black-bellied 161 

European Golden 163 

Golden , 163 

Little Ringed 166 

Mongolian 167 

Mountain 168 

Pacific Golden 163 

Piping 166 

Ringed 166 

Semipalmated 165 

Snowy 167 

Upland 156 

Wilson's 168 

Podasocys montanus 168 

Podilymbus podiceps 15 

Polioptila caerulea caerulea 441 

obscura 441 . 

californica 442 

plumbea 441 

Polyborus cheriway 224 

lutosus 224 

Polysticta stelleri 102 

Pocecetes gramineus gramineus.. 335 

affinis 335 

confinis .... 335 

Poor-will 264 

Dusky 264 

Frosted 264 

Porzana Carolina 133 

porzana 133 

Prairie Chicken 185 

Attwater's , 186 

Lesser 187 

Priocella glacialoides 63 

Priofinus cinereus 66 

Procellariidse 61 

Progne cryptoleuca 372 

subis subis 372 

" hesperia 372 

Protonotaria citrea 386 

Psaltriparus melanotis lloydi 438 

minimus minimus 437 

" californicus 438 

" grindae 438 

plumbeus 438 

Psittaci 241 

Psittacida? 241 

Ptarmigan, Allen's 183 

Evermann's . . 184 



Kenai White-tailed 185 

Nelson's 134 

Reinhardt's 184 

Rock 183 

Townsend's 184 

Turner's 184 

Welch's 184 

White-tailed 185 

Willow 183 

Ptychoramphus aleuticus 24 

Puffin 22 

Horned 23 

Large-billed 23 

Tufted 22 

Puffinus assimilis 65 

auricularis 65 

borealis 64 

creatopus 65 

cuneatus 66 

gravis 64 

griseus 66 

Iherminieri 65 

opisthomelas 65 

puffinus 64 

tenuirostris 66 

Pygopodes 10 

Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus. 296 

Pyrrhula cassini 325 

Pyrrhuloxia, Arizona 364 

sinuata sinuata 364 

peninsulas 364 

" texana 364 

San Lucas 364 

Texas 364 

California 177 

Chestnut Bellied Scaled 177 

Gambel's 177 

Mearn's 178 

Quail, Mountain 176 

Plumed 176 

San Pedro 176 

Scaled 176 

Valley 177 

Querquedula cyanoptera 93 

discors 93 

Quiscalus quiscula quiscula 323 

" aglaeus 323 

asneus 323 

Rail, Belding's 131 

Black 134 

California Clapper 131 

Carribean Clapper 132 

Clapper 132 

Farallon 134 

Florida Clapper 132 

King 131 

Louisiana Clapper 132 



465 



INDEX 



Virginia 133 

Wayne's Clapper 132 

Yellow 131 

Rallidae 131 

Rallus beldingi . . 131 

crepitans crepitans 132 

saturatus 132 

scotti 132 

waynei 132 

elegans 131 

longirostris caribaeus 132 

obsoletus 131 

virginianus 132 

Raptores 198 

Raven 311 

Northern 311 

White-necked 311 

Recurvirostra americana 139 

Recurvirostridae 139 

Redhead 95 

Redpoll 329 

Greater 329 

Greenland 328 

Hoary 328 

Holbcell's 329 

Redstart 415 

Painted 417 

Red-wing, Bahama 316 

Bicolored 317 

Florida 316 

Northwestern 316 

San Diego 316 

Sonora 316 

Thick-billed 316 

Tricolored 317 

Regulus calendula calendula 440 

grinnelli 441 

" obscurus . 441 

satrapa olivaceus 440 

" satrapa 439 

Rhodostethia rosea 49 

Rhynchophanes mccowni 334 

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha .... 241 

Riparia riparia 374 

Rissa brevirostris 40 

tridactyla tridactyla 39 

" pollicaris 40 

Road-runner 243 

Robin 446 

Southern 447 

San Lucas 447 

Western 446 

Rostrhamus sociabilis 202 

Rough-leg, Ferruginous 215 

Ruff 156 

Rynchopidae 58 

Rynchops nigra 58 



Sage Hen 188 

Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus 424 

guadeloupensis 424 

Sanderling 151 

Sandpiper, Aleutian 146 

Baird 148 

Buff-breasted 158 

Curlew 149 

Green 155 

Least 148 

Pectoral 147 

Pribilof 147 

Purple 146 

Red-backed 149 

Semipalmated 150 

Sharp-tailed 147 

Solitary 154 

Spoonbill 150 

Spotted 158 

Stilt 145 

Western 151 

Western Solitary 155 

White-rumped 148 

Sapsucker, Northern Red-breasted 255 

Red-breasted 255 

Red-naped 254 

Williamson's 255 

Yellow-bellied 254 

Saxicola cenanthe cenanthe 448 

" leucorhoa 448 

Sayornis nigricans 289 

phoebe 287 

sayus 289 

Scardafella inca 196 

Scolopacidse 140 

Scolopax rusticola 140 

Scoter 104 

Surf |.. 105 

Velvet 105 

White-winged 105 

Scotiaptex nebulosa lapponica. . . . 232 

" nebulosa .... 231 

Seed-eater, Sharpe's 368 

Seiurus aurocapillus 407 

motacilla 409 

noveboracensis noveboracensis 409 

notabilis 409 

Selasphorus alleni 276 

platycercus 276 

rufus 277 

Steophaga picta 417 

ruticilla 415 

Shearwater, Allied 65 

Audubon's 65 

Black-tailed 66 

Black-vented 65 

Cory's 64 



466 



INDEX 



Greater 64 

Manx 64 

Pink-footed 65 

Slender-billed 66 

Sooty 66 

Townsend's 65 

Wedge-tailed 66 

Sheldrake, Ruddy 93 

Shoveller 94 

Shrike, California 378 

Island 378 

Loggerhead 376 

Northern 376 

White-rumped 378 

Sialia currucoides 450 

mexicana anabelae 450 

bairdi 450 

occidentalis 450 

sialis sialis 448 

" fulva 448 

Siskin, Pine 332 

Sitta canadensis 432 

carolinensis carolinensis .... 431 

" aculeata 431 

atkinsi 431 

lagunae 431 

nelsoni 431 

pusilla 432 

pygmaea pygmaea 432 

leuconucha 433 

S'ttidae 431 

Skimmer, Black 58 

Skua 36 

Skylark 297 

Snakebird 77 

Snipe, European 140 

Great 143 

Wilson's 143 

Solitaire, Townsend's 442 

Somateria dresseri 103 

mollissima borealis 102 

spectabilis 104 

v-nigra 103 

Sora 133 

Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed... 341 

Alameda Song 355 

Aleutian Song 337 

Bachman's 352 

Baird's 338 

Belding's 337 

Bell's 351 

Black-chinned 348 

Black-throated 351 

Botteri's 352 

Brewer's 346 

Brown's Song 355 

Bryant's 337 



Cassin's 353 

Chipping 345 

Clay-colored 355 

Dakota Song 355 

Desert 351 

Desert Song 354 

Dusky Seaside 342 

English 

Field 348 

Florida Grasshopper 340 

Forbush's 356 

Fox 356 

Gambel's 343 

Golden-crowned 343 

Grasshopper 338 

Gray Sage 352 

Harris's 342 

Heermann's Song 354 

Henslow's 340 

Ipswich 337 

Kadiak Fox 357 

Kenai Song 355 

Laguna 353 

Large-billed 338 

Lark 342 

Leconte's 340 

Lincoln's 356 

Louisiana Seaside 341 

Macgillivray's Seaside 342 

Merrill's Song 355 

Mountain Song 354 

Nelson's 341 

Nuttall's 343 

Oregon Vesper 335 

Pine Woods 352 

Rock 353 

Rufous-crowned 353 

Fufous-winged 353 

Rusty Song 354 

Sage 352 

Samuel's Song 354 

San Benito 338 

San Clemente Song 355 

San Diego Song 355 

San Lucas 338 

Santa Barbara Song 355 

Savannah 337 

Scott's 353 

Scott's Seaside 341 

Seaside 341 

Sharp-tailed 340 

Shumagin Fox 357 

Slate-colored Fox 357 

Song 354 

Sooty Fox 357 

Sooty Song 355 

Stephen's Fox 357 



467 



INDEX 



Swamp 356 

Texas 357 

Texas Seaside 341 

Thick-billed Fox 357 

Townsend's Fox 357 

Tree 345 

Vesper 335 

Western Chipping 346 

Western Field 348 

Western Grasshopper 338 

Western Henslow's 340 

Western Lark 342 

Western Savannah 337 

Western Tree 345 

Western Vesper 335 

White-crowned 343 

White-throated 345 

Worth'en's 348 

Yakutat Song 355 

Spatula clypeata 94 

Speotyto cunicularia floridana 239 

hypogaea 238 

Sphyrapicus ruber ruber 255 

" notkensis 255 

thyroideus 255 

varius varius 254 

nuchalis 254 

Spinus notatus 331 

pinus 332 

Spiza americana 368 

Spi/ella atrogularis 348 

breweri 346 

monticola monticola 345 

ochracea 345 

passerina arizonae 346 

" passerina 345 

pallida 346 

pusilla pusilla 348 

" arenacea 348 

" arizonae 346 

wortheni 348 

Spoonbill, Roseate 115 

tsporophila morelleti sharpei 368 

Squatarola squatarola 161 

Starling 314 

Starncenas cyanocephala 196 

Steganopodes 72 

Stegonopus tricolor 138 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis 374 

nt.ellula calliope 278 

Stercorariidae 35 

Stercorarius longicaudus 37 

parasiticus 37 

pomarinus 36 

Sterna aleutica 54 

anaetheta 56 

antillarum 55 



caspia 50 

dougalli 54 

elegans 51 

forsteri 53 

fuscata 55 

hirundo 53 

maxima 51 

paradissea 54 

sandvicensis acuflavida 52 

trudeaui 52 

Stilt, Black-necked 139 

Stint, Long-toed 149 

Strigidae 227 

Strix occidentalis caurina 231 

occidentalis ... 231 

varia allogilva 231 

" alleni 229 

" varia 229 

Sturnella magna magna 317 

" argutula 319 

hoopesi 317 

" neglecta 319 

Sturnidae 314 

Sturnus vulgaris 314 

Sula bassana 76 

brewsteri 75 

cyanops 74 

leucogactra 75 

nebouxi 74 

piscator 75 

Sulidae 74 

Surf Bird 169 

Surnia ulula ulula 237 

" caparoch 238 

Swallow, Bahama 374 

Bank 374 

Barn 373 

Cliff 372 

Cuban Cliff 373 

Mexican Cliff 373 

Northern Violet-green 374 

Rough-winged 374 

San Lucas 374 

Tree 373 

Swallow-tailed Kite 201 

Swan, Trumpeter 114 

Whistling 114 

Whooping H4 

Swift, Black 268 

Chimney 269 

Vaux's 270 

White-throated 270 

Slyviidae 433 

Sylthliboramphus antiquus 26 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida 374 

" brachyptera 374 



468 






Tanager, Cooper's 

Hepatic 

Western 

Scarlet 

Summer 

Tangaridae 

Tangavius aeneus involucratus 

Tattler, Wandering 

Teal, Blue-winged 

Cinnamon 

European 

Green-winged 

Telmatodytes palustris 

griseus . . . 

" marianse . . 

" paludicola . 

plesius . . . 

palustris... 

Tern, Aleutian 

Arctic 

Black 

Bridled 

Cabot's 

Caspian 

Common 

Elegant 

Forster's 

Gull-billed 

Least 

Roseate 

Royal 

Sooty 

Trudeau's 

White-winged Black 

Thalassidroma pelagica 

Thalassogeron culminatus 

Thrasher, Bendire's 

Brown 

California 

Crissal 

Curve-billed 

Desert 

Leconte's 

Mearns's 

Palmer's 

Sage 

San Lucas 

Sennett's 

Thrush, Alaska Hermit 

Audubon's Hermit 

Bicknell's 

Dwarf Hermit 

Gray-cheeked 

Hermit 

Olive-backed 

Northern Varied 

Red-winged 



INDEX 

370 Russet-backed 443 

370 Varied 443 

369 Willow 443 

369 Wood 442 

370 Thryomanes bewicki bairdi 426 

369 bewicki bewicki 426 

315 calophonus 426 

156 " charienturus 426 

93 cryptus 426 

93 " spilurus 426 

82 brevicauda 426 

92 leucophrys 426 

429 Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovi- 

429 cianus , 425 

429 ludovicianus lomitensis 425 

429 miamensis 425 

429 Tiaris bicolor 368 

429 canora 368 

54 Titlark 418 

54 Titmouse, Ashy 434 

56 Black-crested 433 

56 Bridled 434 

52 Gray 434 

50 Plain 434 

53 Tufted 433 

51 Totanus flavipes 153 

53 melanoleucus 153 

50 Towhee 358 

55 Abert's 361 

54 Anthony's 361 

51 Arctic 358 

55 California 360 

52 Canon 360 

57 Green-tailed 361 

68 Guadalupe 360 

60 Large-billed 360 

422 Mountain 360 

421 Oregon 360 

422 San Clemente 360 

423 San Diego 360 

421 San Lucas 360 

423 Spurred 358 

423 White-eyed 358 

422 Toxostima bendirei 422 

422 cinereum cinereum 422 

419 " mearnsi 422 

422 crissale 423 

421 curvirostre curvirostre 421 

445 palmeri 422 

445 lecontei lecontei 423 

443 lecontei arenicola 423 

446 longirostre sennetti 421 

443 redivivum 422 

446 rufum 421 

445 Tree Duck, Black-bellied 113 

448 Fulvous 113 

446 Tringa canutus . 146 



469 



- 30 



INDEX 



Trochilidae 271 

Troglodytes aedon aedon 427 

" parkmani 427 

Troglodytidse 423 

Trogon ambiguus 246 

Coppery-tailed 246 

Trogonidae 246 

Tropic Bird, Red-billed 73 

Red-tailed 73 

Yellow-billed 72 

Troupial 

Tryngites subruficollis 158 

Tubinares 59 

Turdidse 442 

Turdus musicus 446 

Turkey, Florida . . 191 

Merriam's 190 

Rio Grande 191 

Wild 190 

Turnstone 169 

Black 170 

Ruddy 169 

Tympanuchus americanus ameri- 

canus 185 

americanus attwateri 186 

cupido 186 

pallidicinctus 187 

Tyrannidae 280 

Tyrannus dominicensis 283 

melancholicus couchi 283 

tyrannus 281 

verticalis 283 

vociferans 284 

Uria lomvia lomvia 30 

" arra 31 

troille troille 29 

" californica 30 

Urubitinga anthracina 213 

Vanellus vanellus 161 

Veery 443 

Verdin 439 

Cape 439 

Vermivora bachmani 387 

pinus 387 

celata celata 389 

" lucescens 389 

" sordida 390 

chrysoptera 388 

luciae 388 

peregrina 390 

Vermivora rubricapella gutturalis . 389 
rubricapella 389 

virginiae 388 

Vireo, Anthony's 384 

atricapillus 383 

Bell's 384 

belli belli 384 



belli pusillus 385 

Bermuda 384 

Black-capped 383 

Black-whiskered 378 

Blue-headed 382 

Cassin's . . 382- 

griseus bermudianus 384 

" maynardi 383 

" micrus 384 

Gray 385 

Button's 384 

huttoni huttoni 384 

" obscunis 384 

Stephens! 384 

Key West 383 

Least 385 

Mountain 383 

Philadelphia 380 

Plumbeous ...382 

Red-eyed 380 

San Lucas 383 

Small White-eyed 384 

Stephens's 383 

vicinior 385 

Warbling 380 

Western Warbling 382 

White-eyed 383 

Yellow-green 380 

Yellow-throated 382 

Vireonidaa 378 

Vireosylva calidris barbatula 378 

flavoviridis 380 

gilva gilva 380 

" swainsoni 382 

olivacea 380 

Philadelphia 380 

Vulture, Black 199 

California 198 

Turkey 199 

Wagtail Alaska Yellow 418 

Swinhoe's 418 

White 418 

Warbler, Alaska Yellow 392 

Audubon's 395 

Bachman's 387 

Bay-breasted 398 

Black and White 385 

Blackburnian 399 

Black-fronted 395 

Black-poll 399 

Black-throated Blue 394 

Black-throated Gray 402 

Black-throated Green 403 

Blue-winged 387 

Cairns's 394 

Calaveras 389 

Canada 415 



470 



INDEX 



Cape May 391 

Cerulean 396 

Chestnut-sided 398 

Connecticut 410 

Dusky 390 

Golden-cheeked 402 

Golden Pileolated 415 

Golden-winged 388 

Grace's 401 

Hermit 405 

Hooded 414 

Kennicott's Willow 439 

Kentucky 410 

Kirtland's 404 

Lucy's 388 

Lutescent 389 

Macgillivray's 411 

Magnolia 396 

Mangrove 394 

Mourning 411 

Myrtle 395 

Nashville 389 

Northern Parula 390 

Olive 391 

Orange-crowned 389 

Palm 405 

Parula 390 

Pileolated 414 

Pine 405 

Prairie 407 

Prothonotary 386 

Red-faced 417 

Sennett's 391 

Sonora Yellow 392 

Swainson's 386 

Sycamore 401 

Tennessee 390 

Townsend's 403 

Virginia's 388 

Wilson's 414 

Worm-eating 386 

Yellow 392 

Yellow Palm 405 

Yellow-throated 401 

Water Thrush 409 

Grinnell's 409 

Louisiana . . . e 409 

Water Turkey 77 

Waxwing, Bohemian 375 

Cedar 375 

Wheatear 448 

Greenland 448 

Whimbrel 160 

Whip-poor-will 263 

Stephens's 264 

Widgeon, European 91 



Willet 155 

Western 156 

Wilsonia canadensis 415 

citrina 414 

pusilla pusilla 414 

" chryseola 415 

" pileolata 414 

Woodcock 140 

European 140 

Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed.. 254 

Alpine Three-toed 254 

Ant-eating 256 

Arctic Three-toed 253 

Arizona 252 

Batchelder's 251 

Cabanis's 250 

California 257 

Downy 251 

Gairdner's 251 

Gila 258 

Golden-fronted 258 

Hairy 250 

Harris's 250 

Ivory-billed 249 

Lewis's 257 

Narrow-fronted 257 

, Nelson's Downy 251 

Northern Hairy 250 

Northern Pileated 256 

Nuttall's 252 

Pileated 255 

Queen Charlotte 250 

Red-bellied 257 

Red-cockaded 251 

Red-headed 256 

Rocky Mountain Hairy 250 

San Lucas 252 

Southern Downy 251 

Southern Hairy 250 

Texas 252 

Three-toed 253 

White-headed 253 

Willow 251 

Wren, Alaska 428 

Aleutian 428 

Baird's 426 

Bewick's 426 

Bryant's Cactus 424 

Cactus 423 

Canon 425 

Carolina 425 

Dotted Canon 425 

Florida 425 

Guadalupe 426 

Guadalupe Rock 424 

House 427 

Kadiak Winter 428 



471 



INDEX 



r Lomita 425 

Long-billed Marsh .......... 429 

Marian's Marsh 429 

Seattle 426 

Rock ......... . ^| f . 424 

San Clemente . 00 426 

I Short-billed Mar ; sh 428 

, j San Diego ".*' 426 

San Lucas Cactus 424 

Texas ...... 426 

Tule ,.. 429 

Vigors's 426 

Western House 427 

Western Marsh 429 

Western ' Winter ........ 428 

White-throated .... . . ....... 424 

Winter ............. 427 

Worthington's Marsh ....... 429 

wren-tit I;..::.;......;........ 437 

Pallid ..::;. 437 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus . . 315 

Xanthpura luxuosa glaucescens . . 30^ 



Xema sabini 49 

Xenopicus albolarvatus 253 

Yellowlegs 153 

Greater 153 

Yellow-throat, Belding's 413 

Florida 412 

Maryland 412 

Pacific 412 

Rio Grande 413 

Salt Marsh 412 

Western 412 

Zamelodia ludoviciana 365 

melanocephala 365 

Zenaida zenaida 194 

Zenaidura macroura carolinensis . 193 

Zonotrichia albicollis 345 

coronata 343 

leucophrys leucophrys 343 

" gambeli 343 

nuttalli 343 

querula ....,..,.,, , , . , 342 




472 





Birds of Eastern North America 

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

THE BIRD BOOK of the year. It is authentic. The author KNOWS birds. 
He has studied them for thirty years in the hand, for plumage, and in their 
haunts, for habits. He has studied them in their homes and has photographed 
hundreds as they were actually feeding their young. Besides being able to 
write about these things in an interesting and instructive manner, he is classed 
as one of the foremost bird artists in America. This rare combination of Artist- 
Author-Naturalist has produced, in "Birds of Eastern North America," the 
ultimate bird book. 

The technical descriptions aided by the pictures give perfect ideas of the 
plumage of adults and young. 

The descriptive text gives the important and characteristic features in the 
lives of the various species. 

The illustrations well, there are 408 PICTURES IN NATURAL COLORS; 
they show practically every species, including male, female, and young when 
the plumages differ, and they are perfectly made by the best process. 

Bound in cloth, handsomely illuminated in gold; 464 pages (4 1 /^x6 1 /^); 408 
colored illustrations; every bird described and pictured. 

$3.00 postpaid 



Color Key To N. A. Birds 

By F. M. CHAPMAN and C. A. REED 

This might well be called an illustrated dictionary of North American birds, 
the male of each species being shown in COLOR from pen and ink drawings, 
Uniform with Egg Book. 350 pages. 

$2.50 net 




From "Water Birds' 




From "Land Birds 



LAND BIRDS 

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

An illustrated, pocket text book that enables anyone to quickly identify any 
song or insectivorous bird found east of the Rocky Mountains. It describes 
their habits and peculiarities; tells you where to look for them and describes 
their nests, eggs and songs. 

EVERY BIRD IS SHOWN IN COLOR, including the females and young 
where the plumage differs, from watercolor drawings by the four-color process. 
The illustrations are the BEST, the MOST ACCURATE, and the MOST VALU- 
ABLE ever printed in a bird book. 

"LAND BIRDS" is the most popular and has the LARGEST SALE (over 
300,000 copies) of any bird book published in this country. It is used and recom- 
mended by our leading ornithologists and teachers. 230 pages. 

Bound in Cloth, 75c. net; in Leather, $1.00 net; postage 5c. 



WATER BIRDS 

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

This book is uniform in size and scope with LAND BIRDS. It includes all 
of the Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey, east of the Rockies. Each 
species is ILLUSTRATED IN COLOR from oil paintings; the bird, its habits 
and nesting habits are described. 

The pictures show more than 230 birds in color, every species found in our 
range. They exceed in number those in any other bird book. In quality they 
cannot be surpassed exquisite gems, each with an attractive background, typi- 
cal of the habits of the species. 

"LAND BIRDS" and "WATER BIRDS" are the only books, regardless of 
price, that describe and show in color every bird. 250 pages, neatly boxed. 
Bound in Cloth, $1.00 net; in Leather, $1.25 net; postage 5c. 





THE TREE GUIDE 

By JULIA ELLEN ROGERS 

Author of "The Tree Book" 

THE TREE GUIDE is uniform in style and size with the well known pocket 
Bird Guides which have become so universally popular. It contains illustra- 
tions (32 of them colored and many in black and white) and descriptions of 
every tree east of the Rocky Mountains. The descriptions include the range, 
the classification, the distinctive features such as flowers, leaves, fruit, etc., 
and all other marks that lead to an easy identification of the tree. No detail 
that will help the student has been omitted and the small size of the volume, 
about the length and width of the hand, makes it convenient to carry. An 
ideal volume for expert naturalist or amateur for field work or even more 
exhaustive study. 

32 illustrations in color; many in black and white. 
Cloth, net, $1.00. Leather, net, $1.25 



AnimaJ Post Cards 

We have been fortunate in securing from the well known artist, Harry F. 
Harvey, a number of his best paintings of our North American Wild Animals. 
These have been Faithfully reproduced in NATURAL COLORS, postcard size, 
and are by far, twenty-five of the best animal cards ever published. 
Ask your dealer for the "REED NATURE CARDS." 

25 Animals, 25 Birds, 50 Wild Flowers. 

ALL IN NATURAL COLORS 
If your dealer is out of them we will fill your order (postpaid) 

25 Animals for 50c; 25 Birds for 25c; 50 Flowers for 50c. 
Special The complete set of 100 accurately colored cards postpaid, $1.00. 
Send for list of Nature Books in Colors, 

CHAS/ : K.|REED WORCESTER, MASS. 




Wild Flowers 

East of the Rockies 



BY 

CHESTER A. REED 



The latest flower book. In a class by itself. Original, beautiful, compact, 
complete, interesting. Pictures 320 flowers, ALL IN COLOR. 450 pages. 

Handsomely bound; boxed. $2.50 net; postage 15c 



American Game Birds 



By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 



Over ONE HUNDRED SPECIES OF GAME 
BIRDS are faithfully depicted by the colored pic- 
tures and the text gives considerable idea of their 
habits and tells where they are to be found at 
different seasons of the year. 

This book is prepared especially at the request 
of a large number of sportsmen for a concise 
guide devoted solely to game birds and figuring 
all species. 

Remember that it is the ONLY book at any 
price that figures all these game birds in their 
proper colors. It is the real sportsmen's guide 
and companion. Nicely bound and boxed. 

Price 60 cents; postage 5 cent 





North American Birds' Eggs 

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

This is the only book on the market that gives illustrations of the eggs of 
all North American birds. Each egg is shown FULL SIZE, photographed 
directly from an authentic and well marked specimen. There are a great many 
full-page plates of nests and eggs in their natural situations. 

The habitat and habits of each bird are given. 

It is finely printed on the best of paper and handsomely bound in cloth. 
350 pages 6 x 9 inches, 

$2.50 net 



Nature Studies In Field and Wood 

r By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

This book is destined to be one of the most important that the author ha 
written. Absorbingly interesting in itself, yet its greatest value will lie i 
the fact that it will lead the reader to realize how blind he has been to th 
many woriderful things that are happening on every hand. 

The brook, the pond, the field, the woods, the swamps and even the bac 
yards yield quantities of very interesting subjects for study. This book treat, 
entertainingly of many of these interesting creatures, but its chief aim is to bt, 
an "awakener" to arouse within the reader the desire to go out and verify 
some of the facts given, or to do some original investigation himself. Such 
studies develop the senses of perception and observation immensely, and the 
one who is "alive" to what is going on about him surely is better able to cope 
with all situations in life than one who sees nothing until it is forcibly brough v 
to his attention. 

112 pages; size 5V 2 x?Mj in. 40 illustrations in color, and black and white. 
60c. net; postage ^Oc. 




Camera Studies of Wild Birds in Their Homes 

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. 

"CAMERA STUDIES" affords everyone an opportunity for a very intimate 
study of bird life. A good photograph of an event together with an interesting 
description of it is the next best thing to witnessing the event itself. 

"CAMERA STUDIES" has 250 photographs of events right in birds' home. 
These pictures are selected from the author's collection of over 2000 bird photo- 
graphs, this being one of the best collections of pictures of free, living wild 
birds in existence. 

Many rare and interesting poses are faithfully shown by the camera. For 
instance, a pair of adult Chipping Sparrows, standing on a branch by the sides 
of their four young, are engaged in pulling apart a large worm that was too 
large to be given whole. 

The stories accompanying these pictures are as interesting as the photo- 
graphs and above all they are all actual facts. 

300 pages, 5% x 7y 2 in.; 250 photographs of living, wild birds. 

Handsomely bound in Cloth, $2.00 net; postage 20c. 



Western Bird Gxiide 

This new book, a companion and uniform in size to the Bird and Flower 
Guides East of the Rockies, is much more complete and shows every species of 
oird, BOTH LAND AND WATER to be found IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS 
and westward to the PACIFIC COAST, and from Mexico north to the Arctic 
regions. EVERY BIRD IN NATURAL COLORS. 

320 of them are faithfully pictured, and the text gives the more prominent 
identifying features, as well as the habits, haunts and all about their nests and 
sggs. 256 pages, bound and neatly boxed. 

In Sock Cloth, $1.00 net; in Leather, $1.25 net; postage 5c. 

CHAS. K. REED, WORCESTER, MASS. 



FIELD GLASSES 




FOR BIRD STUDY 



or equally good for the mountains, seashore or theatre, or whatever a large, 
clear image of an object is desired. 

We carefully examined more than a hundred makes of field glasses, to select 
the ones best adapted for bird study. 

We found one make that was superior to any other of the same price and 
equal optically, and nearly as well made as those costing three times as much. 

They magnify about three diameters, and have an unusually large field of 
vision or angle of view, making it easy to find a bird or keep him in sight. 
Price only $5.00 postpaid. 



CHAS. K. REED WORCESTER, MASS.